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Op Amp Design Project

EE 310, Section 008, Fall 2015

Experimental data acquired on November 4 and 5, 2015 by:

Matthew McTaggart
Logan Hall

Submittal Date: November 17, 2015

[1]

The Pennsylvania State University

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................................................................................... ii
LIST OF TABLES...................................................................................................iii
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................. iv
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 1
DESIGN PROPOSAL .............................................................................................. 2
CIRCUIT DESIGN AND SUPPORTING ANALYSIS .......................................... 5
SIGNAL CONDITIONING CIRCUITRY .............................................................................. 5
DIFFERENCE AMPLIFIER SCHEMATIC ............................................................................ 6
VOLTAGE POLARITY MONITOR SCHEMATICS ............................................................... 8
MULTISIM SIMULATION RESULTS ............................................................................... 10

DATA ..................................................................................................................... 14
DISCUSSION ......................................................................................................... 20
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ..................................................................... 21
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................... 22
APPENDIX A: RAW DATA ................................................................................. 23

iii

LIST OF TABLES
Page
Table 1 Project Results ................................................................................................... 14
Table 2 Voltage Divider Errors ...................................................................................... 19
Table 3 Result Errors ...................................................................................................... 20

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LIST OF FIGURES
Page
Figure 1 Design Proposal Schematic ................................................................................ 2
Figure 2 Signal Conditioning Circuitry ............................................................................ 5
Figure 3 Simulation Results for Signal Conditioning (U1A) ........................................... 6
Figure 4 Difference Amplifier Schematic ........................................................................ 7
Figure 5 Simulation Results for Difference Amplifier (U1B) ......................................... 8
Figure 6 Airbag Deployment Indicator Schematic ........................................................... 8
Figure 7 Inefficiency Indicator Schematic ....................................................................... 9
Figure 8 Simulation Results when Deceleration is Greater than 6G .............................. 10
Figure 9 Simulation Results when Deceleration is Greater than 0.1G but less than 6G 11
Figure 10 Simulation Results when Acceleration is 0G ................................................. 12
Figure 11 Simulation Results when Acceleration is Greater than 0.1G ......................... 13
Figure 12 Input Voltage Measurement into U1A ........................................................... 15
Figure 13 Output Voltage Measurement of U1A ........................................................... 16
Figure 14 - Input Voltage Measurement into U1B Unadjusted ........................................ 17
Figure 15 - Input Voltage Measurement into U1B Adjusted ............................................ 18
Figure 16 - Output Voltage Measurement of U1B ............................................................ 18

INTRODUCTION
In this design project, a Model 1210-010 accelerometer will interface with an Operation Amplifier
(Op Amp) circuit to trigger the deployment of an airbag, have the ability to display to the user a
visual representation of the acceleration forces in real time (beyond the scope of this design), and
indicate to the driver any inefficiencies with fuel usage and with brake pad wear. The Model 1210010 accelerometer outputs a voltage range from 0.5V to 4.5V for an acceleration range of -10G to
10G on the AOP output pin, and a voltage range from 4.5V to 0.5V for an acceleration range of 10G to 10G on the AON output pin. For this design, the output from the AOP pin will be used.
The term G refers to acceleration due to gravity, where 1G is 9.81ms-2.
For the design and implementation of this project, a function generator will be used to simulate
the output from the Model 1210-010 accelerometer. The circuit will be able to output a signal, or
flash an LED, when a deceleration of 6G occurs. The design will flash an LED when inefficiency
occurs when the acceleration and deceleration are greater than 0.1G. The following design
proposal will go into specific details on the functionality of the circuit, the underlying circuit
analysis, and the various components to the design.
Once the Op Amp design project was physically implemented, the percent errors between
measured values and theoretical values were quite small, with the largest percent error being 4%.
These error do not affect the functionality of the circuit as the measured values are close enough
to the design specifications. The acceleration and deceleration thresholds remain at 0.1G but the
airbag deployment occurs at a deceleration of 5.8G. In normal use, the car will not experience such
a deceleration, but will likely experience it in a collision. Although not exactly 6G, 5.8G provides
a benefit because it can deploy the airbag easier, but not easy enough for normal use. This 0.2G
difference has the chance to reduce the risk of injury in the event that a deceleration of 5.9G occurs
within a collision.

DESIGN PROPOSAL
In the physical implementation, the forces are measured by the Model 1210-010 accelerometer.
The accelerometer outputs a linear range of voltages from 0.5V for an acceleration of -10G and
4.5V for an acceleration of 10G; where 2.5V is the output when there is no acceleration, or at 0G.
In this report, this voltage range will be implemented using a constant voltage source, or a function
generator. The design schematic is shown below in figure 1.

