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111Equation Chapter 1 Section 1Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Wave Energy Converter for

Possible Power Generation in Small Island Communities

In partial fulfilment of
ME adasdadasd

Submitted to
Asdsadasd

Submitted by
Sasuman
Quin
Chaben

Table of Contents
CHAPTER

PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING......................................................................................... 4


1.1 Introduction............................................................................................................ 4
1.2 Statement of the Problem........................................................................................... 6
1.2 Objectives.............................................................................................................. 6
1.4 Significance of the Study........................................................................................... 7
1.5 Scope and Limitations............................................................................................... 7
1.5.1 Scope.............................................................................................................. 7
1.5.2 Limitations....................................................................................................... 7
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND....................................................................................... 9
2.1 Waves................................................................................................................... 9
2.1.1 Formation of Waves............................................................................................ 9
2.1.2 Modification of Wave........................................................................................ 10
2.2 Wave Modelling............................................................................................... 11
2.2.1 Linear Waves............................................................................................. 11
2.2.2 Nonlinear Waves....................................................................................... 15
2.3 Wave Measurement................................................................................................ 16
2.3.1 Zero up-crossing method.................................................................................... 21
2.3.2 The probability density function...........................................................................21
2.3.3 Most probable wave height.................................................................................22
2.3.4 Average Wave Period and Wave Height..................................................................22
2.3.5 Significant Wave Height..................................................................................... 22
2.3.6 Significant Wave Period..................................................................................... 22
2.4 Wave Energy Converters.................................................................................23
2.4.1 WEC according to location........................................................................23
2.4.2 WECS according to Size and Orientation...................................................24
2.4.3 WECS according to Mode of Energy Absorption........................................24
2.4.4 WECS according to how they harness energy...........................................26
2.5 Wave Energy Conversion Systems..................................................................26
2.6 Power Transmission Systems.................................................................................... 26
2.6.1 Mechanical Interfaces........................................................................................ 27
2.6.2 Energy Storage................................................................................................ 28
2.7 Point Absorbers............................................................................................... 29

2.7.1 Added Mass............................................................................................... 29


2.7.2 Heaving Bodies......................................................................................... 30
2.8 Damping.............................................................................................................. 32
Radiation Damping.................................................................................................. 33
2.9 Energy Absorption................................................................................................. 33
3.2.1 Amplitude...................................................................................................... 33
2.10 Power Generated.................................................................................................. 34
2.11 Power Take Off.................................................................................................... 34
3.4.1 Two main groups.............................................................................................. 34
2.12 Tuning............................................................................................................... 34
4.3.1 Active Tuning.................................................................................................. 35
4.3.2 Passive Tuning................................................................................................. 35
2.13 Mooring............................................................................................................. 35
2.14 Buoyancy.......................................................................................................... 35
Review of Related Literature............................................................................................. 37
3.1 Wave Energy Density.............................................................................................. 37
3.2 Global Wave energy potential.................................................................................... 37
3.3 Wave power in the Philippines................................................................................... 37
3.4 Remote Coastal Communities.................................................................................... 38
3.5 Energy loss towards the near shore............................................................................. 38
3.6 Off-shore limitations (TB)........................................................................................ 39
3.7 Buoy Response...................................................................................................... 39
3.8 Passive Tuning...................................................................................................... 39
3.9 Tidal Effects......................................................................................................... 39
3.10 Mooring............................................................................................................. 40
Notation...................................................................................................................... 40
General.................................................................................................................... 40
Power of Waves......................................................................................................... 40
Linear Waves............................................................................................................. 41
Nonlinear Waves........................................................................................................ 42
Heaving Bodies.......................................................................................................... 42
Bouyancy................................................................................................................. 43
Statistical Analysis of Measured Waves............................................................................ 44
Subscript............................................................................................................... 44
Bibiliography................................................................................................................ 45
117.

Appendices......................................................................................................... 52

CHAPTER 1
PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING
1.1 Introduction
Wave energy can be considered as a concentrated form of solar power. Waves are generated by the
differential heating of the earth from the exposure of the sun. As these winds pass through open bodies
of water, they transfer some of their energy to form waves. These waves will continue to travel in the
direction of their formation even after the wind is no longer acting on them. These waves can persist
for great distances, up to 10,000 km or more from the point of origin and end up on shores where they
dissipate their energy when they break.
The endeavor to utilize wave energy is not a new idea. In 1799, the first patent of a wave energy
converter was granted to Monsieur Girard and his sons (Clment, et al., 2002), (Lindroth & Leijon,
2011). Following the oil shock of the 1970s, extensive attention was given in extracting power from
natural resources and over 1000 wave converter patents had been registered in 1973, including 340
from the United Kingdom (McCormick M. , 1981), (Rusu & Soares, 2012).
Early estimates of the global wave energy was around 1-10 TW (Panicker, 1976), (Isaac &
Seymour, 1973). Recent studies point out that the global wave resources to be around 2-4 TW (Aoun,
Harajli, & Queffeulou, 2013), (Stock-Williams, 2012), (Mork, Barstow, Kabuth, & Pontes, 2010), with
only about 0.5 GW can be captured with existing technologies (Stock-Williams, 2012).It is also pointed

that out that wave energy could eventually provide over 10% of the worlds energy consumption
(International Energy Agency, 1994a).
In 1996, the potential of wave energy resource in the Philippines was investigated by the
Norwegian company OCEANOR. It was pointed out that the Philippines had a significant potential for
wave energy utilization at 4 potential sites (OCEANOR, 2002), (DOE, 2006). A study made by the
Mindanao State University estimated that the overall wave energy resource of the Philippines is around
170 GW (Mindanao State University, 2005). The average wave power is about 33 kW/m on the Pacific
side and 35 kW/m on the South China Sea side of the Philippines (Heruela, 1993)
The Philippines, being an archipelago with one of the worlds longest coastlines running about
36,289 km long may prove to be a potential benefactor of wave energy converter technology
(Philippine Statistics Office, 2000). Potential utilization of the waves energy aside from pumping
applications (Clment, et al., 2002) and potable water production (Newark, Delaware Patent No.
4,421,461, 1981) is electrical energy production for small remote coastal communities where
connecting to the grid is not viable (Grewal, Wenkataraman, Bayking, Guzman, & O'Connor, 2006).
Some small island communities in the Philippines are serviced by SPUG (Small Power Utilities
Group). They provide Diesel Generators to these communities to provide electricity (Grewal,
Wenkataraman, Bayking, Guzman, & O'Connor, 2006). This study aims to utilize wave energy
converter technology to provide power to off grid systems for use in small island communities where
connection to the power grid is not viable. These WECs will be situated near the island were they will
be providing power. The WEC proposed is not designed for integration to the electrical grid but instead
it will be used to create independent off grid electrical sources for small island communities.

