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Lists of contents

CHAPTER NO.

PARTICULARS

PAGE NO.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

INTRODUCTION OF TOPIC

10 22

LITERATURE REVIEW

24 - 25

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

27

DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

29 - 39

FINDINGS

41

RECOMMENDATIONS

43

CONCLUSION

45

BIBLIOGRAPHY

47

Chapter 1

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To find out effects of quality of work life.


To find out way to improve quality of work life

Chapter 2

INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS WORK?
Work can be defined as transfer of energy. In physics we say that work is done on an object
when you transfer energy to that object. If one object transfers (gives) energy to a second object, then the
first object does work on the second object.
Work is the application of a force over a distance. Lifting a weight from the ground and putting it on a
shelf is a good example of work. The force is equal to the weight of the object, and the distance is equal to
the height of the shelf.

What is work life?


Work life including proper prioritizing between work one hand as career and ambition and life as health,
pleasure, family, spiritual development so its a broader concept.

Meaning
Quality of work life has gained deserved prominence in the Organizational Behavior as an
indicator of the overall of human experience in the work place. It expresses a special way of thinking
about people their work, and the organizational in which careers are fulfilled.
QWL refers to the relationship between a worker and his environment, adding the human
dimension to the technical and economic dimensions within which the work is normally viewed and

designed. QWL focus on the problem of creating a human working environment where employees work
co operatively and achieve results collectively. It also includes.

The programme seeks to promote human dignity and growth

Employees work collaboratively They determine work change participate

The programmes assume compatibility of people and organization

QWL refers to the level of satisfaction, motivation, involvement and commitment individuals
experience with respect to their line at work. QWL is the degree of excellence brought about work and
working conditions which contribute to the overall satisfaction and performance primarily at the
individual level but finally at the organizational level.

J. Richard and J. Lay define QWL as the degree to which members of a work organization are
able to satisfy important personnel needs through their experience in the organisation.

MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING THE QWL:


Pay
QWL is basically built around the concept of equitable pay. In the days ahead, employees may
want to participate in the profits of the firm as will. Employees must be paid their due share in the
progress and prosperity of the firm.

Benefits
Workers throughout the globe have raises their expectations over the years and now feel entitled to
benefits that were once considered a part of the bargaining process.

Job Security
Employees want stability of employment. They do not like to be the victims of whimsical personal
policies and stay at the mercy of employers.

Alternative Work Schedules


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Employees demand more freedom at the workplace, especially in scheduling their work. Among
the alternative work schedules capable of enhancing the quality of work life for some employees are:
i. Flexi time: A system of flexible working hours,
ii. Staggered hours: Here groups of employees begin and end work at different intervals.
iii. Compressed workweek: It involves more hours of work per day for fever days, per week.
iv. Job enrichment: It attempts to increase a person's level of output by providing that persons with
exciting, interesting, stimulating or challenging work.

Occupational Stress
Occupational mental-health programmes dealing with stress are beginning to emerge as a new and
important aspect of QWL programmes. Obviously, and individual suffering from an uncomfortable
amount of job-related stress cannot enjoy a high quality of work life. '

Worker Participation
Employees have a genuine hunger for participation in organizational issues affecting their lives.
Naturally they demand far more participation in the decision making process at the workplace.

Social Integration
The work environment should provide opportunities for preserving an employee's personal
identify and self-esteem through freedom from prejudice, a sense of community, interpersonal openness
and the absence of stratification in the organization.

Work and total life space


A person's work should not overbalance his life. Ideally speaking, work schedules, career demands
and other job requirements should not take up too much of a person's leisure time and family life.

BARRIERS
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1.

Focus on a quick fix.


Management is under constant pressure to find and fix problems quickly, with immediate results.
This leads to treating symptoms instead of solving problems. Treating symptoms is like taking two
aspirin and drinking orange juice for the common cold. You might feel a litde better but you still
have a cold. Implement a problem-solving process. Management must provide a long-term focus
and look towards the future. Some companies report that it takes three to five. years to attain
organizational focus on quality and problem solution.