Figure 1 Design Proposal Schematic


The first function generator XFG1 serves to provide a voltage with a triangular waveform of 4Vpp
with a DC offset of 2.5V. This represents the input range from the accelerometer for measurements
between -10G and 10G. The Op Amp (U1A) maps the linearly varying -10G to 10G accelerations
to a -5V to 5V output range, respectively. The second function generator XFG2 serves to provide
a voltage with a triangular waveform of 80Vpp with a DC offset of 2.5V. In this case, the Op Amp
(U1B) is to map the range of accelerations of -0.2G to 0.2G linearly to an output voltage of 0V to

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5V respectively. In the physical circuit, XFG1 and XFG2 will be from the same accelerometer
output; but for design purposes and analysis having XFG1 and XFG2 separate is beneficial.
The first Op Amp U1A is to provide an output voltage range from -5V to 5V from an input of 10G to 10G. The input voltages are thus 0.5V to 4.5V respectively. The input voltage will be
centered on 0V by subtracting 2.5V from the input voltages. At this point -2V to 2V will be
linearly mapped to -5V to 5V. Resistors R3 and R1 will be the same along with R2 and R4 which
simplifies the output voltage equation shown below.
=
1 =

5
= 2.5
2

2
( ) = 2.5( 2.5)
1

1 = 3 = 1 2 = 4 = 2.5
1 = 2.5(0.5 2.5) = 5
2 = 2.5(4.5 2.5) = 5
The bias voltage of 2.5V will be supplied by using a voltage division from a +15V supply rail.
These resistors are not included in the schematic because the bias voltage is supplied by a constant
DC voltage source. In the physical implementation the resistances will be calculated.
The second Op Amp U1B is to provide an output voltage range from 0V to 5V from an input of 0.2G to 0.2G. The input voltages are thus 2.46V to 2.54V respectively. The input voltage will be
subtracted by 2.46V so that the output will be centered on 0V. Similarly, R5 and R7 will be the
same along with R6 and R8 which simplifies the output voltage equation shown below.
=
1 =

5
= 62.5
2.54 2.46

6
( ) = 62.5( 2.46)
5

5 = 7 = 1 6 = 8 = 62.5
3 = 62.5(2.46 2.46) = 0
4 = 62.5(2.54 2.46) = 5
The bias voltage of 2.46V will be supplied by using a voltage division from a +15V supply rail.
These resistors are not included in the schematic because the bias voltage is supplied by a constant
DC voltage source. In the physical implementation the resistances will be calculated.
The Op Amps U2A and U2B serve to be the comparators to indicate whether the drivers
acceleration is larger than 0.1G and deceleration is larger 0.1G. The acceleration of 0.1G maps to

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a voltage of 3.75V and an acceleration of -0.1G maps to a voltage of 1.25V from the output of
U1B. Again, in the physical implementation of this circuit, these voltages will be provided using
voltage division from the available +15V power rails. Since the LED should light in either case,
the comparators will be set up with the same functionality of an OR logic gate. To do so, diodes
D1 and D2 will be placed to isolate the current from flowing between the Op Amps when either
U2A or U2B outputs +15V. The LED2 has a forward voltage of 3.3V and limiting current rating
of 30mA. The forward voltages of D1 and D2 are 1.1V. Resistors of 390 are available, so the
limiting resistors of 390 will be chosen.
=

15 1.1 3.3
= 353.3
0.03

The Op Amp U3A serves to be the comparator to indicate whether the driver experiences an
acceleration lower than -6G. At this instance, LED1 indicates to deploy the airbag. An acceleration
of -6G maps to an output voltage of -3V. Thus if the output from U1A is smaller than -3V the
comparator will output a voltage of 15V. As before in the physical implementation, the -3V will
be provided using voltage division from the -15V power rail. The LED1 has a forward voltage of
3.3V and a limiting current rating of 30mA. The limiting resistor will be chosen as 390.
=

15 3.3
= 390
0.03

CIRCUIT DESIGN AND SUPPORTING ANALYSIS


The design for the proposal was approved and the design used for the physical implementation
remains unchanged.
SIGNAL CONDITIONING CIRCUITRY
The signal conditional circuitry is designed to map the -10G to 10G accelerations to an output
voltage range of -5V to 5V respectively. This circuit can then be used to display the voltages to
the Display (DVM) or be programmed to display a real time measurement of the acceleration; and
indicate to the airbag deployment to deploy the airbag.

