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Engineering Thermodynamics 1

B.Eng. Mechanical Engineering

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Faculty of Engineering
Universiti Teknologi Brunei

Introduction
Energy
Energy Transfer by Work & Heat
1st Law of Thermodynamics

Upon completion of this topic, you will be able to:


Explain the concept of energy and identify its

various forms.

Explain the concept of energy transfer and apply it

to engineering applications.

Describe the 1st Law of Thermodynamics and use it

to analyse engineering problems.

Recall the problem of the

fridge in a sealed and


insulated room.

What happens inside the

room over time?

Why?

Figure 2-1 [1]


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Now apply the same

concept to a fan in a sealed


and insulated room.

What happens?

Figure 2-2 [1]


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Forms of energy:
Thermal and Mechanical
Kinetic and Potential
Electric and Magnetic
Chemical and Nuclear
Total energy, E, of a system is the sum of all these

forms of energy. e denotes per unit mass basis.

Thermodynamics deals only with the change of the

total energy.

Forms of Energy:
Macroscopic:
Those a system possesses as a whole with respect to some
outside reference frame.
Example, kinetic and potential energies.
Microscopic:
Those related to the molecular structure of a system and the
degree of the molecular activity.
Internal energy, U: The sum of all the microscopic forms of
energy.

The macroscopic kinetic energy is an


organized form of energy and is
much more useful than the
disorganized microscopic kinetic
energies of the molecules.

Figure 2-3 [1]

The form of energy that can be converted to

mechanical work completely and directly by an ideal


mechanical device.

The familiar form of mechanical energy:


Kinetic energy
Potential energy
Pressure of a flowing fluid is also associated with

mechanical energy.

Pumps uses mechanical energy to move fluids.


Turbine extracts mechanical energy from moving

fluids.

Kinetic energy, K.E.:


The energy that a system possesses as a result of its

motion relative to some reference frame.

Kinetic Energy (J)

1
K .E. mV 2
2
Kinetic Energy per unit mass (J/kg)
2

V
k .e.
2

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Consider the body

moving at velocity V for


a distance s due to
resultant force F.

Derive the expression

for kinetic energy based


on Newtons second law
of motion.
Figure 2-4 [2]

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Potential energy, P.E.:


The energy that a system possesses as a result of its

elevation in a gravitational field.

Potential energy (J)

P.E. mgz
Potential Energy per unit mass (J/kg)

p.e. gz

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Mechanical energy of a flowing fluid can be written

as:

V2
emech
gz
2
P

Are the units homogenous?

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Internal Energy, U
Sensible energy:
Energy of a system associated with

the kinetic energies of the molecules.

Latent energy:
Energy associated with the phase of a

system.

Chemical energy:
Energy associated with the atomic

bonds in a molecule.

Nuclear energy:
Energy associated with the strong

bonds within the nucleus of the atom.

Figure 2-5 [1]


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Nuclear fission:

Uranium-235 bombarded
with neutron resulting in
chain reaction.
Nuclear fusion:

Combination of two small


nuclei into a bigger one.

Figure 2-6 [1]

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Kinetic
Energy
Internal
Energy

Potential
Energy

Total
Energy
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Total Energy, E:
Sum of all forms of energies

E U KE PE
V2
U m
mgz
2

Energy per unit mass

e u ke pe
V2
u
gz
2

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The total energy of a system, can be contained or

stored in a system (static forms of energy).

The forms of energy not stored in a system can be

viewed as the dynamic forms or as energy


interactions.

Dynamic forms of energy:


Present at the system boundary as they cross it.
Represent the energy gained or lost by a system during a
process.

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A site evaluated for a


farm is observed to
steady winds at a speed
m/s. Determine the
energy:

wind
have
of 8.5
wind

(a) per unit mass,


(b) for a mass of 10 kg, and

(c) for a flow rate of 1154 kg/s

of air.