1.2 Statement of the Problem


On 2010, about 16 million people in the Philippines have no access to electricity constituting to
a total electrification rate of 83 percent (IEA, 2012). According to a report from the World Bank (World
Bank, 2012), this figure rose to 87.5 percent on 2012. For more remote islands, connection to the grid
is not viable. In an attempt to provide electricity to small islands, the Small Power Utilities Group
(SPUG), which is part of the state owned National Power Corporation, generates electricity using
small, isolated diesel generators. SPUG sells the power to local electricity cooperatives, which
distributes it to member consumers. SPUG serves 74 islands with a total installed capacity of 170 MW.
Its cost is inefficiently high and its supply is unreliable (Grewal, Wenkataraman, Bayking, Guzman, &
O'Connor, 2006). The diesel generation cost are not reflected in the effective selling price in these
islands. Its true cost range about 10 to 30 PhP/kWh which vary widely from island to island. Most of
this is shouldered in the Missionary Electrification Fee (Meller, 2013)

1.2 Objectives
This study is aimed to achieve the following:

To design a point absorber wave energy converter based on the characteristics of the wave sea

characteristics recorded by PAGASA in Madridejos, Bantayan.


To design a power take-off mechanism that would be able to convert into useful pump work.
To produce a prototype of the design selected.
To test the prototype on the site in order to create its performance characteristics.

1.4 Significance of the Study


This study offers a new avenue for electrification of small island communities. Recent solutions
to power remote islands include creation of mini-grids through the use of renewable energy. Recent
trends use solar power and wind energy to these islands (Department of Energy, 2012) . These
renewable energy resources are currently designed to complement the diesel generators in order to
provide more power or reduce dependency on diesel generators (Meller, 2013). This study explores a
new option in electrification of small islands by the use of wave energy converter.
If the point absorber wave energy converter proves to be capable of providing enough pumping
power, it could be fitted with complementary equipment in order to provide electricity in parallel with
the diesel generators or existing renewable energy systems. Also, if the capacity is increased through
the introduction of wave energy conversion farms in the Philippines, it could become a reliable and
stable source of electricity providing to the grid.
The study will also benefit future researchers in promoting innovative and creative engineering
applications in wave energy conversion and utilization.

1.5 Scope and Limitations


1.5.1 Scope
This study focuses on the design and fabrication of a prototype point absorber wave energy
converter based on the data recorded by PAGASA at Madridejos, Bantayan. The device will be
designed to convert wave energy in the form of heaving motion into pump work. The study will include
design and fabrication of the power take-off mechanism. The power take-off mechanism will be
designed to word in different tidal conditions of the site. It is aimed pump water to a higher elevation.
The proponents of the study will deployed the fabricated WEC to the site in order to test its
performance.
1.5.2 Limitations

This study will not cover the production of electricity through the use of a storage tank and low
head turbine. Moreover, experimentation where the conditions of the site may pose danger or damage
to the proponents of this study or the wave energy converter (e.g. storms or stormy weather) will not be
included.
The proponents of this study will not conduct a life test on the wave energy converter since it
may take too much time and the device cannot be left securely on the site for extended amounts of
time. Off shore designs and experimentation will not be a viable option for the study since the
proponents of this study do not have the means of conducting experiments on deep sea.
Complex software simulations such as stress analysis, finite element analysis and fluid flow
simulation of the system will not be covered by the proponents of this study since the in-depth analysis
is not essential in this phase of the study.

CHAPTER 2
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
2.1 Waves
2.1.1 Formation of Waves
As Earth receives solar energy from the sun, different factors such as the local climate and
latitude causes differential heating and this creates winds. Some part of the solar energy is then
converted to wind energy. When these winds blow over bodies of water, they impart some of their
energy to the water surface thus forming waves (Brooke, 2003). The amount of energy transferred to
the waves depends on the wind speed, duration of wind and distance over which the wind blows over
the surface, known as fetch (Salmon). Strong winds must be present over extended periods of time in
order to create fully developed waves, called swells (Lynn, 2014). A swell is also defined as a wave
with a relatively great length and small height (McCormick M. , 1981)
The most energetic waves are produced around 40 to 60 north and south latitude,
where the Westerlies blow from east to west. The Westerlies produce the world most favorable waves

but are less consistent than the trade winds. At 10 to 30 north and south latitude, the trade
winds blow from east to west. These winds, although less energetic than the Westerlies, are very
consistent throughout the year which in turn produces consistent waves. The existence of these wind
belts allows wave energy conversion to be viable along these latitudes (Lynn, 2014)

Figure 1: Water Particle Movements of Waves


Retrieved from (Lynn, 2014)
It must be realized that it is energy, not matter, which is being transported in waves. There is no
net translation of water particles, they simply move in circles as the wave passes, the circle radius
decreasing exponentially with depth. The decrease is so rapid that virtually all the energy transfer
occurs within half the wavelength of the surface. The energy transported is partly kinetic, due to the
movement of the water particles, and it is also partly potential, owing to the height of the waves (Lynn,
2014).

2.1.2 Modification of Wave


In shallow waters when the water depth is approximately half the wavelength or less, waves
slow down, dissipating lots of energy, height increases and starts to break. As waves approaches the
waters of decreasing depth, the modification of waves in the sea bed comes in various ways:

Shoaling An initial limited decrease in wave height followed by progressive increase as it


reaches the shallow waters. First slowly and slightly, and then more rapidly.

Wave breaking As waves approach the shore, it becomes steep. Steep waves break, thereby losing
both height and energy. This mechanism is generally responsible for the largest dispersion of energy
coming from the ocean waves. (Brooke, 2003)

2.2 Wave Modelling


2.2.1 Linear Waves
The theory of linear waves, which are sometimes called Airy Waves, was originally devised by
George Airy, an English mathematician. He explained how surface waves propagate through a linear
model. The wind-generated ocean waves that are built up gradually over a long distance forming a

regular, low-amplitude swell are described by Airys theory (Lynn, 2014). For a wave height to
H
1
wavelength ration of 50 or less, the linear wave theory can be used. (McCormick M. , 1981)

Figure 2: Linear Wave with a sinusoidal


Retrieved from (McCormick M. , 1981)

They are described to be sinusoidal in form having the amplitude (A), height (H) and
wavelength (). The height of the wave is defined as the vertical distance of the crest and trough of the
wave. As the wave travel across the ocean surface and pass a fixed point in space, it may be possible to
measure the time interval between two successive crests or troughs. The crest of the wave is the highest
point of a single wave and the trough is the lowest point of the wave. This time interval is known as the
period

(T )

of the wave. Reciprocating the period gives us the frequency

(f )

of the wave (Lynn,

2014)
T

1 2

f c

Eqn 1

.According to Airys theory, the wavelength and the wave velocity are interrelated by these two
equation:

gT 2
2 h
tanh(
)
2

Eqn 1
Eqn 1
Eqn 1

gT2
2

Equation 1

c= =
T 2

Equation 2

Wave number is defined as


k=

Equation 3

Figure 3: Dimensionless Properties as function of the depth to deep water wavelength ratio as predicted
by linear theory

Figure 4: Properties of waves under various depth conditions


Retrieved from (McCormick M. , 1981)

(a) Deep water, h 2 ; (b) intermediate water,

> h
h<
;
(c)
shallow
water,
2
20
20

Deep water approximations of the (wavelength) and c (phase velocity) are:


2

gT
=
2

Equation 4

c=
2

Equation 5

Shallow water approximations of the (wavelength) and c (phase velocity) are:


= gh T

Equation 6

c= gh

Equation 7

Total energy from waves is equal to


pg H 2 c g b
E=E p + Ek =
8

Equation 8

Ep in deep water = Ek in deep water =

Cg is the wave group velocity, which is equal to

c
2

pg H c g b
16

Equation 9

in deep water and is equal c (phase velocity) in

shallow water. Potential energy Ep, kinetic energy Ek. Derived from McCormick 1973

The transfer of wave energy from one point to point in the direction of wave travel is characterized by
the energy flux or the wave power:

g H 2 C g b
P=
8

Equation 10

2.2.2 Nonlinear Waves

One failure of the linear wave theory is that is always describes a sinusoidal wave. However, when
waves begin to shoal, that is, to be affected by the seafloor, the wave profile begins to change to one
with a narrow crest and a broad through. (McCormick M. , 1981)

Figure 5: Nonlinear wave profile


Retrieved from (McCormick M. , 1981)
For sinusoidal waves, the SWL (Still water level) and the MWL (Mean water level) is equal, but
for non-linear waves, MWL is not equal to SWL and new mathematical models are needed to
approximate the shape of the waves. Stokes second order theory is used to describe waves in shallow
water. (McCormick M. , 1981)

1.8.1 Stokes Wave

Stokes (1847, 1880) utilizes series representations to represent wave properties of irrotational water
waves and the accuracy of the theory depends on the number of terms. The Stokes first order theory is
identical to the linear theory whereas the Stokes second order theory improves the accuracy of
determining the wave profile. Higher order theories add accuracy to the wave profile prediction but the
second order theory is satisfactory (McCormick M. , 1981). The expression for the total wave energy
and the wave power in shallow waters using the Stokes second order theory is given by:

E=

g H b
9 H
1+
8
64 k 4 h6

g H 2 C g b
9 H2
P=
1+
8
64 k 4 h6

Equation 11

Equation 12

It can be seen that the Stokes second order theory just simply adds a correction factor of

9 H
1+
.
64 k 4 h6

1.8 Wave Energy


Provides a predictable source of energy that is easy to harness (Nerijus Blazauskas, 2015). Wave energy
has the highest energy density among all the renewable energy sources (Fadaeenejad, Shamsipour,
Rokini, & Gomes, 2014). In shallow water depths, wave energy resource is lower compared to deep
water. (Adriana Monarcha Femandes, 2013)

2.3 Wave Measurement


Wave measurements done in the inner shore can be obtained by a surface piercing wave staff
(Schwartz, 2005). It is the simplest method of measurement which may not incorporate an electronic
instrument. The wave staff is usually a survey rod with straight and long rod with tick marks inscribed
along its length (Massle, 2005). The waves may be measured remotely using a video camera to
measure the change in elevation against the graduated pole. The wave staff provides information on
wave height and period but not on the direction of the wave (Schwartz, 2005)

Change figure
Figure 6: Shoaling and Wave Beaking
Retrieved from (Brooke, 2003)
(3) Bottom friction In shallow waters, energy is lost due to friction between the water particles and
the sea bed. This loss increases with the width of the continental shelf and sea bottom roughness.
(Brooke, 2003)

Figure 7: Bottom Friction on Shallow Water


Retrieved from (Brooke, 2003)
(4) Refraction As waves approach shallow waters, the wave fronts are bent so that they tend to
become parallel to the shoreline depth. This causes a change in the direction of waves due to change in
their speed. Energy is dissipated when the sea bottom pattern is concave. In energy focusing leads to
hot spots where there is a remarkable concentration of energy. Energy defocusing is the opposite.
(Brooke, 2003)

Figure 8: Energy Focusing by Refraction


Retrieved from (Brooke, 2003)

Figure 9: Energy De-Focusing by Refraction


Retrieved from (Brooke, 2003)

(5) Diffraction bending of waves around and behind barriers are among the effects of this
phenomenon. Diffraction causes ocean waves to spread out, it also causes waves to bend around
obstacles. (Brooke, 2003). It is also defined as the passage of wave energy into the calm water in the
lee of the obstacle, called shadow zone which is an energy void. There is a decrease of wave height in
the shadow zone since there is a supplying of energy to the shadow zone. (McCormick M. , 1981)

Figure 10: Diffraction of Waves at a Gap and End of a Barrier


Retrieved from (Lynn, 2014)
(6) Reflection is the reversal of the direction of the wave movement because of the striking of a barrier.
The wave energy can be partially absorbed if the wall is porous and the energy not absorbed is
reflected. Under perfect reflection conditions, the standing wave height H r is twice the incident
H . The standing wave has no phase velocity since the phase velocity of the incident
and reflected is cancelled out and the wavelength is unchanged. The energy of a standing wave is

wave height

the sum of the energies of the incident and reflected. If the reflecting barrier is placed in the lee of a
wave energy conversion device, the energy available to the device is doubled under ideal conditions.
(McCormick M. , 1981)

Figure 11: Perfect reflection of an incident wave: (a) incident wave, (b) reflected wave, (c) standing
wave
Retrieved from (McCormick M. , 1981)

2.3.1 Zero up-crossing method


This method is the most widely used method by those performing Hand and eye analysis of waves.
The zero up-crossing is the front of the trailing wave and the back of the leading wave at any point.
This method is as follows: Each time a wave trace crosses the time axis with a positive slope (a zero
up-crossing), the wave period and wave height is measured. The data is tabulated in a table with some
accuracy. The data first appears with an accuracy of two decimal places and is rounded up to create a
nomograph. (McCormick M. E., 2010)
2.3.2 The probability density function
The probability density function is the slope of the probability curve, the approximation for discrete
data set is given by:
nH
nH n H
N
=
H
N ( H )

( )
J

p ( H j )
j=1

j1

Equation 13

2.3.3 Most probable wave height


The most probable wave height

H mp , u=is that wave height corresponding to the maximum value of

the probability density which is determined from:

d [ p ( H j) ]
H mp=0
dH

Equation 14

2.3.4 Average Wave Period and Wave Height


The average wave period over the period range T i <T T I

is:

I
nT T i
N p ( T i) T i T
T avg= i I
= iI
n
NT
p (T i ) T
i
i
I

Equation 15

H j<H H J

Similarly, the average wave height over the range of


J

H avg=

nH H j

p ( H j) H j H

N
nH
N

=
j

is:

p ( H j) H

Equation 16

The average expressions of the wave properties are used in the design of wave energy conversion
systems. (McCormick M. E., 2010)
2.3.5 Significant Wave Height
The most important statistical measure of random waves is the Significant Wave Height. It is
defined as the average height of the highest third of waves. The wave height a trained observer on a
ship will report from visual inspection of the sea state is approximately equal to the significant wave
height. (Lynn, 2014, pp. 43-45) (Brooke, 2003, p. 11). Prediction of significant wave height values is
an important prerequisite for designing coastal and offshore structures (Soares, 2001)

2.3.6 Significant Wave Period


Another property of random waves is the period. The period the amount time of interval
between two crests or two troughs. It is also the time needed to complete one wavelength. The
significant wave period, like the significant wave height, is the average period of the highest one-third

of the waves. If 150 waves were measured, the period of the highest 50 waves are separated out and
average.
Both the significant wave height and the significant wave period are used to calculate for the power of
the waves. (Lynn, 2014, pp. 43-45) (Brooke, 2003, p. 11)

2.4 Wave Energy Converters


Wave energy converters (WEC) are devices that convert the energy available of
wave to useful motion. Most WEC designs are directed to producing large scale electricity
but they may also be used for water purification. Because of the large number of distinct
designs, WEC are grouped in several categories.

2.4.1 WEC according to location


There are 3 distinct categories a Wave energy converter (WEC) may be located. (1) Offshore in deep
water (i.e. 100 m water depth). (2) Near-shore anchored or fixed to the sea bed. (3) Shoreline
installed on land. (Lynn, 2014). Shoreline energy converters are located entirely on shore (Ocean wave
energy technology, 2012) and has the advantages of easier installation and maintenance (Fadaeenejad,
Shamsipour, Rokini, & Gomes, 2014). Furthermore they do not require deep water moorings and long
underwater electrical cables (Falco A. F., 2010). Low wave power in shallow water is one of the
essential disadvantages for shore mounted devices (Sahinkaya, Plummer, & Drew, 2009) Near shored
devices capture wave energy in the nearshore and convert it into electricity in an on shore facility
(Fadaeenejad, Shamsipour, Rokini, & Gomes, 2014). They are usually located hundreds of meters from
the shore and are fixed to the sea bottom. (Previsic, 2005). Deep water sea waves offer large energy
with predictable conditions (Vicinanza, Contestabile, & Ferrante, 2013) (Bahaj, 2011), more
researchers have focused on offshore converters (Alemayehu Gebremedhin, 2012) since they represent
the most promising class of WECs (Chozas & Soerensen, 2009). It is stated in (Adriana Monarcha
Femandes, 2013) that the limitation on water depth is related both to initial and maintenance cost of the
system since it is expensive and difficult to install and to maintain them. Moreover, the offshore storms
imply higher structural loads on the device and on its mooring system. This results in an increase in
the material costs. There is extra amount of incident power not available for extraction by very large
waves. These devices has either to shut down or work under the extreme conditions (Henry, Dohetry, &
L., Advances of design of the Oyster wave energy converter, 2010).
2.4.2 WECS according to Size and Orientation
Wave energy converters or WECs can be classified according to their horizontal size and orientation. If
the size of the WEC is very small compared to the typical wavelength, it is called a point absorber
(Budal & Falnes, 1975). If the width is comparable or larger than the typical wavelength, it is called a
line absorber, but the terms terminator and attenuator is more frequently used. (Brooke, 2003)
2.4.3 WECS according to Mode of Energy Absorption
Energy can be absorbed from heave (vertical motion), surge (horizontal motion in the direction of wave
travel), pitch (angular motion about an axis parallel to the wave crests), and yaw (angular motion about
a vertical axis) or some combination of these modes. (Brooke, 2003)

Figure 12: Motion of Waves


Retrieved from (Lynn, 2014)
Motion of waves. Courtesy: Fig. 2.16 Paul A. Lynn 2014 P. 63

Figure 13: Classification of Wave Energy Conversion based on Mode of Energy Absorption
Retrieved from (Brooke, 2003)

2.4.4 WECS according to how they harness energy


Under the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC), which covers most of the device currently in the
advance stage of development), wave energy converters may be classified by how they harness the
energy. They are classified either as attenuators, point absorbers, oscillating wave surge converters
(terminators), oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and submerged pressure differentials.
(Lynn, 2014)

2.5 Wave Energy Conversion Systems


The basic wave energy conversion process: The force (or torque) produced in a system by an incident
wave causes relative motion between an absorber and a reaction point. This drives a working fluid or a
generator prime mover. The periodic nature of ocean waves dictates that this relative motion will be
oscillatory and have a frequency range of 3 to 30 cycles per minute. This is much less than the
hundreds of revolutions per minute required for economic, conventional electric-power generation.
(Brooke, 2003)
Primary conversion of wave energy is attained by an oscillating system. This system may be a floating
body, an oscillating solid member or oscillating water within a structure which is able to store some
kinetic and/or potential energy. A secondary conversion is required to obtain useful forms of energy.
Typical secondary energy conversion is obtained by means of a turbine which delivers energy through a
rotating shaft. If the absorbed wave energy is to be converted into electricity, then the secondary energy
conversion may be an electric generator. (Brooke, 2003)

2.6 Power Transmission Systems


Normally power transmission systems consists of a two-stage system which is a mechanical
rotary device coupled to an electric generator. But in wave conversion devices the slowly varying,
oscillating forces of the incoming waves are converted to fast, unidirectional forces to drive electric
generators. Proven techniques used for power transmission systems are as follows: Mechanical
interfaces and Energy Storage. (Brooke, 2003)
2.6.1 Mechanical Interfaces
2.6.1.1 Direct Mechanical

Designs are conceived using purely mechanical power transfer. This method is considered
unlikely to be included in any large-scale wave energy scheme. This is due to the difficulty in devising
mechanical components that could address the requirement of converting the oscillating, variable
forces into a high RPM unidirectional output. (Brooke, 2003)

2.6.1.2 Air Turbines


Power transmission system is achieved by means of turning the low velocities and high forces
of air compressed by sea waves into high speeds and low forces. (Brooke, 2003) The high speeds and
low forces are required by the electric generator which is coupled to the air turbine located above the
air column. Waves are permitted into the air column which causes movement of air into the air turbine.

2.6.1.3 Water Turbines


Water from the surroundings is utilized as working fluid to run the water turbines. Water turbine
have been developed to be reliable and has minimal environmental risks (e.g., from leakages). The
types of turbines to be used are: (1) Pelton wheel which is suitable for high head operation, (2) Francis
turbine which is suitable for medium head operation and (3) Kaplan turbine which is suitable for low
head operation. (Brooke, 2003)

2.6.1.4 Hydraulic Systems


In this system, high pressure are used and proposed. It is used as power take-off technology
since it is capable of handling high power levels in small volume, adapt to linear or rotary input motion
and opportunity for computer control. Its reliability for wave energy conversion has been proven.
(Brooke, 2003). The oscillating motion of a floating body is converted into the flow of a liquid (water
or oil) at high pressure by using hydraulic systems (Falco A. d., 2007) (Colli, Cancelliere, Marignetti,
Stefano, & Scarano, A tubular generator drive for wave energy conversion, 2006) (Vantorre, Banasiak,
& Verhoeven, Modelling of hydraulic performance and wave energy extraction by a point absorber in
heave, 2004)

2.6.2 Energy Storage


Variations in wave power, wave height, wave period and surface velocity can lead to an increase
in both capital cost of a power installation and its power losses. A provision of short term energy
storage reduces these problems and produce an almost constant output. (Brooke, 2003). An effective
WEG (Wave energy generation) way is storage as potential energy in a water reservoir, which is
achieved in some overtopping devices, like the Wave Dragon (Soerensen, et al., 2005) and the Tapchan
(Evans & Falco, Hydrodynamics of ocean wave-energy utilization, 1986) In practice there are three
main methods of energy storage. These are based on overtopping devices (Soerensen, et al., 2005)
(Evans & Falco, Hydrodynamics of ocean wave-energy utilization, 1986) (Tedd & JP, Measurements
of overtopping flow time series on the wave dragon wave energy converter, 2009), oscillating water
columns (Falco & Justino, 1999), and floating-buoy mechanisms (Truong & Ahn, 2014)

2.6.2.1 Fly Wheel


Used in some oscillating water column (OWC) devices. The inertia of the blades. Generator
shaft and in some devices, a flywheel provide storage for rotational kinetic energy. However, flywheel
systems incur unacceptable losses from windage. (Brooke, 2003)

2.6.2.2 Gas Accumulators


This is the normal method of storing energy in oil hydraulic systems wherein an inert gas is
contained in a steel accumulator. A diaphragm or bladder separates the two components so that the gas
will not dissolve in the hydraulic oil. The gas is stored at a high pressure and low volume and when the
gas is released, the energy is released, gas expands to a greater volume and lower pressure. (Brooke,
2003)

2.6.2.3 Water Reservoirs


Another method of storing energy is by the means of reservoirs wherein the water is collected and
stored so that it may be drawn off for use (Brooke, 2003). This technique is employed in the
WaveDragon.

2.7 Point Absorbers


These are wave energy converters that have a horizontal dimension which is considerably smaller than
the wavelength of the waves. (De Backer Griet) They effectively follow the wave pattern at a
particular point. These type of wave energy converter usually floats on the surface which oscillates
with the incoming waves. Such devices utilize the heaving motion of the waves. (Lynn, 2014).
They oscillate in the ocean waves according to one or more degrees of freedom. By damping
their motion, electricity is produced. In order to extract a considerable amount of power, point
absorbers are intended to be installed in arrays. (De Backer Griet). The ability of a wave absorber to
absorb wave energy is independent of the wave direction (Brooke, 2003)
A row of point absorbers that is parallel to the wave crest can absorb 100% of the incident wave power
provided that it combines source-mode and dipole-mode motion (e.g. heave and surge). This is to
radiate a wave that cancels the transmitted wave (further discussed in section 3.2.1 Amplitude). With
only one mode of motion a maximum of 50% of the incident wave power can be absorbed, 25% of the
incident power is dynamically reflected (by the motion of the devices) and the remaining 25% is
transmitted (Todalshaug, 2013).

2.7.1 Added Mass


The ambient water mass excited by the unsteady moving body is called added mass (Ocean
Engineering Mechanics, Mccormick P.350). Added mass is that of the ambient water affected by the
presence of a fixed structure in a moving fluid, or that affected by the motions of a structure in a
stationary fluid. (Ocean Engineering Mechanics, Mccormick P.280-281)
As the body accelerates or decelerates in a stationary fluid, the body carries a certain amount of
fluid along it. The entrained fluid is called added, apparent, or virtual mass. In order to accelerate the
body, additional force is required to accelerate or decelerate the added mass. (de Silva, 2007)
2.7.2 Heaving Bodies

For illustration, let as assume a floating body has diameter (D) which has relative length with
the wavelength (). If the length of the body is equal to the wavelength (D= ), no heaving occurs since
both the crest and through occur along the body. There is no net force acting on the body if it length is:
D= N ,

Equation 17

Where N= 1,2,3,4
Furthermore heaving occurs when:
D=N

Equation 18

Where N= 1,3,5,7,.

The natural frequency of a floating body is given by the equation:


f z=

1
1
=
Tz 2

g A

Equation 19

m+m w

This equation was derived by mccormick (1973) and Bhattacharyya (1978).

( l1 l2 )

Shape

Mw

l1
=0.02
d

0279 l 21 l 2

l1
=0.4
d

0.248 l 21 l 2

l1
=1.0
d

0.212 l 21 l 2

l1
=2.0
d

0.189 l 21 l 2

l1
=4.0
d

0.170 l 21 l 2

l1
=10.0
d

0.151 l 21 l 2

l1
=20.0
d

0.142 l 21 l 2

Vertical Circular Cylinder

0.167 D

Hemisphere

0.333 R3

Figure 14: Added-mass ( mw ) expressions for half-submerged bodies


Retrieved from (a) Wendel (1956), (b) Hooft (1970), (c) Lamb (1932)
Where

is the density of Sea Water

The hydrostatic restoring moment and added-mass moment of inertia of a vertical axis cylindrical buoy
are given by:
4

C=

pg D
64

I w=

p D2 d 3
12

Equation 20

Equation 21

The velocity and acceleration of the heaving body are obtained from:
v z=

dz
= Z 0 sin ( t + z )
dt

Equation 22

d2 z
= Z 0 cos ( t + z )
d t2
2

Equation 23

The kinetic energy of the mass of the body and added mass of the heaving system is given by:
1
dz
E KZ= ( m+m w )
2
dt

( )

1
( m+ mw ) 2 Z 02 sin 2 ( t + z )
2

Equation 24

The potential energy is given by:


1
2
E PZ = g A z
2
1
g A z 2 Z 02 cos 2 ( t+ z )
2

Equation 25

The total energy of a heaving system is given by:


EZ =E KZ + E PZ
1
2
2
m+mw ) + g A ] Z0
(
[
2

Equation 26

2.8 Damping
Damping is an essential part of energy capture. During a cycle of oscillation, the mass in a system
stores and releases kinetic energy. Stiffness (or buoyancy) stores and releases kinetic energy, but it is
only damping that can absorb or dissipate energy. Whereas mass resists acceleration and stiffness
resists displacement, damping resists velocity. Absorption of energy can only occur if force is
accompanied by velocity. Damping due to friction or turbulence simply dissipates energy as heat, but
damping carefully designed can also generate useful power (Lynn, 2014). Oscillations decay with time
due to the damping effects of the water. (Lynn, 2014).

Radiation Damping
The body motions also result in a transfer of energy to the sea, and the transferred energy flux is away
from the body. This results in an energy loss to the body motion. The resulting damping effect on the
body motion is called radiation damping. (McCormick M. E., 2010)

2.9 Energy Absorption


Absorbing wave energy for conversion means that energy has to be removed from the waves. (Falnes J.
, Ocean Waves and Oscillating Systems, 2002). It is necessary to design a wave energy converter
depending on where it is expected to be installed in order to maximize the energy output at that location
(Jamie Goggins, 2014). The conversion of wave energy is highest when the WEC is at resonance where
it agrees with the natural period of the wave. (Falnes J. , Optimum control of oscillation of waveenergy converters, 1993) Also wave energy converters are optimized to work under specific wave
climate (Lpez & Iglesias, 2014) (Diego Vicinanza, 2012).

3.2.1 Amplitude
The optimum amplitude condition states that the absorbed power is maximum when it equals the
power reradiated into the sea by the oscillating system. A big body and a small body may produce
equally large waves, provided the smaller body oscillates with larger amplitude (Falnes J. , Ocean
Waves and Oscillating Systems, 2002)
2.10 Power Generated
WEC power generation depends on the resources available and on the characteristics of the waves
(Citiroglu & Okur, 2014). Also it is dependent on the wave height, the wave period and the wave
direction (Viegas, Lopez, & Iglesias, 2014).

2.11 Power Take Off


Power conversion or power-take off (PTO) systems are the main mechanisms that can be implemented
to transfer energy from waves to the WEC, after which it gets converted to mechanical or electrical
energy (Thomas, 2008). The power take-off system is responsible for converting the wave induced
motion of the WEC into a steady power output to the grid (Hansen, Kramer, & Vidal, 2013). The
performance of the WEC strongly depends on the Power Take off parameters. (Babarit, et al., 2012) .
The PTO system is often characterized as a linear damper (Falnes J. , Ocean Waves and Oscillating
Systems, 2002).

3.4.1 Two main groups


(1) Direct drive systems and (2) buffered systems. In a direct drive system, the PTO is the electrical
generator. The moving part of a WEC is coupled directly to the moving part of an electrical generator
(Baker & Mueller, 2001), thus eliminating the need for intermediate mechanical devices such as
turbines and hydraulic systems. For buffered drive systems, the energy captured and is transferred to a
medium for temporary storage, after which it gets transferred to the generator. The storage acts as a
buffer between the PTO stage and the generator in the power regulation stage (Price, 2009).

2.12 Tuning
(Babarit, et al., 2012). Tuning is done by having the WEC oscillate at the same frequency with the
waves. When the WEC is tuned to the frequency of the waves, maximum motion is observed in the
WEC and it achieves maximum power captured (Lynn, 2014). In general, a WEC has one or more
natural frequencies at which it prefers to oscillate. (Lynn, 2014) Both active and passing tuning require
knowledge of wave conditions at some level.

4.3.1 Active Tuning


With active tuning, the device may be controlled through varying the PTO system, or through motion
constrains. This is currently an area of active research (Babarit & Clement, Optimal latching control of
a wave energy device in regular and irregular waves, 2006), (Babarit, Duclos, & Clement, Comparison
latching control strategies for a heaving wave energy device in random sea, 2004), (Duclos, Babarit, &
Clement, 2006), (Hals, Falnes, & Moan, 2011), (Korde, 2002), (Yavuz, Stallard, & McCabe, Time
series analysis-based adaptive tuning technique for a heaving wave energy converter in irregular seas,
2007)
4.3.2 Passive Tuning
Passive tuning considers time-averaged conditions and therefore removes the need for measuring or
estimating subsequent waves. The PTO system is set to a single setting for a sea state. This results in
lower efficiency than a well applied active tuning system (Yavuz, Stallard, & McCabe, Time series
analysis-based adaptive tuning technique for a heaving wave energy converter in irregular seas, 2007),
but also allows for a much simpler device, which may be desirable during the development stages of
wave energy technology. (Oskamp & Ozkan-Haller, 2012)

2.13 Mooring
Mooring design is a critical part of a floating wave energy converter project. This is employed in areas
of demanding environmental loads due to waves, current and wind (Cerveira, Fonseca, & Pascoal,
2013)

2.14 Buoyancy
When a body is submerged in a fluid, either partially or completely, it experiences an upward
force acting on it. This upward force is called buoyancy and its magnitude is equal to the fluid
displaced. The weight of the fluid displaced is the equal to the specific weight of the fluid multiplied to
the volume of fluid displaced.
FB = WF = VF

(6)

Where FB is the buoyant force, WF is the weight of fluid displaced, is the specific weight of
fluid and VF is the volume of fluid displaced.
The buoyant force acts on the point called the center of buoyancy, centroid of the displaced
volume, and is directed vertically upward. [FM Munson P.68]

CHAPTER 3
Review of Related Literature
3.1 Wave Energy Density
Wave energy can be thought of as a concentrated form of wind energy with an average energy density
kW
kW
of approximately 2 m 2 . This is comparably larger than wind energy which is only 0.5 m2
(Cruz, 2010). Also the wave power of the sea surface is about five times larger than wind power at 9.5
m above the sea surface (Saket & Etemad-Shahidi, A wave energy potential along the northern coast of
the Gulf of Oman, Iran, 2012). About 90 percent of the time, wave energy is available for power
extraction compare to the 20 - 30 percent for wind and solar energy (Shahinkaya, Plummer, & Drew,
2009).

3.2 Global Wave energy potential


It is estimated that the global wave power potential is around 1-10 TW (Panicker, 1976)and (Isaac &
Seymour, 1973). Recent studies point out that the global wave resources to be around 2-4 TW (Aoun,
Harajli, & Queffeulou, 2013), (Stock-Williams, 2012), (Mork, Barstow, Kabuth, & Pontes, 2010).
According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the global oceans contain the capacity of
93,100TWh of power per year (Piao, Ching-Her, Chien, & Hao-Yuan, 2012). It is able to supply about
10% of the global demand to the power grid (Thorpe, 1999).
3.3 Wave power in the Philippines
The study made by Oceanographic Company of Norway on 1996 investigated the potential of the
Philippines for wave power production. The study involved site visitation at the Batanes Islands,
Cagayan, Polilio Islands in Aurora and Bolinao in Pangasinan. The study concluded that the potential
capacity of this resource is enormous (OCEANOR, 2002). A study by Heruela in 1993 found out that
the average wave power per meter of wave is about 33kW/m at the Pacific side and 35kW/m at the
south China Sea side (Heruela, 1993). These values are higher than that of Japan (5-15kW/m) who
have extensive developments in wave energy research (Brooke, 2003). A study made by (Mindanao
State University, 2005) estimated that the overall wave energy resource of the Philippines is about 170
GW. This study was conducted over 1000 m2 of Philippine waters. Among the initial ocean energy
potential sites identified by the study include the Hinatuan Passage, Camarines, Northeastern Samar,
Surigao, Batan Island, Catanduanes, Tacloban, San Bernardino Strait, Babuyan Island, Ilocos Norte,
Siargao Island and Davao Oriental.

