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TRANSLATION

~ Trans/ate the sentences be/ow into your native language .

1.

M y fri e nd s ca n ' t co m e to ni g h t b eca u se th e i r ca r i s in th e ga r age .

2.

Th ese c hildr e n

d i dn 't l ik e t h e f i s h. Th ey l e ft it on th e ir pl a t es .

3.

T h ey l iv e d in r i c h n e i g hb o urh oo d s b e f o r e, bu t n o w t h ey' r e livin g in a s m a ll h ouse in t h e c ountry.

4.

ll a v e n a tur e a nd t a k e l o n g wa l k s in th e w oo d s e v e r y e v e nin g.

5 . Our h os t a nd h os te s s invited m y ni ec e and n e phew t o s p e nd th e w ee k e n d in their s umm e r hou se b y the se a.

6

.

" Wo ul d yo u li k e som e c o f f e e? " " No , thank s . I ' v e j ust had some ."

7 . 1 h ave very l itt l e spare time n o wad a y s .

8 .

H e wa t c h es to o mu c h TV and toa ma n y fi l m s on DVD .

SPOT

THE

ERROR

~ Can y ou c orr ec t th e mi s t a k es?

x

1 . She used t o l i ve in P o l a nd but now s he i s l i v i ng in ~Un i ted St a t es.

2

.

I t took u s ov e r --ª- h o u r to rea c h t h e top of t h e mou n tai n .

3 . Th e l at es t news , . ~

quit e s h oc kin g .

4 . Most wom j! . n ea rn l ess t h a n

m e n doi n g t h e sam e wo r k .

5 . H ow !J lu c h TV p r og r a m mes do you wat c h ev e r y ni g h t?

6 .

I t ' s v e ry stran g e but this c ir c us do e sn ' t have s ~

7 . T hi s i s m y gi rl fr i end h a D o

c 1 owns !

8 . Wh e n

9 .

1 ca n't

Edw a rd saw . ! : J i IDin t h e m i rror , h e de c i ded t h at he n ee d e d a h a ir c ut .

find my Eng l ish book . I s this on e y ours or ~ ?

1 0 . Th e wait e r w h o se rv e d u s wa s e x ce ll e nt

--

a nd we g a v e h e r a larg e tip o

THE IMPERATIVE -

EL IMPERATIVO

THE PRESENT SIMPLE -

EL PRESENTE DE IND I CATIVO

FORMING QUESTlONS -

LA ESTRUCTURA DE LAS PREGUNTAS

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS-

EL PRESENTE CONTINUO

STATIVE VERBS ( NOT USUALLY USED IN THE

CONTINUOUS)

VERBOS QUE NO S U ELEN EMPLEARSE EN LA F

CONT I NUA

-

ORMA

1

THE IMPERATIVE-

EL IMPERATIVO

A FIRMA TI VA: Es la forma base del verbo Go now! Have a nice day.

(el infinitivo sin to)

NEGA TI VA :

Do not

(Don't) + la forma base del verbo

Don't worry.

Do not move!

A

B

C

D

Empleamos el imperativo en afirmativa para dar órdenes, hacer sugerencias y pedir a alguien que haga algo. Yen negativa para expresar una prohibición.

Come here! Have a drink .

H elp me with this big bag!

Don't smoke!

No suele llevar sujeto, pero podemos añadirJo cuando queremos dejar claro a quién nos estamos dirigiendo. [oin us, Peggy.

S i t down , everybody .

Somebody answer that phone! Tom , don't move!

Do se puede colocar delante de la forma afirmativa para dar mayor énfasis al

imperativo. Esto suele ocurrir al expresar peticiones y quejas de forma educada.

D

o s i t down .

D

o t ry and keep quieto

Nota: Cuando el imperativo va seguido de un infinitivo se suele poner entre ambos la conjunción and en lugar de to.

Do try to k ee p quieto

C ome to visi t uso

Do tr y a nd keep quieto

Com e a nd v i sit uso

Do se utiliza incluso con el verbo to be (recuerda que este verbo no lleva el auxiliar do / does en ningún otro tiempo verba/):

1 para la forma negativa del imperativo

D

on't be l ate!

D

o n ' t b e s i l l y!

2 para dar énfasis.

Do b e nice to Aunt C l ara! Do b e here on time!

f

F

A veces empleamos you delante del/mperativo, tanto en afirmativa como en negativa, para indicar que estamos irritedos.

You e a t l

Don't y ou t ry to cheat!

Don't yo u move!

Nota: Al hablar debemos indicar la irritación c on ~I tono z: v o z y ~o~ e r t e l

acento en you. En castellano, la forma negativa se tra uce por ni se ".

ocurra

e

I

I

El imperativo de primera persona del plura! se expresa con let~s (/et us) + la forma base del verbo e indica una sugerenCia o una orden suavizada, pues incluye al hablante.

Let' s stud yl

Let' s fim d a so 1u t 'IOnI.

Let 's revise th e l esson!

La negativa se puede hacer de dos maneras:

J'

r

Let's not s hout! Don't let 's fo llow t h em!

Nota: Aunque las dos formas son correcus, se suele emplear más la primera.

EXERCISE

1

~ Rewrite the following sentences using the imperative formo

1 . Can yo u co m e h e r e , pl ease?

.C;9.'!}.~.h ~ ( ~/. R! ~?~~ :

2 . W o uld yo u ; ¡I s i t d ow n ?

3. C a n 't you ju st be quiet?

4 . You ca n 't b e l a t e for thi s m eetin g ! .

.1

.

.

5 . W o uld you be ki n d e n ough to get me a dri n k of wat e r?

