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Society for Music Theory A Lesson from Lassus: Form in the Duos of 1577 Author(s):

Society for Music Theory

A Lesson from Lassus: Form in the Duos of 1577 Author(s): Peter N. Schubert Source: Music Theory Spectrum, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Spring, 1995), pp. 1-26 Published by: on behalf of the Society for Music Theory

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A

Lesson

from

Lassus:

Peter N. Schubert

Form

When Lassus expressed the hope that his twenty-four little duos might "in the future be of great benefit and training as much to beginning musicians as to those more skilled in their

art," he could hardly have predicted just what a great future they would have.' They were reprinted often in the decades following their first publication, and are now among the best- known examples of Renaissance polyphony.2 The twelve tex-

1The quote is from the dedication to the original edition, in Orlando di Lasso, SamtlicheWerke, ed. FranzXaver Haberl (Leipzig:Breitkopf & Hir- tel, 1894;facsimile, New York: Broude Bros., 1973), vol. 1, x: "tamMusices tyronibus,quam eius artis peritioribusmagno usui & exercito sint futuri."All

examples in this articleare based on this edition. The original full title of the

collection expresses the

ita usitatead duas voces cantionessuavissimae, omnibusmusicissummeutiles:

necnon tyronibus quam eius artis peritioribus summopere inservientes (Miinchen: Adam Berg, 1577). 2RISM 1577c lists nine editions through 1610 (Einzeldriicke vor 1800, Repertoire internationaldes sourcesmusicales, vol. 5, ed. Karlheinz Schlager

[Kassel: Barenreiter,1975],274). The duos were firstcalled motets and ricer-

cars in the 1579 edition, Motettied ricercari

Gardano, 1579); RISM 1579c. Wolfgang Boetticher lists didactic works in

which some duos

frtihmonodischesDokument," in Festschrift KarlGustavFellererzum sechzig-

sten Geburtstag, ed. Heinrich Htischen (Regensburg: Gustav Bosse Verlag, 1962), 67-76. The twelve texted pieces can be found in modern clefs, and

with translations, in Gustave Frederic Soderlundand Samuel H. Scott,

amples of Gregorian Chant and Other Sacred Music of the 16th Century (Englewood Cliffs:Prentice-Hall,1971), and selections can be found in many

other anthologies. Formorecommenton

Orlando di Lasso und seine Zeit (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1958), 460-67. For

same pedagogical aim:Novae aliquot et antehac non

a due voci (Venice: Angelo

were reprinted in "Eine

franzosische Bicinien-Ausgabe als

Ex-

these duossee Wolfgang Boetticher,

in

the

Duos

of

1577

ted duos (Nos. 1-12, hereafter called motets) can be found

in many anthologies and counterpoint textbooks, while the pieces without text (Nos. 13-24, hereafter called ricercars) are well known among instrumentalists. While their place as

etudes and examples of two-part counterpoint

may still ask what they provide to those "more skilled in their

art." This study demonstrates that in these pieces Lassus is giving a lesson on the one aspect of Renaissance music whose omission from treatises most frustrates present-day analysts:

form. Treatises teach how to make a theme suitable for each of the various modes, how to treat consonance and dissonance, how to imitate or invert a theme, on which notes to make cadences, and how to write double counterpoint.3 But they never tell us when in the course of a piece these devices and

is secure, we

more on didacticduos in general, see Paolo Emilio Carapezza's introduction to MusicheRinascimentali Siciliane, vol. 2 (Rome: Edizioni de Santis, 1971). 3Thedissonancetreatmentin the duos suggests a restrained, formal style. There is only one dissonantlower neighbor at the semiminimlevel (No. 5,

m. 29). There are

dissonantcambiatas, echapp6es, or 9-8 suspensions. (Note values in all of the examples presented here are original.) Lassus'streatmentof dissonance

Part 3 of Zarlino's Le Istitutioni York: Broude Bros., 1965; trans-

is more restricted than that expressed in harmoniche (Venice, 1558;facsimile, New

lation by Guy Marco and Claude Palisca as The Art of Counterpoint[New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968]), where dissonantlower neighbors and echappees are allowed. The cadences conform largely to Zarlino's prescrip- tions in Istitutioni, Part 4, translated by Vered Cohen as On TheModes (New

Haven: Yale University Press, 1983).

no dissonantthirdsemiminims against semibreves, and no

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2 Music Theory Spectrum

techniques should be used. Each seems to be a detail; on the relation of these details to large-scale form the theorists are mute. The following close examination of the duos shows how three contrapuntal features are used by Lassus in a way that consistently articulates form.4 The descriptions of these tech-

niques as given below were inspired by and are largely con- sonant with, but are not limited to, ideas found in several

roughly contemporaneous

with formal

structure are: 1) time interval of imitation, 2) fuga, or means

Italian treatises.

features

The

three

contrapuntal

associated

4An attempt to define large-scale structurein the Lassus duos has been made by Lyle Davidsonin "TheStructureof Lassus'Motets a2 (1577)," Sonus

Astr6e, Atelier de Recherche Valois, 1979). ChristopherReynolds's "Mu-

nulz regretz," Journal of theAmerican MusicologicalSociety 40 (1987):53-81,

of melodic variation, and 3) varied repetition of entire con- trapuntal "blocks." These features can be labeled in the score of each piece, and then the labels can be strung along a time

USA 2 (1982): 71-90. Davidson asks many of the same questions asked here,

line along with the cadences. The time line is like a cast made

but uses differentmethods (e.g., experiments in perception) to answerthem.

from a wax positive;

all the notes of the piece melt away as

He concludes that large-scale durations are organized according to the Fi-

in the "lost wax" technique,

and a clear outline of the piece's

bonacci series. For a wide-rangingstudy of Lassus's techniques, see Lucie

structure remains.

The time lines reveal norms,

as well as

Balmer, Orlandodi Lassos Motetten (Bern and Leipzig: Paul Haupt, 1938; facsimile, Nendeln, Liechtenstein:Kraus Reprint, 1978). For studiesof large-scale formin termsof structurescreatedfrom parallel groups of durations, see Michele Fromson, "A Conjunction of Rhetoric and Music: Structural Modelling in the Italian Counter-Reformation Motet,"

some striking exceptions, for Lassus's compositional tech- nique. Among his norms, Lassus maintains consistency through relatively long stretches of music by retaining a single time-interval of imitation; he employs certain types of fuga

Journal of the Royal MusicAssociation117no. 2 (1992):208-46; Jean-Michel

(e.g.,

imitation at the sixth or inversion)

to provide variety

Vaccaro, "Anthoinede Bertrand:Las! pour vous tropaymer," in Music Be- fore 1600, Models of Musical Analysis, ed. MarkEverist (Oxford: Blackwell Reference, 1992); and Pierre-Paul Lacas, liner notes to "Orlandede Lassus Moduli Quinque Vocibus 1571" performed by the Collegium Vocale & Solistesdu Knabenchor Hannover, conducted by PhilippeHerreweghe(n.p.:

sical Evidence of CompositionalPlanning in the Renaissance: Josquin's Plus

in the middles of pieces; and he uses invertible counterpoint to create brief ritornellos. In doing such analyses, sections are demarcated in the traditional way, on the basis of cadences. So the first step in the analytic process is the identification of cadences. Lassus's use of cadences is so consistent that their definition is, hap-

is

the only recent study that invokes both contrapuntaltechnique (canon) as

pily, fairly simple: the defining elements are a 7-6 or 2-3

a

large-scale structuralelement along

with durationalstructuresand recur-

syncopated semibreve suspension with at least one voice re-

rence of varied themes; see his note 3 for a list of other authors, going back to van Crevel and Gombosi, who deal in proportional durations.

solving to the expected goal note, whose duration must be at least a semibreve. A few exceptions arise in the ricercars

Other studies investigatingcontrapuntal combinationhave not been so much concernedwith its contributionto form. Quentin Quereau refers to it

because of their shorter note values. Here, the syncopated

as a "complex of relationships" in "Sixteenth-CenturyParody: An Approach

note can be a semibreve, and the goal note can be only a

Analysis," Journal of the American MusicologicalSociety 31 (1978): 407-

to

41. Jessie Ann Owens has identified "contrapuntal events" or "modules"in

"The Milan Partbooks:Evidence of Cipriano de Rore's Compositional Pro-

(1984): 270-98. Jo-

seph Kermanused contrapuntal combinationas an element in his concept of "cell construction"in "Old and New in Byrd's Cantiones Sacrae,"in Essays

cess," Journal of the American MusicologicalSociety 37

on Opera and English Music, ed. F. W. Sternfeld, (Oxford, 1975). Both

CompositionalPlanning") also

Kermanand Reynolds ("Musical Evidence of

referin passing to time-intervalof imitation, but do not employ this analytical tool systematically.Indeed, some authors deny that contrapuntaltechniques influence form; see Bonnie Blackburn, "On Compositional Process in the Fifteenth Century," Journal of theAmerican MusicologicalSociety 40 (1987):

274-78.