2.

Who's responsible?
The great mystery of U.S. management is "whodunit?" The focus is generally on "who's
responsible" for something rather than "what happened," and "how can we prevent this problem
from occurring in the future?" Recendy a client company had a problem with a shipment of
products to a customer. The customer called and said a quality parameter was out of spec.
Management's immediate response was, "who was on shift that day; who shipped it?" The
response was Who can we blame?" rather than "What happened, how did it happen, what system
allowed this to happen and how can we prevent it in the future?" Many organizations operate on
what we call the "Thermodynamic Theory" of management: "There is only so much heat to go
around. So the more that I can shift to someone else, the less I have to absorb." In other words, the
focus is on who's responsible, not how to fIXthe real problem and prevent future ones.

3.

What we know and don't know:


This barrier includes what'we know anddon't know about people, equipment,processes, products,
and services. It isimportant for employees and managers to realize what we know as well as
whatwe don't know. For example, in a carrental company seekingquality improvement,we see
quality slogans like: "Do it right the first time," and "We are allon board for quality." While renting
acar to a customer, one employee said toanother, "I don't care how many peopleare in line here,
I'm going to take mybreak." That is not meeting customer requirements.In the same company, a
service-deskemployee had to rent cars. When the computers went down, she said, "I haveno idea
how to function with no computer." Another example occurred in abank. There was one small
elTOr.We talked to three people before findingsomeone who knew how to fIXthe problem.
Training is a must!Managers must learn what is known and what is unknown. This will allowthem

to plan the right training. Management must provide employees with theopportunity to really do
their job andhave pride of workmanship.

4.

Failing to flx problem:


Peopleissues, management vs. leadership, processes, procedures, and systems can allcause
problems. Many times we treat symptoms and overlook problems. Themanager's role is to fmd and
fIXproblems. Actually, problem pm;entionis aneven greater role. Employees need to be trained in
a problem-solving process thatcan translate into solutions for manytypes of problems.

5.

1 for me" ayndrome.


In manyC9mpanies, politics and the desire to"look good" override the decision-makingprocess.
This is generally a symptomof fear of losing a job, "looking bad" orallowing someone else to get
ahead of you. This can symptomizea deeper problem:lack of teamwork. When politics become so
imponant, selfishmotivestakepriority over good decisions. It is important to foster an atmosphere
in whichpeople are free to do their jobs. Deming calls this "driving out fear so that everyonecan
work for the company."

Numbera, numbera, numbers :When wefocus only on the numbers, we forget the emotions and hearts
of the mployees. Uoyd Nelson has said that the most imponant figures in any company are unknown and
unknowable.

THE IMPACT OF WORK LIFE ON MEN


The pressure of an increasingly demanding work culture in the UK is perhaps the biggest and most
pressing challenge to the mental health of the general population. The cumulative effect of increased
working hours is having an important effect on the lifestyle of a huge number of people, which is likely to
prove damaging to their mental well-being. The Mental Health Foundation is concerned that a sizeable
group of people are neglecting the factors in their lives that make them resistant or resilient to mental
health problems.
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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:


Quality of work life covers various aspects under the general umbrella of supportive
organizational behavior. Thus, the QWL should be broad in its scope. It must be evaluate the attitude of
the employees towards the personnel policies. The research will be helpful in understanding the current
position of the respective company. And provide some strategies to extent the employees satisfaction with
little modification which is based on the internal facilities of the company.
This research can be further used to evaluate the facilities provided by the management towards
the employees. This study also helps in manipulating the basic exception of the employees.

QWL PROGRAMMES:
QWL programmes concentrate on creating a working environment that is Conductive to the satisfaction of
worker needs. This program assumes that a job and the work environment should be structured to meet as
many of the workers needs as possible.
Richard Walton has organized into eight categories. These should be integrated, coordinated and properly
managed.