6. I d o n ' t lik e it w h e n yo u t e ll m e wh a t t o do!

7. I ' d lik e to as k you not to smoke n ear t h e bab y.

8 .

I hope you s l eep we ll . Good ni g h t!

.

r=T=====================32

.

.

=================~~==================================~~~3

EXERCISE

2

I ~ Answer the following questions using the words in bracket s and the affirmative or

n egative form of the imperative.

1 . Can I s p e ak En g l i s h h e r e ? Wil! ev e r yo n e und e rsta nd ? (s p ea k )

 

N

o , .r;1.9.'!J .~p

~Hk.~!?glj?hh.

~(~-.,t:!QQQ.r;1.y'.w.W Ufl.r;1.~!.~~?.rH;f

 

.

2. I ' m go in g t o th e p ost o f fice. D o yo u wa nt an y thin g? (get sta mp s)

 
 

V

es ,

• •• •• • • •• • ••• • • • •• •• •••• • ••• • • ••••• • •• • ••• ••• ••• •• •••• •• • • • • • •• • • • ••• • •• • •• • • ••• • ••• •••• ••• •• • • •• • ••••• • •• ••

 

o ••

3. I ' m ma kin g lun c h . W o ul d y ou l i k e to jo in m e? ( m a k e sa ndw i c h )

 
 

Ves ,

•• •• ••• ••• • •••• • •• • • ••• ••• ••••• • •• • ••• •• •••••••••• •• ••• •• ••• • •• • • •• •••••••• •• • • • • • • •• •• • • ••• •• •• • • • •••• • • •• •

 

o o.

4

.

D o y o u w a nt to w a t c h t h i s DVD w i t h

me? ( put o n )

 

Ve s,

• • • ••• • • ••• • • • • ••• • • • •• • ••••••• • • •••••• • ••• •• • • • • •• • ••••••• •• • • • • ••••• • ••••• •• • •• ••• • •••• • • • •••• •• •• • • • • • •••

 

o • •

5

. C a n I o p e n t h e w in d ow ? ( op e n )

 
 

N

o,

:

.

6 . Ca n y o u e x pl ai n i t ag a i n , p l ease? (pay at t e nti o n )

 
 

A

l! ri g h t , b ut

.

7 . W e' r e in a hu r r y . A r e yo u r ea dy? (wa i t )

 
 

N

o, I d o n ' t wa nt to go, so

8 . Wh a t a r e yo u d o in g t o ni g h t? (p h o n e )

 

I do n ' t k n o w

 

.

2 THE PRESENT EL PRES E NTE

- DE I N DICATIVO

SIMPLE

AfiRMATIVA:

sujeto + la forma ba se del verbo

1 work .

S.~!

!.~~

~~:

. ~~~~~ ~ . : ~ . ~~! ~~~~~~~

?

~

:

~ . ~~~~? ~~~~ . ~~~!~ ~. ~?~ ~ ~ .

:~~.

NEGATIVA:

sujeto + do not (don't) + la forma ba se del verbo

1 do not work .

Su .1 'eto + does not (doesn't) + la forma base del verbo (la pers. sing.) He doesn' t work . .

INTERROGATIVA:

Do

+ sujeto + la forma ba s e del verbo

Do th e y work?

Does + sujeto + la forma base del verbo (l a persona singular)

Does it work ?

~ El Present Simple (Presente de Indicativo) se emplea en los siguientes casos:

.

A

Para expresar verdades o hechos generales. Water boils at 100 degrees.

B

Para expresar hábitos o costumbres. Suele ir acompañado de expresiones que indican con qué frecuencia ocurre la acción, como every day, always, usual/y, frequently, never, etc. She walks t o s chool every day .

C

Para referimos a horarios o programas. The train leaves in an hour.

D

Para contar chistes, historias, cuentos, acontecimientos deportivos, etc. Two p e opl e walk into a restaurant. One of them says to the waiter Henry kicks the ball ! It's a goal!

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO Y ADVERBIOS DE fRECUENCIA l orinci

A

. , (dd l \ ~o

Las siguientes expresiones temporales pueden ir a principio o a ttn e

1

' "

I d

1

e a

frase: every day, ach ye r, once a week, daily, at, on + un día de la

semana en plura , regularly, ~,

in the evening, etc.

O n Fridays, 1 go swimming. CI - \WJ\MQ¡1 eat, ,\~efruit.

at night.

B En cambio,~adverbiOS de frecuencia como always, often, sometime s , rarely, sildo 1 usual/y, generally, occasional/y, never, etc., se colocan delante del é rbo principal y siempre después del verbo to be.

H e alw ys walks to work .

1 am never lat e for s chool .

=~~==~=====================================,~======~~==~~,~-

I

34 ,

=====================================r

35

r RE ~ S

ORTOGRÁFICAS

Para formar la tercera persona del singular se añade una s a la forma base del verbo, pero en algunos casos hay que hacer algunas modificaciones.

1

Los verbos que acaban en S o en un sonido parecido como sh, ch o x añaden es.

miss - e s- misses dash ~ d ashes

wa tch =e- watches mix = - e- m ixes

2

Los verbos que terminan en O también añaden es.

 

do ~

do e s

g o ~

go e s

3

Los que acaban en y precedida de consonante cambian la y por una i y añaden es.

try ~

tr i es

f l y ~

flies

4

Los que terminan en y precedida de vocal, siguen la regla general y añaden s.

s

a y ~

says

enjoy ~

EXERCISE

3

enjoys

~ Ma tch the following sentences with the u s e s in the Grammar box on p a ge 3 5.

