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# Engineering Thermodynamics 1

## B.Eng. Mechanical Engineering

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Faculty of Engineering
Universiti Teknologi Brunei

Introduction
Energy
Energy Transfer by Work & Heat
1st Law of Thermodynamics

## Upon completion of this topic, you will be able to:

Explain the concept of energy and identify its

various forms.

## Explain the concept of energy transfer and apply it

to engineering applications.

insulated room.

Why?

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## concept to a fan in a sealed

and insulated room.

What happens?

## Figure 2-2 

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Forms of energy:
Thermal and Mechanical
Kinetic and Potential
Electric and Magnetic
Chemical and Nuclear
Total energy, E, of a system is the sum of all these

## Thermodynamics deals only with the change of the

total energy.

Forms of Energy:
Macroscopic:
Those a system possesses as a whole with respect to some
outside reference frame.
Example, kinetic and potential energies.
Microscopic:
Those related to the molecular structure of a system and the
degree of the molecular activity.
Internal energy, U: The sum of all the microscopic forms of
energy.

## The macroscopic kinetic energy is an

organized form of energy and is
much more useful than the
disorganized microscopic kinetic
energies of the molecules.

## mechanical work completely and directly by an ideal

mechanical device.

## The familiar form of mechanical energy:

Kinetic energy
Potential energy
Pressure of a flowing fluid is also associated with

mechanical energy.

## Pumps uses mechanical energy to move fluids.

Turbine extracts mechanical energy from moving

fluids.

## Kinetic energy, K.E.:

The energy that a system possesses as a result of its

## Kinetic Energy (J)

1
K .E. mV 2
2
Kinetic Energy per unit mass (J/kg)
2

V
k .e.
2

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## moving at velocity V for

a distance s due to
resultant force F.

## for kinetic energy based

on Newtons second law
of motion.
Figure 2-4 

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## Potential energy, P.E.:

The energy that a system possesses as a result of its

## Potential energy (J)

P.E. mgz
Potential Energy per unit mass (J/kg)

p.e. gz

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as:

V2
emech
gz
2
P

## Are the units homogenous?

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Internal Energy, U
Sensible energy:
Energy of a system associated with

## the kinetic energies of the molecules.

Latent energy:
Energy associated with the phase of a

system.

Chemical energy:
Energy associated with the atomic

bonds in a molecule.

Nuclear energy:
Energy associated with the strong

## Figure 2-5 

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Nuclear fission:

Uranium-235 bombarded
with neutron resulting in
chain reaction.
Nuclear fusion:

## Combination of two small

nuclei into a bigger one.

## Figure 2-6 

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Kinetic
Energy
Internal
Energy

Potential
Energy

Total
Energy
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Total Energy, E:
Sum of all forms of energies

E U KE PE
V2
U m
mgz
2

e u ke pe
V2
u
gz
2

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interactions.

## Dynamic forms of energy:

Present at the system boundary as they cross it.
Represent the energy gained or lost by a system during a
process.

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## A site evaluated for a

farm is observed to
m/s. Determine the
energy:

wind
have
of 8.5
wind

## (a) per unit mass,

(b) for a mass of 10 kg, and

of air.

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a)

2
8.5 m/s
= . . =
=
2
2

b)

= 36.1 J/kg

## Wind energy for an air mass of 10 kg is

= = 10 kg 36.1 J/kg = 361 J

c)

## Wind energy for a mass flow rate of 1154 kg/s is

=
= 1154 kg/s 36.1 J/kg = 41.7 kW

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system:
Heat

Work

## driving force is a temperature difference.

Otherwise it is work.

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## In thermodynamics, we are interested

in the transfer of energy by:
Heat
The form of energy that is

## transferred between two systems

(or a system and its surroundings)
by temperature difference.

Work
The energy transfer associated with

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## Formal sign convention:

Heat transfer to a system and
work done by a system are
positive; heat transfer from a
system and work done on a
system are negative.
Alternative:
use the subscripts in and

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## boundaries of a system as they

cross the boundaries.

heat or work.

state.

## Both are path functions.

Path functions have inexact

## differentials () and not exact

differentials (d).
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## two systems (or a system and

its surroundings) due to a
temperature difference.

## difference, the higher the rate

of heat transfer.
Figure 2-9 

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No heat transfer during
the process.

Heat denoted by Q
(Joules)

Q Q t
Figure 2-10 
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## Heat transfer mechanisms:

Conduction
The transfer of energy from the more energetic particles
of a substance to the adjacent less energetic ones as a
result of interaction between particles.
Convection
The transfer of energy between a solid surface and the
adjacent fluid that is in motion, and it involves the
combined effects of conduction and fluid motion.
The transfer of energy due to the emission of
electromagnetic waves (or photons).
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## A candle is burning in a wellinsulated room. Taking the room

as the system, determine:
a) If there is any heat transfer

system.