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A Lesson fromLassus

3

semibreve.5The second step is the labeling of the three con-

trapuntal features in the

6 ("Quisequiturme"), appears so labeled in Appendix 1. The third step is to string the labels along time lines. Appendix 2 presents the resulting schematic formal analyses of all twenty-four pieces. The one fully annotated score and the presence of similarnotations on many musical examples will enable the reader to verify the methods by which the sche- matic analyses were derived. Note that treating both motets and ricercarsthe same way means disregarding for the mo- ment the impact of text on form; that subject is taken up briefly at the end of this study. Fromthe schemaswe can drawconclusionsabout the style of the set of pieces in general and about the behavior of individual pieces. In addition to answering questions about structuralnormsfor beginnings, middles, and ends, the sche- mas provide data to answer questions such as: How do the ricercarsdiffer from the motets? In what ways does text in- fluence form? Do large-scale features replicate small-scale

ones? How do

of tension and release? How do contrapuntaltechniques in- teract with modal shifts?6

motets and ricercars.A score to No.

contrapuntaltechniques contribute to effects

5Anothercadence-like figureappears a few times. It consistsof a resolving leading tone in the lower voice while the upper voice holds a fifth above the goal note (see No. 3, mm. 8-9 and No. 10, m. 26). Even though this figure sometimes occurs at textual completions in the motets (the same interval

succession appears inverted in No. 2, mm.

sectional markerin this study. Even if it were, its presence would not sig-

nificantly skew the results. 6Harold S. Powers shows that Lassus's 1577 collection is organized by

mode in "Tonal Types and Modal Categories in

Renaissance Polyphony,"

Journal of the American MusicologicalSociety 34 (1981): 451-52. Powers's

modal assignments for the pieces is the point of departure for modal as- signments in the present study.

16-17), it is not considered a

TIME INTERVAL OF IMITATION

Very little of Lassus's melodic material in these pieces is not repeated, and for the most part melodic materialsrecur

in imitation. Manylong imitative segments are in effect quasi-

canonic, because every note in the following voice, or con- sequent, can be saidto be determined by a note in the leading voice, or guide.7 The canon (i.e., rule) by which the guide determines the consequent has two aspects: the means of melodicvariation (such as transposition or inversion), andthe time intervalof imitation.We must say quasi-canonic because Lassus often alters one of the two aspects of the rule. In the musical examples presented here, the time interval

of imitation is indicated by a note value above the top staff.
A

with the first note of the corresponding theme in the con-

sequent.

the guide has a corresponding note in the consequent distant

by the time intervalof imitationuntilsome change

(indicated with X, shading, or a new dotted line). Imitationcreatesa strong sense of periodicity if the themes are phrased in lengths that are equal to (or are multiplesof) the time interval of imitation. In the opening of No. 18, for instance, rests articulatetwo-breve phrases withineach voice. Because the time intervalof imitationis a breve, a rest occurs on every downbeat in mm. 3-8, articulatingregular breve-

length periods. This sense of periodicity is fairly subjective; it depends on features of the composed music and cannot be mapped onto the time lines in the way that abstractfeatures can.

dotted line connects the firstnote of the theme in the

guide

After a dotted line, it is assumed that every note in

takes place

The time interval of imitation can change in two

ways.

First, notes (or durational parts of notes) can be sounded in

one voice but not echoed in the other; such notes appear in

7The terms guide and consequent are cognates of the Italian guida and consequente as used in Zarlino's Istitutioni,Part 3, Chapter 51, 213.

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4

Music TheorySpectrum

Example 1. No. 2, mm. 17-24: reductionsin the time intervalof imitation

+3,

ir

r

0

f- l -f J

~

~

~

d

-

'

j

7

-

/

iI

fa-f

fa-fa

rr-r (

fa-fa

"( )

rhythmic

unison

rCfr7

fa-fa

r

r

r?er

'f

'r-

"

?