1. Th e bus l eaves in h a lf a n h o u r .

~

.

2

.

" Smith hit s th e b a l l o ve r th e n e t . C a m e ! "

.

3

.

I r e ad a book every w e ek

.

4

.

The earth mov es ar o und th e s un

.

5.

Ju l ia dri ves a s p o r ts ca r o

.

EXERCISE

4

~ U s e the correct form of a verb from the li s t below t o c omplete each s entence . I meet T have T be T change T take T drive T score T begin

I

l

I

I

1

I

1 . Th ey a l ways

t . ~ ~ ~

th e bu s to wo rk .

-

"

2. N o wad ays th e r e

m o r e ca r s on th e road s th a n eve r b e fore .

3. The man age rs of th e c omp a ny

r e gu l ar l y .

4 .

5 . Al a n

6

Ev e ry y ea r th e w ea th e r

" [ o h

n so n

.• .1:

<:; e

\

' :

in N o v e mb e r .

a t r ac t o r o n th e fa rm .

h

hit

t r ee p o rnts In t e as s ec o n .

di "

.

7.

Th e show

~O· ~

a t 8 . 3 0 pm .

8. Th e Unit e d St a t es o f Am e ri ca

JL u:

5 0 s t a t es .

EXERCISE

S

.

Fill,"

th e bl a n ks with the Present S i m pl e fo rm of t h e v erbs i n brackets .

S

~ h e n eve r

1.

'

2.

.

.

v

i s i ts

(

V

.

I S l t u s o n

- )

S

u n d ays .

(y o u / a l w a y s tr a v e l) t o w ork

by tr a in ?

3. T h e m oo n

:

( r tw l v e )

a r o und t h e e a rth.

4 .

5.

.

'

( h e / pho n e) yo u ev e r y we e k ?

Every w í . n ter . m y f a a mil mi y

.

(go) t o C h a m o ni x for a w eek .

6 Th e pla n e

.

'

(no t l eav e ) until midnight .

7 Water

.

~

" '

( not b o il ) a t 9 0 ° ce nti g r a d e .

8.

9.

10 .

S h ei l a

( prac tis e) t h e pi a no t w i ce a day .

I ' ve

got a j o k e : The r e

;

( b e f a m a n w h o

Th e

sc h ool year a lw ay s

v: . : ~

· (be gin) in S e pte mbe r.

EXERCISE

6

(

go) .

~ Put the wo rds in the co rrect order to form sentence s . Mak e any nece ss ary chan ges.

1 . t h ey / at night / n o t trav e l / l o ng di stan ces / u s u a lly

.

T.0.EtY.

.9P.'! J !--!?ll?lcUY ~( ?l c , ( ~!. ~

2 . a t ni g h t / se l dom / go out / they

_

r

~W! . f ) . C;?~~~ )jgh~ ·

f

(

't

·· ··· · · ·· · ·· ··

 

~

 

.

.

3 . so m etim es / f o r get / y ou / to l oc k the doo r?

 

~

 

.

4 . ea t / my n e i g h bours / m e at / never

 

5.

o n tim e / b e / in the m o rning / we / g e n e r al l y

 
 

.

.

6

. p r ob l e m s

/ di sc u s s / h e / o ft e n / wi t h m e

 
 

.

.

7.

s h o p / u s u a ll y / s h e / at t h e s h o ppin g ce n t r e ?

 

.

.

8 . a ny m o r e / n e v e r / I / a bro a d

/ go '

~~ 1 ==================== = ========== = ~ ~ = =~~~~~~~~~~~~ = ====T 3 ~ 7

36

3

FORMING

LA ESTRUCTURA

QUESTIONS -

DE LAS PREGUNTAS

PREGUNTAS DEL TIPO YES/ NO

A

En Present Simple e s te tipo de preguntas comienzan con el auxiliar do / does (para la 3 a persona del singular), luego el sujeto y después la forma base del verbo, siempre sin to .

Do

1 dance?

Does he dance?

Do you dance?

 

Does she dance?

Do we dance?

Does it dance?

Do they dance?

 

B

Estas preguntas se pueden contestar de las siguientes . formas:

Yes,

1 do. / No, 1 don't.

 

Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't.

 

P

R EGUNTAS CON PARTÍCULAS INTERROGATIVAS ( WH-QUESTlONS )

A

Las partículas interrogativas más frecuentes son:

 

Who

Which

How many / much

What

Whose

How often

When

What

kind

How long

Where

What

time

How far

Why

How

How

fast / big / small / heavy

B

En Present Simple , estas preguntas se forman igual que las de respuesta Yes / No , pero poniendo delante una partícula interrogativa .

Do you live in Salamanca?

(pregunta del tipo Yes / N o)

Where do you live? (pregunta con partícula interrogativa)

Does she like ice cream? (pregunta del tipo Yes / No )

What does she like? (pregunta con partícula interrogativa)

C

Cuando preguntamos sobre el sujeto de la frase, empleamos who (para personas) y what (para animales o cosas) seguidos de un verbo en tercera persona del singular . Sin embargo , en la respuesta el verbo puede ir en singular o en plural .

Who goes home at three o'dock?

What makes a loud noise?

Tina goes ha me at three o'clock .

The pupils

A siren makes a loud noise.

Drums

go home at three o'clock ,

make a loud noise.

EXERCISE

~ A·

Un er I

d

[in e the verb / s in each sentence.

.

~.

B c omplet e the questlO ns .

7

1 . D on ~

W y

h

ea rl y b eca us e

h e ~

do es Don get up early?

2 .

Sh e d rin ks mi l k eve r y d ay .

Wh at

:

3. W e h av e br ea kf as t a t 7 . 00 a m o

:

Wh at t i me

.

w o rk e : r l y .

,

4 . Th e c hildr e n p l a y in th e g ard e n eve r y af t e rn oo n .

5.

Wh o

D av i d s e l l s 5 00 n ews p a p e r s

H

ow m a n y

:

a d ay.

~

6 . Th e bu s s t o p s on O x ford Str ee t .

Wh ere

7. S h e sh o p s in t h e c i t y o n c e a m o nth .

H ow oft e n

8. My littl e broth e r a l w ays l a u g h s wh e n h e wa t c h es ca r too n s o n T V .

W h o

9. M y fa the r l i s te n s t o t h e n ews e v e r y e v e nin g .

1 0 .

Ho w ofte n

Th e tra in s sto p a t Kin g' s C r os s S ta t i o n .

Wh e r e

~~T=~~~============================================~==~~:~~~=====================================================

~

EXERCISE

B

~ Ann a w a n ts to take driv in g le ss on s . F i l l i n her mother 's qu est i o n s .

An n a

:

M u m , I wa n t to ta k e d r i v in g l esso n s.

 

M

o t h e r : ( 1 )

YYhy.

.c!.C!. Y.C?!!

~? r: . ~. ~C ? t . ~k~ : v : ~r :g . ! ~ . ~~~0.~? .

cjrj

.

 

A n n a

:

B ec a u se I ' m

1 7 yea r s o l d .

 

M o th e r :

(2)

 

;

.

An n a:

V es , I 've g ot

m o n ey t o p ay f o r t h e less o n s.

 

M o t h e r : (3 )

 

.

A nna:

V e s , ot h e r st u d e n t s t a k e l ess o n s a fte r s c hoo l .

 

M ot h e r : ( 4 )

 

:

.

Ann a:

Th ey d o t h e i r h o m e wo rk a t n i g ht .

 

M o th e r :

(5)

 

.

A nna:

T

h ey dr i ve t h e f a m il y c aro

 
 

EXERCI S E

9

~ Ask Wh-qu est ion s abo u t t h e und er lin ed wo rd s in eac h se n tence .

 

1 . Th e TV se ri es ab o u t t h e B e at l es b e g in s in a few d a ys .

.w.~.E!!1 9.~ ?. ~ ~ . ~

q

~~(~~?! Y

.

.é!R9~~~J:. ¡g

l?.E!?.~I.~? Q.E!gin

?

 

2

.

S h e h urri es to th e o ff i ce ev er y

m or ni ng .

 

3.

T h e Th o mp so n s t r a ve l to Ni ce e ve r y s pr i n g.

4

.

D a n s e l d o m l i s t e n s t o t h e r adi o .

5 . At 10 . 00

a m w e a l w a y s ta k e

a br ea k .

6 . Th e t r a i n ~ ~ · ~ ~~ · ~ · ; ~ ~ · ~~~·· i · ~· ~ ; ~ ~·· ~ · i·~ · ~~ ~~·.··········· ·

 

.

4

THE PR ESENT CONTINU O US-

EL P RESENTE CONTINUO

== =-=~========================~==================~

AfiRMATIVA:

. sujeto + am / is / are + forma mg del verbo prmClpal

.

.

1 a m workin g.

S h e is workin g.

W e are workin g .

NEGATIVA:

sujeto + am / is / are not + forma ing del v erbo principal

INTERROGATIVA:

Am / I s / Are + sujeto + forma ing del verbo prin c ipal

1 am not workin g .

H

e is not workin g .

Y

o u are not workin g .

Am 1 working ?

Is it working ?

A r e th ey workin g?

E l Pr esent Con t i nuous (Presente Continuo) se u s a en los siguientes casos:

A

Para a cc i ones incompletas que están ocurriendo en el momento de hablar . En

estos casos suele ir acompañado de e x presiones como now , at the moment ,

ri g h t no w .

T h ey are tal k in g a b o u t i t right now .

B

Par a a ccione s prolon g ada s que empezaron hace algún tiempo y todavía est á n

en pro ceso .

I' m redeco ratin g my r oom.

C

Par a acciones pro g ramadas que o c urrirán en un futuro próximo. En e s t e caso

suel e ir acompañ a do de e x presione s de tiempo futuro.

I'm meetin g Ba rb ara tonight .

D

Par a accione s qu e se r e piten

regularment e y qu e s uelen tener un s entido de

qu e j a o mo n otonía .

Sh e i s a l ways lo s in g h e r keys.

N ota:

Cuando se modific a l a rutina o se r o mp e un hábit o , cambi a mo s e l

Present simple por el Present Continuous .

W e us u a l ly have dinner a t h o m . e, but tod ay we 'r e eating ou t .

RE GLAS ORTOGRÁFICA S PARA AÑADIR ING A LOS VERBOS

1

2

Lo s verb os qu e ac ab a n e n e muda , l a pi e rd e n a l a ñ a dir ing .

ride ~

ridi n g

b ake ~

b ak in g

L os qu e aca b a n e n ie , ca m b i a n esta s l et r a s por u na y, añadie n do de s pué s ing .

d

i e ~

dyi n g

l í e ~

ly in g

r~~4~nr=====::====================================~~~========================================== ~:==G:

3 Si es un verbo de una sílaba, acabado en vocal + consonante, dobla esa consonante antes de añadir ing.

r

un - . -

ru n nin g

s it - . -

si ttin g

4 Si es de dos sílabas y la última es acentuada, también dobla la consonante final.

refer - . -

r efe rring

b e gin - . -

b eg i n ning

5 Los verbos que acaban en 1, siempre doblan esta letra antes de añadir ing.

tra ve l - . -

tra ve lling

ESTRUCTURA DE LAS PREGUNTAS

c a n ce l - . -

canc e lling

1 Para formar las preguntas del tipo Yes / No en Present Continuous ponemos el verbo auxiliar (am / is / are) delante del sujeto.