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## A potato initially at room

temperature 25oC is being
baked in an oven that is
maintained at 200oC. Is there
any heat transfer during the
baking process?
Figure 2-12 

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Work
The energy transfer associated
with a force acting through a
distance.
A rising piston
A rotating shaft
An electric wire crossing the

system boundaries

Denoted by (Joules)
Power

## Work done per unit time

Denoted by (J/s or W)

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## System A: Paddle does work on the gas

System B: Electric current is supplied to the motor

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work.
= V

Electrical power

= V
2

= V = V
1

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## there must be a force acting on the boundary

the boundary must move

=
2

=
1

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Shaft work
Spring work

## Work done on elastic solid bars

Work of stretching a liquid film
Work done to raise or accelerate a body

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Shaft work
Energy transmission through

## rotating shafts is commonly

encountered in practice.

## arm r generates a torque T

T
F
r
This force acts through a distance s
s 2rn
Shaft work is proportional to the
torque applied and the number of
revolutions of the shaft.
Figure 2-16 

= =

2 = 2T
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## Determine the power

transmitted through the shaft
of a car when the torque
applied is 200 Nm and the
shaft rotates at a rate of 4000
revolutions per minute.

4000

= 2T
= 2
200 = 83.8 kW
60

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Spring work
When a force is applied on a spring, the length of

## differential amount dx under the influence of a

force F, the work done is

1
= 22 12
2

=
Figure 2-17 

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## Work done on elastic solid bars

Solids modelled as linear springs:
Under the action of a force they contract or

elongate

lengths

2

= =
1

1
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## Work of stretching a liquid film

The force used to overcome the

## microscopic forces between molecules at

the liquidair interfaces of a liquid film.

2

= 2

1
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## Work done to raise or accelerate a body

The work transfer needed to raise a body

## is equal to the change in the potential

energy of the body.

## body is equal to the change in the kinetic

energy of the body.
Figure 2-19 

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## Consider a 1200-kg car cruising

the car starts climbing a hill that is
sloped 30 from the horizontal. If the
velocity of the car is to remain constant
during climbing, determine the
additional power that must be delivered
by the engine.
= =
90
= 1200 9.81
30 = 147 kW
3.6

## Determine the power required to

accelerate a 900-kg car from rest to a
velocity of 80 km/h in 20 s on a level
1
80 2
2
900 3.6
1
2
2
2

2
1
= 2
=

20

= 11.1 kW

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## The conservation of energy principle:

States that energy can be neither

## created nor destroyed during a

process; it can only change forms.

## two specified states of a closed system,

the net work done is the same
regardless of the nature of the closed
system and the details of the process.

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The work
(electrical)
done on an
system is equal
to the increase
in the energy of
the system.

## In the absence of any

work interactions, the
energy change of a
system is equal to the
net heat transfer.

## The work (shaft)

done on an
is equal to the
increase in the
energy of the
system.
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Energy balance
The net change (increase or decrease) in the total
energy of the system during a process is equal to the
difference between the total energy entering and the
total energy leaving the system during that process.

## Ein Eout E system

Applicable to any system undergoing a process

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## Energy Change of a System, Esystem

energy change of a system during a process is the
difference of the energy of the system at the
beginning and at the end of the process.

## E system E final Einitial E2 E1

E U KE PE
1
m(u2 u1 ) m(V22 V12 ) mg( z2 z1 )
2
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## Mechanism of Energy Transfer, Ein and Eout

Energy can be transferred to or from a system in three forms: heat, work,
and mass flow.
Heat Transfer, Q
Heat transfer in and out of a system increases and
decreases the energy of the molecules i.e. the internal
energy of the system.
Work Transfer, W
Work transfer to a system increases the energy of the
system, and work transfer from a system decreases it
since the energy transferred out as work comes from
the energy contained in the system.
Mass Flow, m
Mass flow in and out of the system serves as an
additional mechanism of energy transfer. When mass
enters a system, the energy of the system increases
because mass carries energy with it.

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## Energy balance of a system incorporating the heat transfer

mechanisms

Ein Eout Qin Qout Win Wout Emass ,in Emass ,out E system
Net energy transfer by
heat, work and mass

Change in internal,
kinetic, potential and
other energies

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## A rigid tank contains a hot fluid that

is cooled while being stirred by a
energy of the fluid is 800 kJ. During
the cooling process, the fluid loses
500 kJ of heat, and the paddle wheel
does 100 kJ of work on the fluid.
Determine the final internal energy
of the fluid. Neglect the energy

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## A fan that consumes 20 W of electric power

when operating is claimed to discharge air
from a ventilated room at a rate of 1.0 kg/s at
a discharge velocity of 8 m/s. Determine if
this claim is reasonable.

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1.

## Y. A. Cengel and M. A. Boles (2015) Thermodynamics: An

Engineering Approach, 8th Edition, McGraw-Hill Education,
New York.

2.

## M. J. Moran, H. N. Shapiro, D. D. Boettner and M. B. Bailey

(2014) Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, 8th
Edition, John Wiley & Sons, US.

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