E

Example 2. No. 22, mm. 15-18: switchesbetween guide and consequent

Ir

16

17

,

I+5

+5

j

'+-3

J rb)a

a/

a)

r

/+8

/

inv

+1'

b)

\-3

parentheses in the score. Since they

but not in the consequent, the time intervalof imitation will

shorten as the consequent, not echoing those notes, catches up. The new time interval will equal the old time interval

minus the combined values not sounded. In Example 1, the imitation begins at a semibreve.But because of the shortened note value in the upper voice at the beginning of the fourth measure, the imitation continues at only a minim; another shortened note value at the end of that measure brings the

imitationinto rhythmic unisonin the

in No. 6 (Appendix 1), the lower voice is following at a semibreve beginning at the end of m. 9. Because a minim value of the F on "-lat" in the upper voice (in parentheses in m. 11) is not echoed, the lowervoice is only a minimbehind at "-in." If the total value of the guide notes without coun-

fifthmeasure. Similarly,

are sounded in the guide

.

i

'\

c)

18

4

\-5

d)

d)

+5

terparts in the consequent exceeds the preceding time interval of imitation, the role of leader switches to the other voice, as at d in Example 2 (and in No. 18, m. 37, not shown here). Conversely, the time interval lengthens if values are added to the consequent that were not sounded in the guide, as in No. 6, Appendix 1, m. 7. If the role of leader switchesvoices but the time interval remains the same, no new note value appears in the scores or the schemas in Appendix 2.

Second, the time intervalof imitation changes when

a note

in one voice has two corresponding notes in the other voice. In this case, two dotted lines show the double correspondence (as at b and c in Example 2; in No. 6, Appendix 1, m. 12; in No. 8, mm. 24-25, not shown here; and in No. 18, m. 39, not shown here). Some situations can be successfully ex- plained in more than one way, but there are few cases in this

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A Lesson fromLassus

5

set of pieces where the differentiation between guide and consequent is truly ambiguous.8 Imitation breaks off in two locations in these pieces: at cadences and elsewhere. Approaching a cadence, imitation

is usually abandoned. This has

periodicity of the time interval, and it may set up the sixths (or thirds) that initiate the cadential voice leading. In the analyses here, free counterpoint approaching a cadence is indicated by shaded areas. Free counterpoint not approaching a cadence is indicated by "X." This is usually a matter of each voice going its own way, sounding its own material for a short while. Breaking out of imitation may lead to a new time interval or leading voice (as in No. 8, m. 21), or it may briefly interrupt two adjacent sections having the same time interval (as in No. 18, m. 27). Sometimes shorter segments of free counterpoint serve as substitutes for cadences, as discussed below. Of the relativelyinfrequentlonger non-imitative sections, two types predominate: one type is based on a single melodic fragment; the other type is dubbed a non-canonic fantasy. These differ from the imitative sections in that the ongoing development of the guide and the regular relationship be- tween guide and consequent are broken. There are two ways a single melodic fragment can be set:

in one, the fragment is repeated in one voice against different counterpoints in the other (as in Example 3a, where resulting differentverticalintervalsare labeled); in the other, the frag- ment is repeated in a differentvoice against a differentcoun-

termelody not participating in imitation (as

This type appears to resemble imitation in that a theme is echoed in another voice, but differsin that the roles of guide

the effect of disrupting the

in Example 3b).

8An example of a situation susceptible of several in No. 19, mm. 17-20.

interpretations occurs

and consequent cannot be assigned.9 A melodic fragment repeated and accompaniedby the same countermelody con- stitutes a block, a topic to be discussed later. In a non-canonic fantasy, multiple immediate repetitions of a short theme are presented with rhythmic variation and

with irregularities in guide-consequent relations. Example 4

shows part of

(bracketed

tion and free counterpoint.10 When such fantasies are indi- cated in the schemasin Appendix 2, the solmization syllables of the theme are given along with the number of times the theme is sounded. Some sections containing multiple repe- titions of a theme, as in No. 18, mm. 14-19, are not called non-canonicfantasiesbecause the theme is not varied rhyth- mically and because the guide-consequentrelationship is con- sistent. (A similar example in a motet occurs in No. 11, mm.

17-21.)

typical rhythmic varia-

a non-canonic fantasy on a seven-note theme

at

each occurrence) with

An ambiguous example is shown in Example 5. In mm. 1-9 the four-note solmization theme, repeated nine times, is not varied rhythmicallyexcept for the conventional re- moval of half of the first semibreve (solmization themes are discussedbelow under inganno).1 Of the three fantasies

9Cf. the discussion of ostinato in Balmer, Orlando di Lassos Motetten,

198ff.

'0The contrapuntal intention here is held

to outweigh the function of

cadences to demarcate sections, so cadences withinfantasies (like that in m. 37 of Example 4) do not figure in the schemas in Appendix 2. Intervallic variation, like that found in Example 4 at the asterisks, is the subject of the next section of this study.

"This convention is more common in the motets than the ricercars,and

may be present in orderto let a singer breathe. An importantexample is

6 in Appendix 1, mm. 17 and 18. The "normal"form of the subject is a semibreveon "sed," but the lower voice has a minimrest and a minimin m. 17; the bracket assimilatesthe rest to the note. This same principle allows us to assimilate an extra minim to the first note in the lower voice at the

beginning of No. 6 (on "Qui"), shown with a bracket. Lassus no doubt did not wantthe verybeginning of No. 6 to soundthe semibreve-level syncopation

No.

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6

Music TheorySpectrum

Example 3. Two types of single-melodic-fragmentsettings

a. No. 15, mm. 15-16

b. No. 21, mm. 41-43

n?:

d

I1R I

I

656

m7 7=;

i

i

5

fragment

10

8

5

I

r

77Lo-,

contained among the ricercars, this one offers the

tation to label as a

done hypothetically in Example5). However, a close reading of the constructionof this passage reveals unusuallyfrequent intrusionsof free counterpoint (indicatedby Xs). This, cou- pled with the obsessive repetition of the theme over a rel-

ativelylong period, characterizethis section overall as a non-

imitative fantasy. While the

contain the same theme in diminished values, the interrup- tions cease, and because both the rhythm of the theme and various time intervals are maintained, these measures are characterizedas imitative. When the note values (indicating time intervals of imita- tion) and the Xs and hatched areas (indicating non-imitative

most temp-

straightforward imitation (as has been

following measures (10ff.)

that would have resulted from a time interval of imitation shorter than a semibreve.

r

F

III

585

\ '

i

I

1

3

5

--

8

fragment

I

I

3

"I

5

sections) are transcribedonto time lines, patterns in Lassus's constructions emerge. One turnsout to be a stylistic normfor the whole set of pieces: it may be called the acceleration

model.

The accelerationmodel is based on the gradualshortening of the time interval of imitation on both the large and the small scale. The small scale consists of sections between ca- dences, withinwhichthe time intervalbecomes progressively shorter.The speedingup is not alwaysuniform, but cadences are most often immediately preceded by the closest stretto of a given section. Note that the accelerationmodel has noth- ing to do withthe rate of rhythmicactivity withina single line, only with the length of time separatingcorresponding notes in the two lines. Table 1 shows the successivetime intervalsof imitationfor all twenty-four duos. Verticallines indicatecadences and de- marcate sections. Asterisks show shorter values followed by

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A Lesson fromLassus

7

Example 4. No. 23, mm. 33-39:

33

a non-canonic fantasy

i

r

-

Rjjj

t

j _I-^r_

Or

F

Ta

I- II

r

f

r

*

r

r

I

J

,I-

~

r'I~~ r1~~~

I~

I

[eF

I

I

I

r~

*

I

'

(etc.)

Example 5. No. 20, mm. 1-10: a solmization theme in a non-canonic fantasy hypothetically labeled as imitative; N = natural hexachord;

H

=

hard hexachord;

0

S

=

soft

hexachord

H N

Ire

8 f

4): r

fa

rere

f

x

rr-

rr

-

J

fare

r

Trr

H

re

r

fa

o

A

longer values, which are deviations from the norm. These occur in 15 out of 58 successions of adjacent time-interval values (disregarding Xs) in the motets, and 19 out of 86 in the ricercars, or about 24% overall. Nothing is entered for duo No. 23 because it contains no imitation as defined here, consisting instead entirely of repeated blocks and a fantasy.

0

Three of the deviations, all occurring in the third sections of motets (bracketed in Table 1) can be accounted for by an- other formal model that conflicts with the acceleration model, as discussed below. The large scale is defined here by those time intervals of imitation that begin each section. Table 2 collects these, with

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8

Music Theory Spectrum

Table 1. Time intervals of imitation within sections. Asterisks mark a longer value following a shorter value. Non-imitative material approaching cadences is not shown. Other non-imitative phrases within sections are shown with X.

Duo No.

Io

2

3

x4'

First Section

-

X

o

MXo~~~~41

Second Section

0o

0

o

J

XoJ

Third Section

o

,o

,J

)

*

X

o

J

o

J,

*o

Fourth (& Fifth) Section(s)

7

6

7

81

9

1o

11

12'

13

142

52

16

17

18

19

202

213

22

x

23 1,2

24

*

m-

~xJ

o

.

0o*

X

X

m

*o

J

X

HXooJJ

O

M

oJ

=

o

J

J

X

oJ*H

Xm

o

oJ*

0

J

*M

*oXo

,? o

X

X

o

xx*J

-x

oXo0

O

o

X

O

o*xxP

0

o

a*J

i

oJ*oXo

X

J

i

o

x

J

x*

X

o

o*#oXJ

o

*oJ

X

l

oJ

o

X

*

Jx*

*o

J

J

J J

*J

*

J x

o0

X

o

X

J*

g,

xJ

*O

J

o

*

xJxJxJ

 

o

*o

x*oJX*

J

JJ

J

X*o

J*o

o

J

J

J*J

X

J

 

X

1

1DuosNos. 8,

12 and 23 begin not withimitation,but with repeated blocks.The valueof the firstimitativesectionafterthose combinations appears in

blocksthat do not figure in this table.

20 and at the end of No. 23 are not shownhere.

the beginnings of Nos. 14 and

of No. 21,

p = perfect breve; i = imperfect breve.

the leftmostcolumnsfor these duos. No. 4 ends with three repeated

2Thenon-canonicfantasiesat

3In the triple mensuration section

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A Lesson fromLassus

9

Table2. Timeintervalsof imitationat the beginnings of sections. Asterisksshowa longer value following a shorterone. (Each row below contains only the leftmost note value from each of the columnsin Table 1.)

1

m

2

3

0'

4

5

0-

66

7

8

9

10

m-o

11

12

13

a

14

15

*

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

22

m

23

24

o0* M

o 0

o

0

o*M

O

00

0

oo0

0

o

o

0

o

o0

o 0

o

0

o

o

O0

0

0

o

o

G*m

J

J

J*o

o

similar values aligned. (Nothing is entered for duo No. 11 because it contains only one section.) Here there is much more consistency, with only 5 cases of deceleration (shown

with asterisks) out

the best example of the generalization that in the acceleration

model, each section is a diminution of the preceding one. Comparison of the motets with the ricercarsreveals that

the ricercarsoverall contain shortertime intervals:imitation

at the semiminimoccurs only once in the motets, as opposed

to 36 times in the ricercars; imitationat the fusa never occurs

in the motets, but appears 4 times in the

consistent with the greater use of short note values in the

ricercars. Also, non-canonic fantasy sectionsoccur only in the ricercars.This may be due to the fact that rhythmic variation

is a characteristicof fantasy; if it were used in motets, it might

well mutilate the text setting. For instance, the rests in mid-

theme in Example 4 might break up words. The norms for rate of change of time interval of imitation help confirmthe decision to identify Example 5 as a fantasy, since it has an unusuallylarge numberof intrusionsof Xs. Appendix 2 shows clearly that no other opening section has that many inter-

ruptions of imitation; indeed, only two duos have any Xs at all in their opening sections (Nos. 2 and 20 have one each). In addition to helping to establish norms, the schemas in Appendix 2 reveal some features specific to individual pieces.

For instance, in No. 17 the first three sections get progres-

sively shorter, as do the

the firstthree cadences, so that these durations participate in

the accelerationmodel. Another striking use of time interval

of imitation as a structuring device is seen in No.

This

duo, to be discussedfurther below, is unique in starting with

a short time interval of imitation, and in having the longest

one in the middle of the piece.

6, where

the time intervals form a palindrome: Jo J J

of 53 successions, or about 9%. No. 17 is

ricercars. This is

stretches of free material leading to

o d.

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10

Music TheorySpectrum

FUGA

The word fuga in the late Renaissance embracesnot only pitch intervalof imitation, but other variation techniques that are applied to melodic material (inversion, retrograde, and inganno), whether the repetition occurs in a single voice or in imitation between two voices. Here, however, the term refers primarily to the melodic relationship between the two voices, which is indicated in the analytic scores by a dotted line between the note in the guide andthe corresponding note in the consequent, with the labelsfor the various relationships placed next to the dotted lines. After a dotted line, it is assumed that every note in the guide has a corresponding note, in the same melodic relationship, in the consequent. When that relationshipchanges, a new dotted line and label are placed between the corresponding notes. One of the most striking features of Lassus's style is that melodic relation- ships change much more frequently than time intervals of imitation.

The several kinds of fuga include transposition, fuga d'in-

and retrograde and retrograde in-

ganno,

melodic inversion,

version. Transposition is indicated in analytic scores by a numbernext to a dotted line connectingcorrespondingnotes; each change of pitch interval of imitation calls for a new number and dotted line. The plus and minus signs indicate which voice is leading (e.g., "+4" means imitation at the fourth above, the upper voice being the consequent; "-1" meansthe lowervoice follows at the unison). In rareinstances

when the voices are crossed, two signs are used (e.g., "+ -3" means the upper voice follows, beginning a third below the

corresponding note in

Example 2. One special case of change of pitch interval is fuga d'in- ganno. This is a change of pitch intervalof imitation in mid- theme that maintainsthe solmization syllables of the original. Inganno is special in that "themeness"resides in the solmi-

the leading voice, as shown at a in

zation names of the notes the theme comprises. Since any solmizationname can designate two or three pitch classes, a wide variety of melodic variation is possible. Melodic inversionis shownin the analytic scores and sche- mas by "inv"and the pitch interval between the first notes. Retrograde, although mentioned by contemporaneous the- orists, seems never to be used in these duos between a leading voice and its immediate consequent.12However, the retro- grade of a theme may show up later in the piece, and be imitated in inversion, a process which yields the retrograde inversion of the original theme (e.g., No. 18, mm. 14-19). Of the fuga types above, transposition and inversionhave been fairly thoroughly examined in present-day studies.13 Fuga d'inganno, by contrast, seems to be less well known. The term is believed to have been coined by Artusi, and occurs in few other treatises.14In the Lassus duos, inganno

12Rocco Rodio, in Regole di musica (Naples: Giacomo Carlino e Cos-

tantino Vitale, 1609;facsimile, Bologna: Forni, 1981), shows two examples of retrograde("fugacancherizzata")using the famous la sol fa re mi theme that Lassususes as the subject for a non-canonic fantasy section in duo No. 14 (53). 13See, for instance, Imogen Horsley, "Fugue and Mode in 16th-Century Vocal Polyphony," in Aspects of Medievaland RenaissanceMusic, ed. Jan

LaRue (New

Definition of Fugue and Imitation," Journal of the American Musicological

Society 24 (1971):226-54; andPaulMark Walker, "Fugue in German Theory from Dressier to Mattheson" (Ph.D. diss., SUNY Buffalo, 1987). '4See Giovanni Maria Artusi, La Seconda parte dell'Artusiovero delle

imperfettioni della moderna musica (Venice:

simile, Bologna: Forni, 1968), 45-57.

Harper, "Frescobaldi's Early Inganni and Their Background,"Proceedings of the Royal MusicalAssociation 105 (1978-79): 1-12. Rodio, in Regole di musica, 53, describes inganno as fuga in nome ("La fuga in nome e quella la quale nomina le note per varij movimenti, come qui si vede, & molti la chiamano,fuga d'inganno"). Camillo Angleria does not use the term, but his examples of variationedi fuga in Chapter 20 of La Regola di contraponto (Milan:Giorgio Rolla, 1622;facsimile, Bologna: Forni, 1983) show a motive whose different segments are transposedby various intervals. The relative

York: Pendragon Press, 1966): 406-22; JamesHaar, "Zarlino's

Giacomo Vincenti, 1603; fac-

This passage is discussed in John

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A Lesson fromLassus

11

is often used along with rhythmic variationin fantasy sections.

This can be seen in Example 5, where the theme is the names

fa re re fa, but the hexachords from which those names are

drawn change constantly, creating very different melodic

shapes. 15

Recognition of inganno can help to solve ficta problems such as that shown in Example6, where the melodic variation

results from inganno. Some editors suggest flatting the first

B of m. 15. But if the upper line is sung with Bf there, the