You are working hard .

Are y ou working hard ?

2 Para formar las preguntas con partícula interrogativa. anteponemos la partícula a la pregunta Yes / No .

Why are y ou working

h

a rd?

3 Si queremos

preguntar sobre el sujeto de la oración empleamos who (para

personas) y what (para animales y cosas) seguidos de la forma is del verbo to be.

Who is eating

now?

What is happening today?

~

EXERCISE

1

1

fill in t h e

1 . Rl . ta

b

l

a n s WI ith the Pre se n t Continuou s f orm o f t h e v e rb s in br ac k ets.

k

.

; s rest;ng

( r e s t ) on t h e s o f a . S h e ' s tire d .

.

 

R

od n ey

2.

3.

.

.

4

.

5

.

.

.

 

D

a v e

6 .

7.

W

e

8.

Ti

n a

( w r it e) a n o th e r r e p o rto

(t h e [ o hn so n s / go) to I t a l y t hi s year ?

(

s h e / c o m e) h o m e l at e

(

it / s n ow ) n ow?

ton i g h t ?

(a l w ays l e nd ) m o n e y t o hi s f ri e nd s.

( n o t en j o y) th i s co n c ert ,

so l et's go h ome .

( s e w ) a d r ess fo r h erse l f.

1

9 .

0 .

. (yo u / do) a n y th i n g a t t h e , m , o m e n t?

Mrs jon es i sn ' t her e tod ay . S h e

( not fee l ) w e ll .

EXERCISE

12

~ Ask Wh-que s tions about the underlined words in each sentence.

1 . Th e t rain i s a rr i v in g in t e n minutes.

YY./:I.~!!!.~.~h~Y?J!!. ?:~~!y!!!g?

.

EXERCISE

10

l ~ M a tch the following sentences with the uses in the

G rammar box on page 41.

1 . M y st e r eo u s u a l l y w o rk s , bu t it i s n't w o r k in g n o w .

A

2.

S

h e ll y i s li v in g in P a ri s

.

3.

T

a k e

yo ur s e a t s, p l e ase! Th e s h ow is sta r t ing .

4 .

Th e y are b u i l di n g a n e w par k in our

 

n

eig h bo urh ood

.

2 . S hirl e y i s a l ways br e a kin g h er g l ass e s .

l

······························································

3 . Th e pu p ils a r e takin g t h e E n glis h test r i g h t n ow.

.

4 Th e s h op i s c los in g e ar i y to d a y be ca use of t h e h o li day .

.

.

;

5 E lle n a nd S h e il a ar e w o rk i n g

.

o

n t h e i r p r oj ec t .

6 . j a m es is pl a nnin g t o go to Ba r ce l o n a.

.

.

5 .

Hi s c ous in s a r e ar ri v in g next

w e e k.

.

 

7

.

Mrs L ee i s l ea rni n g t o dri ve

a bus .

6 .

Wh at a r e we doin g t o m o rr ow

m o rnin g?

.

7 . Sh e i s a l ways doi n g h o u sework

.

8 .

.

M y l i ttl e s i ste r is s t a rtin g sc h oo l in t h e a u t umn .

.

.

~==~= 8 = . == W == h = e = r e = a = r = e = y = 0 = u == l iv = i = =n

==g"==n"==0"=

=w"==? "= .=="="================================~d~~~====~".~~." ~~.~ ~.~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~.~ ~ ~.~ ~

~~.~' ~

~

~

~

~

~

~

~

~

~

~.~

~ ~ ~ ~

~

~ . ' ~ " ~ " ~ " ~ " ~ " = " = " = " = " = " = " = " = " = " = " = "

EXERCISE

~ A wom a n fi nd s a little b o y cryin g in a s hoppin g

13

ce n tre. Fill in he r qu es tions.

W

o m a n :

( 1 )

Why

é!r~.y'Q.l!.r::~yi!!gf.

.

Li tt l e

b oy:

I a m c r y in g be c a u s e I d o n ' t kn ow wh e r e m y m o th e r i s .

W

o m a n:

(2 )

.

Littl e

b oy :

Sh e i s wearin g a r e d dr ess.

W

o m a n :

(3)

.

Li tt l e b oy:

M y br o th e r a nd s i ste r a r e wi t h h e r .

W

o man :

(4)

.

Littl e bo y:

Th ey a r e l o okin g f or n ew s h oes.

Wom a n :

( 5 )

.

Littl e bo y:

Woman:

V es, th ey a r e l oo kin g for c hildr e n ' s

s ho es.

G oo d ! N ow I kn o w wh e r e t o fin d t h e m . C o m e w i t h m e !

5 STATIVE VERBS (NOT USUALLY USED IN THE CONTINUOUS) VERBOS QUE NO SUELEN EMPLEARSE EN LA FORMA CONTINUA

A Algunos verbos no se usan en forma continua . Son aquellos que expresan:

Sentidos / Percep ción:

,

feel

hear

see

smell

sound

taste

touch

Pensamientos / Actividad mental:

 

appear

 

doubt

imagine

realise

think

believe

forge t

know

remember

understand

consider

guess

mean

seem

depend

hope

preíer

suppose

Emociones :

 

d

islike

fear

hate

like

love

need

want

wish

Relaciones / Posesión:

belong to

have

owe

own

possess

Precio s / Medidas :

 

cost

equal

measure

weigh

~

I understand

the problem now.

This house belongs

to my parents.

)

- -

d

8 En ocasiones, algunos e estos ver

usarse en la forma continua.

has tienen más de un significado y pueden

1 see you ar~ , t h ire ~ ~ ~:· se

(a

unqu e sea a o r

,

pu e d e p o n e r e n f o rm a c o ntinu a)

~e~:;!~~~n~;,:~:;"ereen orse" pu e de p o n e r e n l a formeaon l ;nu a) J

l'm seeing the doctor tomorro~

' .

t e ng o un a c it a , vo y a vi s it a r al médico)

(

She' s thinking

of selling h~r car . "

'

( c uando think s i g nifi ca " co n s Id e rar I S I se pu e d e)

~==---===::

EXERCISE

/

14

.

;:;;¡;:;;=;:;:;;;;;¡

~ FiII in the blanks with the corred form of the verbs m brackets.

1.

2.

3.

The y

~!g .

( think ) o f se llin g th ei r h o u se .

Sh

without s u ga r .

e

( pr e f e r ) h e r co ff ee

I

Ple ase a n swe r t h e phone !

( ha ve ) a s h ow e r n o w .

4.

W

5. Sar a h

h a t

( this wo rd / m ea n )?

(see) t h e d e nti st at

four o'c l oc k o n W e dne s d ay .

6. Ho w m a n y ro o m s

7.

( this h o u se / h ave)?

I

.

k t

. ( n o t b e li e v e) h o w mu c h t 15 J ac e

(c

k

o s t)!

8. e d o c to r says th at h e

Th

( d o ub t) t h a t y ou will n e e d t o t a e

9

.

10

.

m e di c in e.

I

I

' m so rry but I

( w a nt ) t o l eave n ow . Plea s e ta k e m e h o m e .

( n o t r e m e mb e r ) yo ur n a m e.

~ = ===================~ :::::

J.

~~-----------

l

:::::~===========================================================r4~5~==,

46

EXERCISE

15

~ F iII in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

Note that in some

sentences

you may be able to use both Present Simple and Pre s ent Continuou s.

1.

How many cars

9.9.~?.f;.\.9YY.'7

(own)?

2.

H o l d o n a seco n d , Ma r y . I wa n t to t urn o f f t h e gas ; t h e wate r (boi / ) over .

.

3.

N ow I

( r ea li se) th at I m ade a mi sta k e .

4.

El ephants

( / ive) to be

abo u t as o l d as hum a n s .

5 . Ou r En g li s h teac h er

6 . H e co un t r y soo n .

( n ot b e li eve) in g i v i ng tes ts , on l y proje c t s .

( /i ve) in tow n n ow, b u t h e

( m ove) to t h e

~

EXERCISE

16

f''' rn the bl

I

.

f110r e

a n ks with time expressions

b

from the list . Some ~ime expres~ions

can fit

rhan one sentence,

u ma k e sure that you

t

use each time e xpre s s IOn only onc e .

w

e h

a

i

ll year roun

d • . from now on •. today •. at 4.00 pm on Wednesday

'

f

t

b

n t h e l ate a ernoon

•. t morrow • . at the moment • . next Monday

t

I

n e v e r she has the ear

• .

ever

t ((~

r summer •. right , nbw • . when the season ' I ehanges

I

<:IJV);

7.

D an wo n 't be i n t h e

8.

M y boss office .

9.

How

10.

I ca n te ll by t h e l ook ri g ht n o w.

off i ce n ext Tu esday; h e

(ta k e) t h e day off .

(a l ways c ompl a in ) a b o u t th e amo u nt of ta l k in g in th e

(yo u / f ee l ) a b o ut yo ur n ew sc h oo l ?

o n yo ur face th at yo u

( thin k) abo u t Jill

o

11 . Speak u p! S h e

( n o t h ear ) very we ll .

12 . Mrs I o n es, yo ur so n i s a c l e v e r b oy but h e

c

l ass.

(a l ways ta lk ) in

1 3 .

I

(s p e ll ) h er na m e wi th a "C" , n ot w i t h a " K".

( think ) yo u

( b e) wr o n g . S h e

1 4 . I ' m n ot

s ur e abo u t t h e t rip . I t

( d e p e nd ) o n th e w ea th e r .

1 5 . J en n y a n d h e r gra ndm ot h e r are ve r y c l ase. Th ey a n o th er at l east o n ce a d ay.

( p h o n e ) o n e

 

1 . Gi n a st a rts to s n eeze when th e s ea s on c ha0g. ~ ? :

.

2 . S h e ' s h av in g a bat h a n d s h e

can' t co m e to the phone

.

3. I e n jo y g oin g for wa l k s

.

4. Sh e g oes for a d ri ve

.

.

 

5 . In thi s co un try , we u s u a l l y h ave a p p l es

.

6.

You ' r e goin g t o th e d e n t i st

.

7 . Th e e l ect ri cia n i s co mi ng to fix t h e p lu g

,

50 y o u ' lI h ave to

wa it until h e co m es .

8 . Sh e l oo k s h ap pi.e r

. t h a n s h e di d yes t e r day .

9. loann a .15 r es tm. g

, bu t I ' m s u re s h e' lI get up soo n .

10 . H e's go in g to swi m 20 l e n gt h s a d ay

.

11 . D a ni e l a n d I a r e sta rtin g t o do o u r pr ojec t

.

12 . P eop l e from a l l over t h e wor l d vis i t Greece

.

47

EXERCISE

17

~ FiII in the blanks with the Present Simple or Present Continuous form of the verb s in brackets.

1

.

2.

A Are your brothers tekine

.

9

B . N o , they

(

your

b

r ot h e r s / tak e) k a r a t e l ess o n s t hi . s yea r ?

( n ot b e). M a r t i n (s tud y) photograp h y wh il e [ a m es ( pref e r ) footba l l .

A . Ma r k h as n ' t b ee n p l a y i n g f o otba ll v e ry we ll l at e l y. W h a t ( he / us u a ll y do ) e v e ry a fte r n oo n ?

B

. H e

( watc h ) T V a n d

.

3

. A . W h y

b e p l ay i n g b as k e tb a l l?

B. W e ll , h i s coac h

4.

A . H ow o ft e n

B . We

A .

h e lp you .

( r i de ) h i s b i ke , ( t a l k ) o n t h e ph o n e . H e

.

( n ot h ave) mu c h t im e fo r foo t b a ll .

( D ave / s i t) in t h e c o rn e r w h e n h e s h o u l d

( p u ni s h ) hi m b e ca u se h e ( n o t k n o w) t h e r u l es o f t h e ga m e .

(yo u / pa i n t) yo ur h o u se?

( u s u a ll y p a i n t) i t e v e r y two yea r s , bu t th at

( dep e n d) o n h ow d i rty

th e wa l l s are.

(y ou / p l an) to p a in t it soo n ? I f 50 , I ' d li ke to

5 . A .

 

(s h e / w r ite ) a l e tte r to D av id o r to E v a?

 

B.

Oh , I ' m sure s h e Sh e

( not write) a l e tte r to David . ( never wr i t e) to b oys.

6.

A .

(y ou / u n derstand ) t h e di ffe r e n c e betwee n

P r ese n t S im p l e a n d P r ese n t C o nti n uo u s?

B

. Not yet , b u t I

( t r y ) v e r y h ard .

7 . A . W h a t t im e

( L i n da / I e av e ) t h e of fi ce eve r y ni g h t ?

B. W e ll , s h e's r ea l l y s e r i o u s a bo u t h e r j ob ; s h e

l

e av e ) unt i l abo u t 7 . 00 p m .

( n o t

8 . A . W h a t

( h a v e) t h re e h ea d s a nd

(be) p urp l e,

.

(s p ea k) E n g l i s h and

 

H

u n ga ri a n ?

B

.

I

( n o t kn o w ) a nd I ce rta inl y ( n ot wa nt ) t o f i nd o u t!

10.

A

( J o h n I l ea v e ) f o r I n d i a

B . w e ll . h e h as hi s p a s s por t, but h e ti c k e t y e t.

A

( s h e / t a k e ) l e m o n a n d

tom o rr ow e v e ning?

( n ot h a v e ) h i s

s u gar i n h e r t ea?

B

W e ll s h e

(t a k e) s u g ar, but s h e

 

.

:

( n ot t a k e) l e m on. Sh e

 

.

( p r e f e r ) m i l k i f t h e r e i s a n y .

EXERCISE

1 B

Complete the following sentences. They contrast the Present Simple and Pre s ent

continuo us .

1.

M y dog h a rdl y ever b a rk s .

Th

a t s , f u nn y

It's barking

n g

.

h t

n ow.

2 . Ar e y o u goi n g o u t f or l unc h t o d ay?

Yes ,

o n ce a w eek .

3 . Ar e yo u I yi n g t o

m e?

Of co ur se n o t ! :

n ev e r

.

4.

Sh e ' s a n excel l e n t c ook . S h e a l ways m a k es t h e mos t deli c ious m eal s.

I

kn ow! S h e

a c h eese s ouff lé ri g ht now.

5.

D

oes yo u r b r o t h e r w a t c h TV ?

Y

es , in fact

ri g h t n ow.

6.

15 Mary drinking b eer ? I ca n ' t beJ ie v e m y eyes .

Yes , in fact

a w eek .

7.

15 A n dr ew a l wa ys m a k i ng a m ess?

O

h yes,

al l t h e t i m e.

8

. I do n ' t o f te n d i s t u rb y o u , do I ?

9 .

1 0.

W

e l l ,

ri g h t in t h e

m i ddl e of my f a vo u rit e p rog r a mm e .

1 ' m w a t c h i n g t h e s uns e t n ow . I sn 't i t b e a u tif ul ?

y

es , rt 1 5 .

I

.

D o yo u r e ad boo k s in E n g l i s h?

Ye s , i n f ac t I

e v e r y e v e n l . n g.

a n ovel by P a tri c i a Co rnwe ll ri g h t n ow.

====r====================================~¿~~====================================~=9

48

49

TRANSLATION

~ Tr a n s l a t e th e s ent e nce s below into your native lan g uage .

1. I l isten

to t h e radio eve r y ni g h t .

2 . Ma n y h ouses h ave got red r oofs .

3. Do yo u e n joy

pi c ni cs i n t h e s umm e r ?

4 .

S h e is n 't a n a c tress .

5. Th e bu ses n eve r co m e o n t im e.

6. How m u c h do you weig h ?

7 . W e s e ld o m

b a k e o ur own br ea d .

8 . M r Ca rl son ' s yo u r fat h e r , i s n 't h e?

SPOT

THE

~ Can you correct the mistakes?

1 .

I a m u s u a ll y co min g to s c h oo l b y bu s .

2 . S h e does her h omework n ow .

3. M y f ri e n ds co m e t o ni g h t

~

at 8.0 0 .

4 . W h o t h is book be l o n sto?

5.

W e~

a r e l a t e.

6 . Th i s box is we i g hin g t hr ee kilos .

