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Class

Cestoidea
Parasitic organisms
Hermaphroditic (both sexes)
Scolex are provided with suckers
No digestive tract in most species

Two important orders of Class Cestodea


Order Pseudophillidea

Scolex is unarmed
Scolex is spatulate

Order Cyclophillidea

Scolex with 4 suckers and


usually a centrally placed apical
rostellum
Armed with hooks
Scolex is quadrate

Adult Tapeworm Parts


Has three parts mainly: scolex, neck, strobila
Length varies from 3mm to 10meters or more and the number
of proglottids ranges from 3 to 4,000
Gravid proglottids are located in the distal portion of the scolex
Proglottids maybe described as craspedote, acraspedote,
apolytic and anapolytic.

Craspedote posterior border of proglottids overlaps the


anterior border of adjoining proglottid
Acraspedote posterior and anterior border of proglottids
do not overlap
Apolytic premature detachment of proglottids that follows
the release of eggs
Anapolytic proglottids are not shed from the strobila and
eggs are released in other ways

Larvae of Tapeworms
Solid Type

Procercoid This larva is


relatively globular with the
scolex invaginated into the body
of the larva
Plerocercoid/sparganum larva
This larva is elongated wth head
free or invaginated only to the
neck

Cystic Type

Cysticercoid This larva is


provided with a slightly
developed bladder anteriorly
Cysticercus head is
invaginated into the proximal
portion of the bladder

procercoid

Procercoid This larva is relatively globular


with the scolex invaginated into the body of
the larva

plerocercoid
Plerocercoid/sparganum larva This larva is
elongated wth head free or invaginated only to
the neck

cysticercoid

This larva is provided with a slightly developed


bladder anteriorly

Cysticercus head is invaginated into the proximal portion


of the bladder

Medically important species of tapeworms


Pseudophillidea

Diphyllobothrium latum

Cyclophillidea

Taenia solium
Taenia saginata
Dipyllidium caninum
Hymenolepis diminuta
Raillietina garrisoni
Hymenolepis nana
Echinococcus granulosus
Echinococcus multilocularis
Spirometra mansoni

Diphyllobothrium latum

Common name: Broad or Fish tapeworm


Disease: Diphyllobothriasis, bothriocephaliasis, Dibothriocephalus
anemia, fish tapeworm infection
Longest tapeworm of human measuring 3 to 10 meters in length
3,000 to 4,000 proglottids
Usual habitat of the worm is ileum and sometimes the jejunum.
Scolex is small measuring 2 to 4 mm in length by 10 to 12 mm in width
Scolex is spatulate or almond shape with 2 dorsoventral sucking
grooves.

Eggs
broadly ovoid with (not clearly visible) operculum (small
covering or lid)
Thick shelled , light golden brown with a knob on the bottom of
the egg.
It measures 58 to 76 microns and contain an immature embryo
when discharge in the feces.

D. Latum ova

Life cycle
Small intestine
Immature ova in the water
Maturation 11-15 days
Coracidium hatches from egg
Ingested by Copepods of the genera cyclops and diaptomus
serves as the first intermediate host (gut, body)
Procercoid in body cavity of crustaceans

Ingestion of the secondary host Ex. Pike, salmon,


whitefish
Plerocercoid penetrates and develops into the muscle
of the fish
Infected fish eaten by man
Plerocercoid in the intestinal mucosa

Pathology/disease
The scolex attaches to the jejunum and competes with
the host for the available supply of Vitamin B12.
The blood picture is that of macrocytic anemia.

Dignosis and treatment


DFS
stained operculated eggs with a knob
praziquantel, if not available, niclosamide and
quinacrine hydrochloride maybe used

Taenia solium and Taenia


saginata

Taenia solium
Common name: Pork tapeworm
Disease caused: Pork tapeworm infection/ taeniasis
Small intestine
2-7 meters with 800 to 1000 segments
The scolex
measures 1-mm, globular in shape, has 4 cup-like suckers
Rostellum
armed with double rows of large and small hooklets approximately 20 25
in number.

The mature egg


spherical, measures 31 to 43 microns
pale buff to walnut brown in color. It has two radially striated
eggs shell.
oncosphere has three pairs of hooklets.
The eggs of T. solium cannot be distinguished from the eggs
of T. saginata.

Life cycle
Adult in small intestine
Eggs discharged in the feces
Ingested by pigs
Oncosphere penetrates intestinal wall
Migrate to striated muscle
Develops into cystecercus cellulosae in the muscle
Eaten by man

Stays in the jejunum


Lifespan- 25 years or more
Pigs- intermediate host
Pathology- abdominal discomfort, chronic indigestion,
diarrhea
Diagnosis- stool analysis, scotch tape swab
Treatment- praziquantel, niclosamide, quinacrine

Other side
Eggs in feces eaten by man
Oncosphere penetrates intestinal wall
Muscle
Develops cyctecercus cellulosae in the muscle
Dead end cycle

Cystecercus cellulosae
larval infection of T. solium usually infects pig but
human can also be infected
ingestion of food and water contaminated by
human waste
Oral transmission by unclean hands of carriers of
the adult worms

Cysticerci lodge in vital organs such as brain, eyes, spinal


cord, heart and liver giving rise to pressure symptoms.
In the brain, it may produce hydrocephalus, meningitis,
cranial nerve damage, seizures, hydroactive reflexes and
visual defects.
Convulsions are the most common manifestations of
cerebral cysticercosis.

Taenia saginata
Common name: Beef tapeworm
5-10 meters up to 25m
1,000- 2,000 segments
Unarmed scolex

Life cycle same as T.solium


intestinal disturbances and may produce acute intestinal
obstruction.
diarrhea and hunger pains frequently develop and loss of
weight may occur.
The most common symptoms are discomfort and
embarrassment occasioned by the crawling of the
proglottids from the anus, with a strong tendency to crawl
during the day when the host is active.

Diagnosis/ treatment
DFS
praziquantel

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