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These programmes are helped to avoid some pitfalls like


QWL program must be implemented with the co-operation of management and labour.
Action plans must be carried to completion.
Care mist be taken to concentrate the focus on the joint objectives of improving the QWL.

RESULTS OF HIGH QWL:

High Productivity

Increase organizational effectiveness

High employee satisfaction

High morale .

Reduce the absenteeism and labour turn over

Increase the quality of life of employees

High employee involvement


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Peaceful industrial relation

CHAPTER 3

12

LITERATURE REVIEW

Miller, 1978; Kirkman, 1981; Metz, 1982; Mirvis & Lawler, 1984; Cooper, 1988) define the qualities
of work life are broadly similar to the study on Singaporean Employees Development suggest four
dimensions of Quality of work life labeled as,
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

Favorable work environment


ii) Personal growth and autonomy
iii) Nature of job and
iv)Stimulating opportunities and co-workers Good performance is recognized in addition to
rewards being based upon performance while employees are respected and treated like mature
people.

The Study on Singaporean Employees development Cheng S says in a high QWL there should be a
positive impact on personal life, an opportunity to be involved in decision as well as an acceptable level
of physical comfort. Jobs seen to exist within high QWL work situations are those in which there is
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minimal negative impact on ones personal life, and hopefully one which has a positive impact on ones
personal life.
(Taylor, 1977; Taylor, 1978; Donald, 1997) have generally established that QWL is positively associated
with job satisfaction and can be a significant motivator. One implication of this finding for management is
the need to consider the type of intrinsic and extrinsic factors highlighted by the four aspects of QWL that
comprise the motivational reward-incentive system used in organizations. Designing the job and the work
environment so as to include the characteristics of the QWL dimensions discussed above will contribute
to the workers sense of well-being, and provide a more positive start to other work motivation
programmes within the organization..
Kirkman (1989) suggests that in the future work society; the drive for more humanitarian treatment both
in and out of work will increase.
QWL has also been viewed in a variety of ways including
a) as a movement
b) as a set of organizational interventions and
c) as a type of working life felt by employees QWL, Self-evaluation and life satisfaction among American
Africans.
When for many people sex and relationships are troublesome--since they are often hazardous to
our health--work plays an even greater role in keeping us "out of trouble." Regardless of how much we
earn, most of us have some kind of agenda or work plan. And with so many people opening a home and a
cyber-office, with mounting levels of technology-related stress (which Bruria Ginton, owner turned
content-provider, calls frustression), many of us end up involved in more than one job, which we feel
compelled to get done, spending the greatest portion of our lives in what we consider our workplace. So
Quality of Work Life (QWL) is not some notion of frivolous luxury. QWL is just as real and useful as
virtual reality itself.

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CHAPTER 4

15

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH DESIGN :
1. Analytical Research: It uses facts or information already
available and has to prepare Research report on the basis of
analytical work .
2. Descriptive Research :Descriptive research is based on
description of facts. The main purpose of descriptive research is
description of state of affairs as exist at present.

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Research Design
1. Primary data: a) Questionnaires comprised of 11 questions.
b) Sample Size: Total number of questionnaire
distributed 25 And the respondent are 20 .
2. Secondary Data: Internet & Books.
Tools For Research
The questionnaire method has been used to analyze and assess the
Quality of Work Life.

CHAPTER 5

17

MEASUREMENT & SCALING TEHNIQUEMeasurement can be defined as a process through which reasearchersdescribes,explain and
predict the phenomena.
The data collected through the questionnaires have been tabulated&analyzed through Pie
Diagrams.

LIKERT SCALE :
It is a non-comparative scale. This scale is used to measure attitudes & behavior. It
is usually a balanced scale and has typically five descriptors: strongly agree, agree,
neither agree nor disagree(neutral) , disagree, strongly disagree.
The rating followed by Likerts Scale:
Strongly Agree (SA)

=1

Agree (A)

=2
18

Neutral (N)

=3

Disagree (DA)

=4

Strongly Disagree (SDA) = 5


SA

DA

SDA

Data is collected through the questionnaire that have been tabulated & analyzed
through
1. Does Job allows you to use your skills and abilities to the maximum level?