Figure 2-7 [1]

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a)

Wind energy per unit mass of air is


2
8.5 m/s
= . . =
=
2
2

b)

= 36.1 J/kg

Wind energy for an air mass of 10 kg is


= = 10 kg 36.1 J/kg = 361 J

c)

Wind energy for a mass flow rate of 1154 kg/s is


=
= 1154 kg/s 36.1 J/kg = 41.7 kW

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Two forms of energy interactions of a closed

system:
Heat

Work

An energy interaction is heat transfer if its

driving force is a temperature difference.


Otherwise it is work.

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In thermodynamics, we are interested


in the transfer of energy by:
Heat
The form of energy that is

transferred between two systems


(or a system and its surroundings)
by temperature difference.

Work
The energy transfer associated with

a force acting through a distance.

Figure 2-8 [1]

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Formal sign convention:


Heat transfer to a system and
work done by a system are
positive; heat transfer from a
system and work done on a
system are negative.
Alternative:
use the subscripts in and

out to indicate direction.

Figure 2-15 [1]

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Both are recognized at the

boundaries of a system as they


cross the boundaries.

Systems possess energy, but not

heat or work.

Both are associated with a

process, not a state.

Heat or work has no meaning at a

state.

Both are path functions.


Path functions have inexact

differentials () and not exact


differentials (d).
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Energy transferred between

two systems (or a system and


its surroundings) due to a
temperature difference.

Temperature difference is the

driving force for heat transfer.

The larger the temperature

difference, the higher the rate


of heat transfer.
Figure 2-9 [1]

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Adiabatic process:
No heat transfer during
the process.

Heat denoted by Q
(Joules)

Q Q t
Figure 2-10 [1]
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Heat transfer mechanisms:


Conduction
The transfer of energy from the more energetic particles
of a substance to the adjacent less energetic ones as a
result of interaction between particles.
Convection
The transfer of energy between a solid surface and the
adjacent fluid that is in motion, and it involves the
combined effects of conduction and fluid motion.
Radiation
The transfer of energy due to the emission of
electromagnetic waves (or photons).
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A candle is burning in a wellinsulated room. Taking the room


as the system, determine:
a) If there is any heat transfer

during the burning process.

b) If there is any change in the

internal energy of the


system.

Figure 2-11 [1]

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A potato initially at room


temperature 25oC is being
baked in an oven that is
maintained at 200oC. Is there
any heat transfer during the
baking process?
Figure 2-12 [1]

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Work
The energy transfer associated
with a force acting through a
distance.
A rising piston
A rotating shaft
An electric wire crossing the

system boundaries

Denoted by (Joules)
Power

Figure 2-13 [1]

Work done per unit time


Denoted by (J/s or W)

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Figure 2-14 [2]

System A: Paddle does work on the gas


System B: Electric current is supplied to the motor

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Electrons crossing the system boundary

do electrical work on the system.

In an electric field, electrons in a wire

move under the effect of e.m.f., doing


work.
= V

Electrical power

= V
2

= V = V
1

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There are two requirements for a work interaction between a

system and its surroundings to exist:

there must be a force acting on the boundary


the boundary must move

Work done is proportional to the force applied (F) and the

distance travelled (s)

=
2

=
1

Figure 2-15 [1]

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The different types of mechanical work:


Shaft work
Spring work

Work done on elastic solid bars


Work of stretching a liquid film
Work done to raise or accelerate a body

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Shaft work
Energy transmission through

rotating shafts is commonly


encountered in practice.

A force F acting through a moment

arm r generates a torque T


T
F
r
This force acts through a distance s
s 2rn
Shaft work is proportional to the
torque applied and the number of
revolutions of the shaft.
Figure 2-16 [1]

= =

2 = 2T
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Determine the power


transmitted through the shaft
of a car when the torque
applied is 200 Nm and the
shaft rotates at a rate of 4000
revolutions per minute.

4000

= 2T
= 2
200 = 83.8 kW
60

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Spring work
When a force is applied on a spring, the length of

the spring changes.

When the length of the spring changes by a

differential amount dx under the influence of a


force F, the work done is

1
= 22 12
2

=
Figure 2-17 [1]

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Work done on elastic solid bars


Solids modelled as linear springs:
Under the action of a force they contract or

elongate

When the force is lifted, they return to their original

lengths

True as long as the force is in the elastic range and

not large enough to cause plastic deformations.


