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National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology

Invisible Digital Video Watermarking Using 4-level DWT

Snehal V. Patel

Electronics and Communication Department Parul Institute of Engineering and Technology Vadodara, India

snehalpatel01@gmail.com

Abstract—In this paper, a algorithm based video watermarking scheme in the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain is proposed. Scene change analysis is first conducted to decompose video into different scenes. Each frame of the video is transformed to wavelet domain by DWT. The watermark image is decomposed into 8-bit planes, scrambled and embedded into the mid-frequency DWT coefficients. The quality of the watermarked video is enhanced by GA. Experimental results demonstrate that it is robust to common attacks in video watermarking such as frame dropping, frame averaging additive noise and lossy compression. (Abstract)

Keywords-Abrupt scene change, peak signal noise ratio (PSNR), video watermarking, discrete wavelet transform, robustness. (key words)

I.

INTRODUCTION

Digital watermarking is an effective way to protect copyright of multimedia data even after its transmission. Watermarking is a concept of embedding a special pattern, watermark, into a multimedia document so that a given piece of copyright information is permanently tied to the data. This information can later prove the ownership, identify a misappropriating person, trace the marked document’s dissemination through the network, or simply inform users about the rights-holder or the permitted use of the data. Most of the proposed video watermarking schemes are based on the techniques of image watermarking and directly applied to raw video or compressed video.Video watermarking introduces some issues which is not present in image watermarking. Due to a large amount of data and inherent redundancies between frames, video signals are highly susceptible to attacks, such as frame averaging, frame dropping, lossy compression and statistical analysis [1]. However, the currently available algorithms do not solve these problems effectively. Since the goals of watermarking, such as robustness, transparency and capacity, are usually conflicting, GA can be utilized to solve the optimization problem. Video watermarking schemes must not use the original video during watermark detection as the video usually is in very large size and it is inconvenient to store it twice. We propose a new watermarking scheme to overcome these problems. The watermarking process overview is depicted in Fig. 1. Video sequence is pre-processed by scene change detection and DWT [3].

Prof. Arvind R. Yadav

Electronics and Communication Department Parul Institute of Engineering and Technology Vadodara, India aryme@rediffmail.com

and Technology Vadodara, India aryme@rediffmail.com Fig.1 Overview of watermarking process 13-14 May 2011 B.V.M.

Fig.1 Overview of watermarking process

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B.V.M. Engineering College, V.V.Nagar,Gujarat,India

National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology

First of all original color video is stored in one array then it is converted in to frames. Then scene change detection algorithm is applied on to the consecutive frames. If scene change found we have to change the watermark image else apply the same watermark within one scene of the video. Decompose video frame and watermark in to three different components. Apply the 4 level DWT on each component of video frame. Generate the secret key and add in to watermark data because watermark image bits are not enough for embedding in to original image. Apply the embedding algorithm for watermark embedding and store the watermarked data in to one array. Apply the 4 level inverses DWT to watermarked video frames. Repeat the entire step up to number of frames. Combine R.G.B. component of each watermarked video frames. So, we get the watermarked video.

II. WATERMARK IMAGE PRE-PROCESSING

A watermark image is pre-processed and embedded into different scenes, so that it can resist a number of attacks toward the video. It is firstly decomposed into binary image. The watermark binary color image is decomposed in to three components (Red, Green and Blue) and these three components are applied to the secret key generation algorithm. Finally three watermark images are generated which will be embedded in three different components of original color video frame which shown in fig.2.

Length of generated watermark image = (length of original watermark image) + (length of secret key) To further increase the security of the watermark, it is

scrambled using Arnold transform, which is in fact an iterative process to move the pixel position. It is defined as follows:

1 1 X = mod N X ’ ’ Y 1 2 y
1
1
X
=
mod N
X ’ ’
Y
1
2
y

where (x, y) is the pixel position, and (x', y') are the new position after Arnold transform. N is the pixel width or height.

III. PREPARE YOUR PAPER BEFORE STYLING

A. Scene Change Detection

Since applying a fixed image watermark to each frame in the video is hard to maintain statistical and perceptual invisibility and applying independent watermarks to each frame cannot resist statistical comparison or average. The new watermarking scheme is based on scene change detection, which is to decompose video sequence into different video scenes. Flowchart of scene change detection is shown in fig. 3. Independent watermarks are employed for successive but different scenes and an identical watermark is embedded within each motionless scene. Histogram analysis is utilized for scene change detection. If the histogram difference of two scenes is greater than the threshold, we consider there is a scene change

[5].

B. DWT

The luminance components of the input video frames are transformed to frequency domain and the middle-frequency

range coefficients of the watermark are modified according to the watermark. The basic idea is that the human eyes are sensitive to the low frequency noise and the quantization step of lossy compression may discard the high frequency components. Therefore, the reasonable trade-off is to embed the watermark into the middle-frequency range of the video frames. Each video frame is transformed to the wavelet domain with 4 levels. Haar wavelet is used for simplicity, and only the LH1, HL1, LH2 and HL2, LH3, HL3, LH4, HL4 coefficients are embedded with scrambled watermark. Figure 4 shows the result of the “Lena” image after a four-level 2-D DWT.

In addition, with such a scheme, it is not possible to add more watermark energy at a particular frequency, in which the image energy is high, in order to improve robustness. LL band contains the most of energy of the image, so we apply the watermark in mid frequency bands, it will not creates some artifacts in the image. And invisibility of the watermark can be increased. Here embedding process shown in fig.6.

can be increased. Here embedding process shown in fig.6. Fig.2 Overview of watermark preprocess Fig.3 Flow

Fig.2 Overview of watermark preprocess

shown in fig.6. Fig.2 Overview of watermark preprocess Fig.3 Flow chart for abrupt change in video

Fig.3 Flow chart for abrupt change in video transition

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B.V.M. Engineering College, V.V.Nagar,Gujarat,India

National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology

Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology Fig.4 Lena image for Testing Fig.5 “Lena” image

Fig.4 Lena image for Testing

in Engineering & Technology Fig.4 Lena image for Testing Fig.5 “Lena” image after a four-level 2-D

Fig.5 “Lena” image after a four-level 2-D DWT

Testing Fig.5 “Lena” image after a four-level 2-D DWT Fig-6 embedding process IV. W ATERMARK E

Fig-6 embedding process

IV. WATERMARK EMBEDDING AND DETECTION

A. Watermark Embedding

Figure 7 Shows how to embed the Watermark and secret key in to the video frames here we apply the watermark in to only mid frequency band of the image because of the effect of the human visual system. The power present in the frequency bands varies greatly from image to image. If the image energy in a particular band is very low and the watermark energy in that band is high, then some artifacts are created in the image, since the watermark energy is too strong relative to the image.

Figure 7 shows the Flow chart of embedding algorithm to embed the watermark in to color video. First of all convert the video in to frames and then frame to image. Decompose each

video in to frames and then frame to image. Decompose each Fig. 7 Flow chart for

Fig. 7 Flow chart for watermark embedding

image in to three color components (R.G.B). Apply 4-level DWT to each component. Here we apply watermark in to HL and LH bands (mid frequency bands) of each level so convert

each pixel value in to binary. To increase the robustness we

5 th bit of every pixel. If 5 th bit is

apply the watermark in the

equal to 1 then SC( i , j ,k) is equal to 2 else SC( i , j ,k) is equal

to 1, where SC is the array to store the information for original video Extraction and (i,j) is the pixel position of particular band and k is the frame number. Then if W( i , j) =1 then 5 bit of pixel is equal to 1 else it is 0.we start to embed the watermark from HL4 (4 th level mid frequency band) and then sequence in to LH4, HL3, LH3, HL2, LH2, HL1 and LH1. At last store the watermarked video frame data in to array sc(i, j, k) for watermark Extraction before applying inverse DWT.

th

B. Watermark Detection

The extraction process requires the key used for selecting the frames, the wavelet transform filter, and the channel I which the watermark is inserted. Due to the act of re- quantizing, a threshold region T should be defined in order to detect the existence of the video watermarking.

Figure 8 shows the Flow chart of extraction algorithm to extract the watermark and secret key from the watermarked video. First Load the watermarked data stored in array sc(i,j,k) where (i,j) is the pixel position in particular frequency band

13-14 May 2011

B.V.M. Engineering College, V.V.Nagar,Gujarat,India

National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology

Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology Fig.8 Flow chart for watermark and secret key

Fig.8 Flow chart for watermark and secret key Extraction

k is the frame number. Lets convert each pixel of mid frequency band in to binary. Check if 5th bit of pixel value is “1” then WR (i,j)==1 ,where WR is the recovered watermark and secret key matrix. If 5th bit of pixel value is “0 then WR(i,j)==0. Decompose watermark data and secret key from the matrix WR. Apply these algorithms to three different watermarked images so we can get three different watermark data, and then combine these data to retrieve the watermark image.

Figure 10 shows the Flow chart of extraction algorithm to extract the original video from the watermarked video. Load the watermarked data stored in array sc(i,j,k) and stored array SC(i,j,k), where SC contain the original value of the 5 th bit before watermarking. Lets convert each pixel of mid frequency band in to binary. Check if SC(i,j,k) is ‘2’ then 5 th bit of pixel sc(i,j,k) is ‘1’ else it is ‘0’. Convert each binary pixel value in to decimal. Combine three array sc(i,j,k) for three images R,G,B so the original video will retrieved.

for three images R,G,B so the original video will retrieved. Fig.9 Flow chart for original colour

Fig.9 Flow chart for original colour video Extraction

I. SIMULATION RESULTS & DISSUCTION

video Extraction I. S IMULATION R ESULTS & D ISSUCTION Fig 10- original video frames 13-14

Fig 10- original video frames

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B.V.M. Engineering College, V.V.Nagar,Gujarat,India

National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology

Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology Fig 11-watermarked video frames Fig 12 - Recovered

Fig 11-watermarked video frames

Engineering & Technology Fig 11-watermarked video frames Fig 12 - Recovered watermark image Fig 13 -

Fig 12 - Recovered watermark image

video frames Fig 12 - Recovered watermark image Fig 13 - Recovered original video frames from

Fig 13 - Recovered original video frames from watermarked video

In order to evaluate the quality of image, we use parameter peak value signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) [6].

use parameter peak value signal-to-noise ratio ( PSNR ) [6]. where N is the size of

where N is the size of image, f (i, j ), f ' (i, j ) is the pixel gray value of host image and pending detection image respectively. Bigger the value of PSNR, better the quality of image [6].

Bigger the value of PSNR , better the quality of image [6]. Fig.14 PSNR between original

Fig.14 PSNR between original and watermarked video frames

Fig.14 PSNR between original and watermarked video frames Fig.15 Normalized Correlation between original and recovered

Fig.15 Normalized Correlation between original and recovered watermark images

In order to evaluate the robustness of watermarking algorithm, the comparability between original watermark w and detected watermark w* is calculated with the formula given in Eq.

watermark w* is calculated with the formula given in Eq. NC value is 1 for all

NC value is 1 for all images; This shows the 100% recovery of watermark images. The PSNR value is between 33 to 41.50 db. The PSNR value shows that the algorithm keeps the quality of the image and invisibility of embedded watermark without any attacks.

II.

CONCLUSION

In this paper I propose a scene-based watermarking scheme. The scheme is robust against various attacks because we does not require original video as well as watermarked video for original video and watermark video recovery. Experiment has been done on these novel video watermarking schemes to test an show its performance. The robustness of our approach is demonstrated using the calculation of NC.

13-14 May 2011

B.V.M. Engineering College, V.V.Nagar,Gujarat,India

National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology

REFERENCES

[1]. P.W. Chan and M. Lyu, ”A DWT-based Digital Video Watermarking Scheme with Error Correcting Code,” Proceedings Fifth International Conference on Information and Communications Security (ICICS2003), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, Vol. 2836, pp. 202-213,

Huhehaote City, Inner-Mongolia, China, Oct. 10-13, 2003. [2]. P.W. Chan, M.R. Lyu, R. Chin, ”Copyright Protection on the Web: A Hybrid Digital Video Watermarking Scheme,” Poster Proceedings 13th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW’2004), pp. 354-355, New York, May 17- 22, 2004.

[3].

N. Checcacci, M. Barni, F. Bartolini, and S. Basagni, ”Robust video watermarking for wireless multimedia communications ,” Proceedings IEEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Confernce 2000, WCNC. 2000, Vol. 3, pp. 1530-1535, 2000.

F. Duan, I. King, L. Xu, and L. Chan, ”Intra-block max min algorithm for embedding robust digital watermark into BIBLIOGRAPHY 128 images,” In Horace H.S. Ip and Arnold W.M. Smeulders, editors, Proceedings of the IAPR International Workshop on Multimedia Information Analysis and Retrieval, MINAR’ 98, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1464, pp. 255-264, Berlin Heidelberg, Germany, 1998. Springer- Verlag.

[5]. Priyadarshinee Adhikari, Neeta Gargote, Jyothi Digge, and B.G. Hogade,Abrupt Scene Change Detection,World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 42 2008.

[6].

[4].

Na Li, Xiaoshi Zheng1 •, Yanling Zhao, Huimin Wu, Shifeng Li, Robust Algorithm of Digital Image Watermarking Based on Discrete Wavelet Transform, International Symposium on Electronic Commerce and Security.

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B.V.M. Engineering College, V.V.Nagar,Gujarat,India