Figure 2 Signal Conditioning Circuitry


The following figure shows the output of the U1A Op Amp. It shows the maximum, minimum,
mean and the peak to peak voltages of output voltage in addition to the input voltage signal. The
maximum voltage is VO1 and the minimum voltage is VO2. In the simulation VO1 was measured
to be 5V, and VO2 was measured to be -5V. The gain is 2.5, as was designed.
=

10
= 2.5
4

Figure 3 Simulation Results for Signal Conditioning (U1A)


DIFFERENCE AMPLIFIER SCHEMATIC
The difference amplifier schematic is used to linearly map the -0.2G to 0.2G acceleration range to
an output voltage range of 0V to 5V to use for the comparators U2A and U2B for the indication
of an acceleration greater than 0.1G and deceleration greater than 0.1G. This is separate from the
circuit conditioning circuit so that the comparator can compare against voltage of 3.75V and 1.25V
instead of comparing against 0.05V and -0.05V. From a physical standpoint, a larger voltage
difference is desirable because the voltages are easier to create when using voltage division from
the +15V and -15V power rails. Below shows the difference amplifier schematic.

Figure 4 Difference Amplifier Schematic


The following figure shows the output of the U1B Op Amp. It shows the maximum, minimum,
mean and the peak to peak voltages of output voltage in addition to the input voltage signal. The
maximum voltage is VO3 and the minimum voltage is VO4. In the simulation VO3 was measured
to be 5V, and VO4 was measured to be 0V. The gain is 62.5, as was designed. In this simulation,
80mVpp was used instead of 4Vpp as these voltages map to the -0.2G to 0.2G accelerations. Due
to the large gain, the Op Amp will clip outside of this ranges but will not affect the functionality
of the circuit. For clarity, 80mVpp will be used and displayed. The gain is 62.5, as was designed.
=

5
= 62.5
0.08

Figure 5 Simulation Results for Difference Amplifier (U1B)


VOLTAGE POLARITY MONITOR SCHEMATICS
The following schematics show the comparators used to indicate when to deploy the airbag,
figure 6, or when there is inefficiency, figure 7.

Figure 6 Airbag Deployment Indicator Schematic

Figure 7 Inefficiency Indicator Schematic

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MULTISIM SIMULATION RESULTS
Below show four cases of accelerometer input and the response of the design. The first case is
when the deceleration is large than 6G, the second case when the deceleration is between 6G and
0.1G, the third case when the accelerometer is stationary, and the fourth case when the acceleration
is greater than 0.1G. The accelerometer voltage output is 1.3V for a deceleration of 6G, 2.46V for
a deceleration of 0.1G, and 2.54V for an acceleration of 0.1G.
The first result should indicate that the airbag should be deployed, and inefficiency in driving with
the LEDs being lit.

Figure 8 Simulation Results when Deceleration is Greater than 6G


When the deceleration is less that 6G, the airbag deployment indication should not be lit, but the
inefficiency indication should remain.

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Figure 9 Simulation Results when Deceleration is Greater than 0.1G but less than 6G
When at rest, the acceleration will be 0G. Both indicators should not be lit.

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Figure 10 Simulation Results when Acceleration is 0G


When the acceleration is greater than 0.1G, the inefficiency indication should lit but the airbag
deployment indication should not be lit.

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Figure 11 Simulation Results when Acceleration is Greater than 0.1G

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DATA
The data from the project is summarized in the following table.
Table 1 Project Results
Measurement
VO1
VO2
GainVU1A
VO3
VO4
GainVU1B

Simulated Value
5.00V
-5.00V
2.50
5.00V
0.00V
62.5

Experimental Value
4.80V
-5.20V
2.40
5.04V
55.62mV
60.4

The figures 12 & 13 below shows the input voltages and the output voltages for the Op Amp U1A.
The input voltage signal is on Channel 1 and the output voltage signal is on Channel 2. Channel 2
max is the VO1 measurement and the Channel 2 min is the VO2 measurement. The function
generator was set to input a triangular waveform of 10Hz, an amplitude of 4Vpp and a DC offset
of 2.5V.

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Figure 12 Input Voltage Measurement into U1A

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Figure 13 Output Voltage Measurement of U1A


The figures 14, 15 and 16 below shows the input voltages and the output voltages for the Op Amp
U1A. The input voltage signal is on Channel 1 and the output voltage signal is on Channel 2.
Channel 2 max is the VO3 measurement and the Channel 2 min is the VO4 measurement. The
function generator was set to input a triangular waveform of 10Hz, an amplitude of 4Vpp and a
DC offset of 2.5V for figure 14, but then adjusted to input a triangular waveform of 10Hz, an
amplitude of 80mVpp and a DC offset of 2.5V for figure 15. For clarity, 80mVpp was used instead
of 4Vpp as these voltages directly map to the -0.2G to 0.2G accelerations and the min and max
values. Due to the large gain, the Op Amp will clip outside of this ranges but will not affect the
functionality of the circuit. For clarity, 80mVpp will be used and displayed. The gain is 62.5, as
was designed.

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Figure 14 - Input Voltage Measurement into U1B Unadjusted


The scaling on the 80mVpp is difficult to display due to it having a DC offset and the oscilloscope
not being able to display with a voltage scale lower than 500mV/division. AC coupling was not
desired because it would not be able to display the mean, or the DC offset, to show that the signal
was actually offset to the correct voltage.

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Figure 15 - Input Voltage Measurement into U1B Adjusted

Figure 16 - Output Voltage Measurement of U1B

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The following table summarizes the error present in the voltage dividers. The resistors for the
difference amplifier and the circuit conditioning are not of interest because error is factored into
gain. The voltage dividers do play a part in the gain error as well. The upper resistor is attached to
the positive or negative 15V supply rail and the lower resistor is grounded.
Table 2 Voltage Divider Errors
Voltage
Upper
Lower
Divider
Resistor Resistor
Value
Nominal Nominal
(V)
(k)
(k)
2.50
5.000
1.000
2.46
5.098
1.000
-3.00
4.000
1.000
1.25
11.000
1.000
3.75
3.000
1.000

Upper
Resistor
Measured
(k)
5.031
5.160
4.060
10.800
3.000

Lower
Resistor
Measured
(k)
0.994
0.982
0.974
0.997
0.993

Measured
Voltage (V)

%
Difference

2.47
2.40
-2.90
1.26
3.74

1.21
2.47
3.39
0.80
0.27

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DISCUSSION
Note since VO4 is expected to be 0V, the percent difference or the percent error for this and the
experimental value will not be an adequate measure. The difference circuit can achieve an
acceleration measurement of -0.196G instead of -0.2G, which does not affect its ability to
determine the acceleration at -0.1G for the design requirement. So, this does not affect the
functionality of the circuitry.
Table 3 Result Errors
Measurement

Theoretical
Value

Simulated
Value

Experimental
Value

% Error
(Exp & Sim.)

VO1
VO2
GainVU1A
VO3
VO4
GainVU1B

5.00V
-5.00V
2.50
5.00V
0.00V
62.5

5.00V
-5.00V
2.50
5.00V
0.785mV
62.5

4.80V
-5.20V
2.40
5.04V
55.62mV
60.4

4.00
4.00
4.00
0.80
6985.00
3.42

% Error
(Exp &
Theo.)
4.00
4.00
4.00
0.80
3.42

In general the results prove to be quite accurate and is effective in functionality. The experimental
results show that the airbag is deployed at an acceleration of -5.8G instead of -6G. Although close,
it is unlikely that through normal use acceleration levels will reach -6G. Having a little less
threshold to release the airbag can be beneficial because in the case of an emergency the airbag
can be deployed even quicker. The inefficiency LED will light when there is an acceleration of 0.1G and 0.1G, which remains the same as the design. In general, the U1B Op Amp (Differential
Amplifier) is more accurate to specifications than the Signal Conditioning Circuitry Op Amp U1A.

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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


This design project served to provide a circuit in which the Model 1210-010 accelerometer can
provide useful efficiency information to the driver, signal the airbag deployment during a
significant deceleration, and the ability to program a display to relay the accelerometers
measurements to the user and the circuit. The design specified to deploy an airbag at a deceleration
of 6G, and to indicate inefficiency when the acceleration and deceleration are beyond 0.1G.
The actual design worked great, and provided the desired functionality. There are minor
differences in experimental values and theoretical, but this is down to variations on physical
components, and non-ideal conditions present in physical systems. Resistors for example, vary in
measured reading due to manufacturing them on large scale and the Op Amps are not perfectly
ideal. Another variation in results can be due to the function generator not outputting exactly what
was specified due to instrumental discrepancies and the loading effect. An example can be seen
with the measured values for VO1 and VO2. In this case the DC offset output from the function
generator may have not been exactly 2.5V and hence shifted the VO1 and VO2 values lower by
0.2V.
An improvement that could be made to my design is to take both the AOP and AON outputs from
the accelerometer and create a differential voltage of -4V to 4V to then be mapped to the same
circuit conditioning circuitry and differential amplifier circuitry for the remainder of the circuit.
This design is useful because it can reduce drift effects that may occur through the mid-scale
voltage reference of 2.5V. In the improved differential voltage signal, 0G of acceleration will occur
at 0V instead of 2.5V. Another improvement that could be made is to use potentiometers at the
voltage dividers and feedback resistors for the Op Amps, to fine tune the bias voltages and gain to
the exact values which is not possible with discrete resistors. Furthermore, potentiometers can be
used throughout the design to calibrate the design so that the user can have control if he or she
would like to change the thresholds for inefficiency indication, or specify the airbag to deploy at a
lower deceleration threshold.

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REFERENCES
[1]

Penn State EE Department - EE310 Experiment 8 Design Specification

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APPENDIX A: RAW DATA


Please see the attached carbon copy lab pages.