3.4 Remote Coastal Communities


There are many research articles about wave power energy (Saket & Etemad-Shahidi, A wave energy
potential along the northern coast of the Gulf of Oman, Iran, 2012), (Rashid & Hasanzadeh, Status and
potential of offshore wave energy resource in Chahbahar area (NW Omman Sea), 2011), (Falcao,
2010), (Ahmed, Faizal, Cho, Kim, & Lee, 2010), (Bachynski, Young, & Yueng, Analysis and
optimization of a tethered wave energy converter in irregular waves., 2012) (Piao, Ching-Her, Chien, &
Hao-Yuan, 2012), but a few of them have considered a suitable wave energy converter (WEC) to
provide electricity for remote islands (Rusu & Soares, 2012), (Kim G. , Jeong, Lee, Jun, & Lee, 2011).
Connection to the power grid for remote areas is not reasonable by considering installation cost, the
usage of diesel generators is the simple solution option for remote area electrification (Nayar C. ,
2010). It can be seen that most small islands and remote communities around the world need the
importation of fossil fuels for their energy requirements. These communities are dependent to diesel
fuel price, and high operation and maintenance costs including fuel transportation. Therefore,
application of renewable stand-alone power system by using available energy source is a suitable
solution for remote locations (Fadaee & Radzi, Multi-objective optimization of a stand-alone hybrid
renewable energy system by using evolutionary algorithms: a review., 2012).
WEC location

3.5 Energy loss towards the near shore


In the study of (Fernandez & Fonseca, 2013), incident wave power from deep water reduces by 27% at
50 m and 47% at 30m water deptth. Still, the reduction of absorbed wave energy is a little bit smaller
which is 21% for 50 m and 39% at 30 m water depth.

3.6 Off-shore limitations (TB)


It is stated in (Fernandez & Fonseca, 2013) that the limitation on water depth because of both the initial
and maintenance cost of the system. Deeper water systems will be more expensive and difficult to
install and to maintain. When there are offshore storms, there will be higher structural loads on the
device and on its mooring system. The consequence is the need to increase material strength which will
have a corresponding increase in material cost. Also, there will be very large waves which is typical for
deep water and will cause the WEC to shut down. (Henry, K Doherty, Whittaker, & Doherty, 2010)
(Folley, Whittaker, & Henry, 2005)

3.7 Buoy Response


When heave buoys are close to its natural frequency, the device can absorb as much energy as the wave
force energy produced. For small radius to wavelength ratios, the natural period will be approximate be
half the wave periods. This means that in order to generate an optimized power output, there must be
external control such as phase control and amplitude optimization. (Amir, et al., 2014).

3.8 Passive Tuning

Passive tuning only takes into account the time-averaged conditions of the wave. This removes the
need for active measurement or estimation subsequent waves. The power take-off (PTO) system is set
to a single setting for a sea state. Even though this results in lower efficiency than a well applied active
tuning system (Yavuz H. , Stallard, McCabe, & Aggidis, 2007), this allows for a much simpler device.
This is very desirable during the development stages of wave energy technology.

3.9 Tidal Effects


Tidal deviation is a large problem for the utilization of an existing WEC on a new location. The water
level deviates from the average water level by more than 20 cm. (Tyrberg, Waters, & Leijon, 2010).
The solution presented is by the use of electronic sensors to determine the water level and a mechanical
system was installed to remotely and actively change the elevation of the WEC. (Castellucci,
Abrahamsson, Kamf, & Waters, 2015)

3.10 Mooring
A realistic system for mooring consists of a catenary chain line. There is negligible influence of a
mooring system on the floating wave dynamics and the capture of wave energy. The annual captured
energy is only reduced at most 1% where the point absorber is with an idealized power take off system.
(Cerveira, Fonseca, & Pascoal, 2013)

RRL
P.75 McCormick 2010 and P.112

Notation
General
WEC

Wave energy converter

Power of Waves
P

Power of Waves (w)

Density of seawater with the value of 1.03


2

gravitational constant with the value of 9.81

Hs

Significant wave height (m)

Te

Significant wave period (s)

Wave height (m)

Wave length (m)

SWL

Still water level (m)

Wave velocity or Phase velocity or Celerity

cg

Wave group velocity

Water depth (m)

Wave period ( s )

Wave frequency

m
s

Linear Waves

( 1s )

( ms )

( rad
sec )

Circular wave frequency ( 2 f )

Wave number

H o , o , c o

Properties corresponding to deep water

Horizontal velocity component

Vertical velocity component

Total energy from waves (N)

Ep

Potential energy from waves (N)

Ek

Kinetic energy from waves (N)

Wave power, Energy flux (w)

( ms )

( ms )

x
t?

Nonlinear Waves
MWL

Mean water level

SWL

Still water level

Horizontal velocity component

Vertical velocity component

( ms )

( ms )

Wave number

Circular wave frequency ( 2 f )

Wave height (m)

Wave length (m)

Water depth (m)

Total energy from waves (N)

Wave power, Energy flux (w)

x>?
t?

( rad
sec )

Heaving Bodies
D

Diameter of floating body

Radius of a floating body

Wave length

Arbitrary number

fz

Natural frequency of a floating body

Tz

Natural period of a floating body

Density of seawater with the value of 1.03

Area of water plane

Mass of floating body

mw

Added mass of floating body

depth a floating body is submerged

Hydrostatic restoring moment of a vertical axis cylindrical buoy

Iw

Added-mass moment of inertia of a vertical axis cylindrical buoy

vz

Velocity of the heaving body

d2 z
2
dt

Acceleration of the heaving body

Z 0 sin ( t + z )
2

z
E KZ

Kinetic energy of the mass of the body and added mass of the heaving
system

E PZ

Potential energy of the mass of the body and added mass of the heaving
system

EZ

Total energy of the mass of the body and added mass of the heaving
system

Bouyancy

Statistical Analysis of Measured Waves


N

Total number of samples

Wave height

H ave

Average wave height

Hs

Significant wave height

H rms

H 2
2

( HH ave )

Root-mean square wave heigh

Mean-square wave height

Variance of the wave

P( H j)

Probability density

H mp

Most probable wave height

nT

summation of the occurring wave period i

summation of the occurring wave height j

Highest occurring wave height

Highest occurring wave period

Wave height element number

Wave period element number

nH

Subscript

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1. Appendices