2

= =
1

1
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Work of stretching a liquid film


The force used to overcome the

microscopic forces between molecules at


the liquidair interfaces of a liquid film.

These microscopic forces are

perpendicular to any line in the surface.

The force generated by these forces per

unit length is called the surface tension.


2

= 2

Figure 2-18 [1]

1
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Work done to raise or accelerate a body


The work transfer needed to raise a body

is equal to the change in the potential


energy of the body.

The work transfer needed to accelerate a

body is equal to the change in the kinetic


energy of the body.
Figure 2-19 [1]

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Consider a 1200-kg car cruising


steadily on a level road at 90 km/h. Now
the car starts climbing a hill that is
sloped 30 from the horizontal. If the
velocity of the car is to remain constant
during climbing, determine the
additional power that must be delivered
by the engine.
= =
90
= 1200 9.81
30 = 147 kW
3.6

Determine the power required to


accelerate a 900-kg car from rest to a
velocity of 80 km/h in 20 s on a level
road
1
80 2
2
900 3.6
1
2
2
2

2
1
= 2
=

20

= 11.1 kW

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The conservation of energy principle:


States that energy can be neither

created nor destroyed during a


process; it can only change forms.

For all adiabatic processes between

two specified states of a closed system,


the net work done is the same
regardless of the nature of the closed
system and the details of the process.

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The work
(electrical)
done on an
adiabatic
system is equal
to the increase
in the energy of
the system.

In the absence of any


work interactions, the
energy change of a
system is equal to the
net heat transfer.

The work (shaft)


done on an
adiabatic system
is equal to the
increase in the
energy of the
system.
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Energy balance
The net change (increase or decrease) in the total
energy of the system during a process is equal to the
difference between the total energy entering and the
total energy leaving the system during that process.

Ein Eout E system


Applicable to any system undergoing a process

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Energy Change of a System, Esystem


energy change of a system during a process is the
difference of the energy of the system at the
beginning and at the end of the process.

E system E final Einitial E2 E1


E U KE PE
1
m(u2 u1 ) m(V22 V12 ) mg( z2 z1 )
2
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Mechanism of Energy Transfer, Ein and Eout


Energy can be transferred to or from a system in three forms: heat, work,
and mass flow.
Heat Transfer, Q
Heat transfer in and out of a system increases and
decreases the energy of the molecules i.e. the internal
energy of the system.
Work Transfer, W
Work transfer to a system increases the energy of the
system, and work transfer from a system decreases it
since the energy transferred out as work comes from
the energy contained in the system.
Mass Flow, m
Mass flow in and out of the system serves as an
additional mechanism of energy transfer. When mass
enters a system, the energy of the system increases
because mass carries energy with it.

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Energy balance of a system incorporating the heat transfer

mechanisms

Ein Eout Qin Qout Win Wout Emass ,in Emass ,out E system
Net energy transfer by
heat, work and mass

Change in internal,
kinetic, potential and
other energies

For a closed system initial and final states

are identical, hence

Wnet ,out Qnet ,in


47

A rigid tank contains a hot fluid that


is cooled while being stirred by a
paddle wheel. Initially, the internal
energy of the fluid is 800 kJ. During
the cooling process, the fluid loses
500 kJ of heat, and the paddle wheel
does 100 kJ of work on the fluid.
Determine the final internal energy
of the fluid. Neglect the energy
stored in the paddle wheel.

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A fan that consumes 20 W of electric power


when operating is claimed to discharge air
from a ventilated room at a rate of 1.0 kg/s at
a discharge velocity of 8 m/s. Determine if
this claim is reasonable.

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1.

Y. A. Cengel and M. A. Boles (2015) Thermodynamics: An


Engineering Approach, 8th Edition, McGraw-Hill Education,
New York.

2.

M. J. Moran, H. N. Shapiro, D. D. Boettner and M. B. Bailey


(2014) Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, 8th
Edition, John Wiley & Sons, US.

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