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Interpretation
Out of 25 employees 15 are strongly agree 5 agree, 2 neutral, 2 disagree 1 disagree for
their skills and ability for job allows.

2. Are conditions in the job allows you to be productive?

Interpretation
20

Out of 25 employees,

3. DOES The organization provides an opportunity to develop my own abilities?

21

Interpretation
Out of 25 employees,

4 . IS The organization is providing high quality tools and techniques to do


the job?

22

Interpretation
Out of 25 employees,

23

5. Are the opportunities for promotions are good?

Interpretation
Out of 25 employees,

24

6. IS Sense of belongingness increase with the cooperation?

Interpretation
Out of 25 employees,

25

6.IS, the safety of workers is at high priority?

Interpretation
Out of 25 employees,

26

8. IS The company does a good job of linking rewards to job performance?

Interpretation
Out of 25 employees,

27

9. DO you feel that your work allows to do in a particular area where you can do
best ?

Interpretation
Out of 25 employees,

28

10. ARE The superior is concerned about the welfare activities of the
employees?

Interpretation
Out of 25 employees,

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11. Do you feel free to offer comments and suggestions?

Interpretation
Out of 25 employees,

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CHAPTER 6

31

FINDINGS
Good working environment enhance the employee quality of
work life.
Poor quality of work life leads to absenteeism.
Employee and workers are not provided with adequate salary and
wages which reduces quality of work life which in turns affect
man power productivity.
By improving the QWL through promotion, training ,
distribution, of profits among the employees , welfare measures,
accommodation etc.
QWL involved proper communication which is help employees
to share their views, grievance

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CHAPTER 7

33

SUGGESTIONS
Welfare and safety measures should be provide to the employee which
will go to motivation them constantly.
Employee should be given chance to participate in decision making and
intercommunication should be there.
Ensuring job security to employees.
Proper working

conditions should be provided with fixed hours of

working.
Employees need high motivation from the top management of the
company.
Employees needs more compensation from the company
Employees expects mutual relationship between co-workers
Employees needs special training from the company related to their job
during working period.

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CHAPTER 8

35

CONCLUSION

I conclude that Quality of work life is positively related to


performance and higher productivity and negatively related to absenteeism.
In order to improve quality of work life various programme should be
introduced in an enterprise such as development of employee skills ,
reduction of stress and development of labour management relations etc. A
happy and healthy employee will give better turnover , make good decision
and positively contribute to the organizational goal.

36

REFERENCES
BOOKS:

1.

K.

Aswathappa

(1997),

Human

Resources

and

Personal

Management Tata Mcgraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi 110 001.
2.

C. R. Kothari (2001) Research Methodology of Wishwa Prakashan


Publishing, Chennai 17, Edition

3.

R.S.N. Pillai and V. Bhagavathi (1998), Statistics of Sultan Chand


and sons, New Delhi, pp. 132-141, II Edition.

WEBSITES

www.citehr.com

www.humanresources.com

www.qualityofworklife.com
www.final-yearproject.com

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QUESTIONNAIRE
Name
D.O.J.

Age
Deptt..
Designation

Statement
S.No

Strongly
Agree

The Job allows me to use my skills


and abilities to the maximum level?

Conditions in the job allows me to be


productive?

The organization provides an


opportunity to develop my own
abilities?

The organization is providing high


quality tools and techniques to do the
job?

The opportunities for promotions are


good?

Sense of belongingness increase with


the cooperation?

The safety of workers is at high


priority?

The company does a good job of


linking rewards to job performance?

I feel that my work allows me to do


in a particular area where I can do
best ?
Do you feel free to offer comments
and suggestions?

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Opinion

38

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree