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# "STEPCOL" --- STEPPED COLUMN ANALYSIS

Program Description:
"STEPCOL" is a spreadsheet program written in MS-Excel for the purpose of analyzing stepped columns
typically used in mill-type buildings to determine the effective lengths and effective length K factors.
This program is a workbook consisting of three (3) worksheets, described as follows:

Worksheet Name

Description

Doc
Stepped Column Eff. Lengths
References

## This documentation sheet

Effective Lengths and Effective Length Factors (K)
References "a", "b", and "c" (as an ebedded PDF file object)

## Program Assumptions and Limitations:

1. This program is based on the following references:
a. "Calculation of Effective Lengths and Effective Slenderness Ratios of Stepped Columns"
by: John P. Anderson and James H. Woodward (AISC Engineering Journal, Oct. / 1972, pages 157-166)
b. "Calculation of Effective Lengths of Stepped Columns"
by: Krishna M. Agrawal and Andrew P. Stafiej (AISC Engineering Journal, 4th Quarter / 1980, pages 96-105)
c. "Calculation of Effective Lengths of Stepped Columns" (Errata)
by: Krishna M. Agrawal and Andrew P. Stafiej (AISC Engineering Journal, Third Quarter / 1981, page 126)
d. "Steel Design Guide 7 - Industrial Buildings, Roofs to Anchor Rods" (2nd Edition)
by: James M. Fisher (AISC / 2004, Appendix B, pages 89-98) (Note: does not include errata from Ref. "c".)
3. This program utilizes a simple iterative solution for determining the root, "Z", to each of the characteristic
equations shown below, per references "a" and "b" listed above. The program calculates an initial guess
(Zst) for "Z", evaluates the expression, increments the value of "Z" by a value equal to the initial guess, and
then evaluates the expression again, etc., etc. The results of each pair of evaluation iterations are multiplied
times each other to determine the location where the value passes through 0 (changes sign). Per the
references, the first (lowest) root is the desired/correct solution to the characteristic equation, although there
are multiple roots. Once the pair of iterations have been identified which locate the first (lowest) root, the
program performs a linear interpolation between those two values to determine the point where "Z" = 0.
The program performs up to a maximum of 4000 iterations to find the correct solution for "Z".
4. This program contains comment boxes which contain a wide variety of information including explanations
of input or output items, equations used, data tables, etc. (Note: presence of a comment box is denoted
by a red triangle in the upper right-hand corner of a cell. Merely move the mouse pointer to the desired
cell to view the contents of that particular "comment box".)
Characteristic Equations from References "a" and "b" listed above (solve for "Z"):
Case 1:

## For Pinned Bottom - Pinned Top

General: (1+PR)*(1+PR+PR/LR)*Z*COS(Z)*SIN(Z*B)+PR*(PR*(1+LR)+LR)*Z*B*SIN(Z)*COS(Z*B)-SIN(Z)*SIN(Z*B) = 0
If P1 = 0: (2+1/LR-(LR*Z*B)^2/(3*IR))*SIN(Z*B)+LR*Z*B*COS(Z*B) = 0
If P2 = 0: Z*B*SIN(Z)*COS(Z*B)+(Z/LR)*COS(Z)*SIN(Z*B) = 0

Case 2:

## For Fixed Bottom - Free Top

General: (1+PR)*Z*COS(Z)*COS(Z*B)-LR*PR*Z*B*SIN(Z)*SIN(Z*B) = 0
If P1 = 0: COS(Z*B) = 0
If P2 = 0: Z*B*SIN(Z)*SIN(Z*B)-(Z/LR)*COS(Z)*COS(Z*B) = 0

Case 3:

## For Fixed Bottom - Pinned Top

General: 2*Z*B*SIN(Z)+(PR+1/PR)*Z*B*SIN(Z)*COS(Z*B)+(PR+LR*(1+PR))*(Z*B)^2*SIN(Z)*SIN(Z*B)(1+1/PR)*(1+PR+PR/LR)*Z*Z*B*COS(Z)*COS(Z*B)+(1+PR)*(Z/LR)*COS(Z)*SIN(Z*B) = 0
If P1 = 0: 2+(LR*Z*B+1/(LR*Z*B))*SIN(Z*B)-(2+1/LR-(LR*Z*B)^2/(3*IR))*COS(Z*B) = 0
If P2 = 0: Z*B*SIN(Z)*COS(Z*B)+(1+LR)*(Z*B)^2*SIN(Z)*SIN(Z*B)+(Z/LR)*COS(Z)*SIN(Z*B)(1+1/LR)*Z*Z*B*COS(Z)*COS(Z*B) = 0

Case 4:

## For Fixed Bottom - Slider Top

General: LR*Z*B*COS(Z)*SIN(Z*B)+(1+1/PR)*Z*SIN(Z)*COS(Z*B) = 0
If P1 = 0: SIN(Z*B)+(LR*Z*B/IR)*COS(Z*B) = 0
If P2 = 0: LR*Z*B*COS(Z)*SIN(Z*B)+Z*SIN(Z)*COS(Z*B) = 0

Case 5:

## For Fixed Bottom - Fixed Top

General: -2*(1+PR)*Z*Z*B+2*Z*Z*B*COS(Z)-2*(1+1/PR)*Z*Z*B*COS(Z*B)+2*(1+PR+1/PR)*Z*Z*B*COS(Z)*COS(Z*B)(1+PR)*((Z)^2/LR+(Z*B)^2*LR)*SIN(Z)*SIN(Z*B)+(PR+(1+PR)*LR)*Z*(Z*B)^2*COS(Z)*SIN(Z*B)+
(1+1/PR)*(1+PR+PR/LR)*(Z)^2*Z*B*SIN(Z)*COS(Z*B) = 0
If P1 = 0: 2+(LR*Z*B)^2/IR-(2-(LR*Z*B)^4/(12*IR^2)+LR*(1+LR)*(Z*B)^2/IR)*COS(Z*B)+(-Z*B+(LR*Z*B)^3/(3*IR)+
LR*Z*B/IR)*SIN(Z*B) = 0
If P2 = 0: (COS(Z)-COS(Z*B))*(Z*((1+LR)/LR)*SIN(Z)+COS(Z)-COS(Z*B))+(LR*SIN(Z)-Z*(1+LR)*COS(Z)+
SIN(Z*B)/B)*(SIN(Z)/LR+B*SIN(Z*B)) = 0

Case 6:

## For Pinned Bottom - Fixed Top

General: SIN(Z*B)*(2/PR-Z*SIN(Z)*((1+LR)/LR+1/PR)-COS(Z)*(PR/(1+PR)+2/PR))+COS(Z*B)*(-B*LR*SIN(Z)+
Z*B*COS(Z)*(1+LR-1/(1+PR))) = 0
If P1 = 0: SIN(Z*B)*(((Z*B*LR)/2*IR)-6*IR/(Z*B*LR)^2)-6*(1+(1/LR)))+2*Z*B*COS(Z*B)*((3*IR/(Z*B*LR)^2-LR) = 0
If P2 = 0: B*LR*COS(Z*B)*(SIN(Z)-Z*COS(Z)*(1+LR)/LR)+SIN(Z*B)*(COS(Z)+Z*SIN(Z)*(1+LR)/LR) = 0

Case 7:

## For Pinned Bottom - Fixed Top

General: ((1+PR)/PR)*Z*SIN(Z)*SIN(Z*B)-LR*Z*B*COS(Z)*COS(Z*B) = 0
If P1 = 0: LR*Z*B*SIN(Z*B)-IR*COS(Z*B) = 0
If P2 = 0: Z*SIN(Z)*SIN(Z*B)-Z*B*LR*COS(Z)*COS(Z*B) = 0

"STEPCOL.xls" Program
Version 1.1

## STEPPED COLUMN ANALYSIS

For Determining Effective Lengths
and Effective Length K Factors
Subject:
Originator:

Job Name:
Job Number:

(1)
Pin

Input:
End Condition Case =
Upper Shaft, L1 =
Upper Shaft, I1 =
Upper Shaft, P1 =
Lower Shaft, L2 =
Lower Shaft, I2 =
Lower Shaft, P2 =
Mod. of Elasticity, E =
Results:

Case 3
10.25
310.0
23.00
22.00
2830.0
69.00
29000

32.2500
0.4659
0.1095
92.00
0.3333
0.0016
0.0011
1.4207
0.1967
0.2795
0.1095
0.2500
0.3178
0.0330
1.6730

(2)
Free

(3)
Pin

(4)
Slider

(5)
Fix

Fix

Fix

Fix

Fix

(6)
Fix

(7)
Slider

Pin

Pin

ft.
in.^4
kips

Case 1
Case 2
Case 3
Case 4
Case 5
Case 6
Case 7
Yes
No

ft.
in.^4
kips
ksi

Pin

## For Fixed Bottom - Pinned Top

Solution Parameters:
Total Length, LT =
Length Ratio, LR =
Inertia Ratio, IR =
1 =
2 =
B=
Z1 =
Z2 =
CK =
DK =
EK =
Initial Guess, Zst =
Root of Equation, Zrt =

Checker:

ft.

kips

P1

LT = L1+L2
(Upper L1,
P2
LR = L1/L2
Shaft) I1
IR = I1/I2
PT = P1+P2
LT
PR = P1/P2
1 = SQRT(P1/(E*I1))
(Lower L2,
2 = SQRT(PT/(E*I2))
Shaft) I2
B = (L2/L1)*SQRT(IR*(1+P2/P1))
Z1 = 1*L1
Z2 = 2*L2
Nomenclature
CK = IR
DK = P1/PT
EK = L1/LT
Zst = 0.2**EK*SQRT(DK*CK)
Zrt = Z, solving for Z by iteration using following equation:
General: 2*Z*B*SIN(Z)+(PR+1/PR)*Z*B*SIN(Z)*COS(Z*B)+
(PR+LR*(1+PR))*(Z*B)^2*SIN(Z)*SIN(Z*B)(1+1/PR)*(1+PR+PR/LR)*Z*Z*B*COS(Z)*COS(Z*B)
+(1+PR)*(Z/LR)*COS(Z)*SIN(Z*B) = 0

Effective Lengths:
Upper Shaft, L1(eff) =
Lower Shaft, L2(eff) =

19.25
29.08

ft.
ft.

## L1(eff) = *L1/Zrt (for upper shaft)

L2(eff) = *L2/(Zrt*B) (for lower shaft)

###

## Effective Length Factors:

Upper Shaft, K1 =
0.597
Lower Shaft, K2 =
0.902

## (expressed relative to total stepped column length)

K1 = L1(eff)/(L1+L2) = L1(eff)/LT (for upper shaft)
K2 = L2(eff)/(L1+L2) = L2(eff)/LT (for lower shaft)

## Effective Length Factors:

Upper Shaft, K1 =
1.878
Lower Shaft, K2 =
1.322

## (expressed relative to upper and lower shaft lengths)

K1 = L1(eff)/L1 (for upper shaft)
K2 = L2(eff)/L2 (for lower shaft)

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08/30/2016 19:09:43

"STEPCOL.xls" Program
Version 1.1

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08/30/2016 19:09:43

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