_

_ ~~

50

7 . Wh a! : . yo u thin k?

8

. W h at a r e yo u m e a ni n.g?

ERROR"

EXERCISE

1

Choo s e th e correc t an s w e r .

Sara h a d bee n work i ng ve r y h a r d. He r f r i e nds tol d h er s h e s h o ul d tak e

me) qui et ho li day by ( 2 h er, h er own, ~ f ,

h ers ). So S a r a took h e r

(1 ª' an, the ,

~~f ri e nd s' , fri e nd 's , fri e n ds , f ri e nd) adv i ce and began to make (4 h e r se l f , t h e , any ,

~ pl a n s. S h e w e n t to

trave l l e r s' age n cy ) to arr a n ge h er h o lid ay . S h e as k ed t h e agent to give h er (6 an,

a rew. m u c h , any ) i deas about p l aces

~

holiday .

" Would

popular th a n (8 so m ew h e r e , n o wh e r e , ever yw h e r e , ~

you lik e t o go to P a ri s o r L o n don ? Fl ig h ts t o Pa r is a nd L o n don are m ore

(5 ~~I's age n cy , tr a v e l age n cy , t r a v e lling age n cy ,

the

to go for a (7 week , weeks ' , week l y , ~ )

e l se," h e said.

Sara replied , "(9 Eith e r , Or , N e i t h e r , B oth ) P a r is n o r L o ndo n a ppeal s to m e. Have

you got (10 so m e , ~ ,

a few , ~ the r ) f li g h ts t o t h e G r eek i s l and s?"

EXERCISE

2

~ Comple te the sentences using a noun form of the underlined words. 00 not change the meaning of the original sentence.

~ ~

1. [im and

hi s p a r ents r e l a t e w e ll to eac h oth e r .

[irn and hi s parents h ave a good

.

2.

Mrs

C a m e r o n i s a terr ific

tea c h er. I adm ire h er very m ucho

Mrs

C a m e r ó n i s a terri f i c

tea c h e r.

I h a v e a l o t of

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Mary

Sm i t h p l a n s to be a j o urn a l ist

one day .

Mary

Sm it h i s p lann in g a ca r eer i n

.

As a child , I was ve r y h ap, p y.

I had a ve r y happy

.

H e r eyes were ve r y sa d w h e n I l ast saw h er.

La st tim e I sa w h e r , s h e

h

a d a l ook o f g r eat

W e'II assist y ou i n

W

every way possib l e .

.

'

I I

e

g l . ve yo u every

.

D

a nn y is rea ll y e nj oying

hi s n ew co m puter.

D

a nn y

is gett i ng gre a t

from his n e w

comput e r .

Our d octo r is a l ways ve r y se n sit i ve.

O

ur do c to r a l ways s h ows g r eat

.

for her .

~ 51

EXERCISE

3

FiII in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in brackets.

1

2

.

. My si s t e r in a n hour , s o I

"

(fly) hom e tod a y . H e r f l i g ht

(a rrive)

( l eave) th e h o u s e now t o m ee t h e r at th e a i rpOr

(y ou / l ik e) S a ll y's br o th e r? "

"Y e s , Ido. I (see) him thi s wee k e nd. "

(

think) h e' s fantast i c . Actua ll y, I

.

3.

"

( y ou / app l y) f o r the job of o ffi c e m a na ge r? "

 

"

Y e s , I am. "

"

Pl ease hav e a s e a t . Mr Lynd o n

( sp e ak ) o n the

ph o n e at th e

m o m e nt . 1'11 c a l l you wh e n he's av a i l a b l e."

4 Di a n a

.

( pr ac ti se) th e pi a no r eg ularl y . She

(p l aX

in a c on ce rt n ex t we e k , so s h e

( work ) es p ec i a lly hard n o w .

5 Ia c k wa s supposed to b e h e re a n

.

hour a g o . I

( not wa i t ) for h im

a n y l o n ger! I

( n o t w an t) to mi ss th e b e ginn i n g of th e film .

EXERCISE

4

~ Complete the passage with a suitable question or imperative form of a verb belo w. You can use the verbs more than once.

52

want T meet T be T have T go T start

to th e m a tch o n S at urda y?

Bill :

Fr e d : Of co ur se I am o I nev e r mi ss a g ame .

Hi, Fr e d . ( 1 )

Bill :

(2)

a t i c k et?

Fr e d : V es, I h ave. I b o u g ht i t l as t wee k .

B

i ll:

Wh a t tim e (3 )

?

Fr e d : Thr ee o' d ock, I s upp ose. A II t h e

Bill :

m a t c h es s t a rt a t 3.

Wh o (4)

w ith ?

Fr e d : Mik e

D a l y . W e a lw ays go toge th e r . Wh a t a b o u t yo u ?

Bill :

I ' m go in g wi t h St u ar t . (5)

t o m eet fo r dinn e r a fte r th e ga m e?

Fr ed: Th at so un ds li ke a g r eat i dea. (6)

Bi l l:

at t h e n ew p izza p l ace .

N o. (7)

t h ere! I t's a l ways c r owded. Wh at abo u t B u rger Pa l a c e ?

Fr e d : Fin e w i t h m e. See yo u th e r e afte r t h e m atc h . A n d (8)

l ate!

THE PAST SIMPLE - EL PRETÉRITO PERFECTO SIMPLE

THE PAST CONTlNUOUS- EL PASADO CONTINUO

CONTRAST PAST SIMPLE / PAST CONTINUOUS- CONTRASTE PRETÉRITO PERFECTO SIMPLE Y PASADO CONTINUO

USED TO / WOULD