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Work, Kinetic, and Potential

Energy

Work as Defined in Physics


The concept of work can be
understood when a force is
applied to a body to change its
motion.

Simple form:


W F d

Work = Force
It is done on an object when an
applied force changes its
position.
It can be done by you, as well
as on you.
Work is a measure of expended
energy

Displacement

Force

Displacement
Machines (e.g. ramps,
levers, etc.) make work
easy
i.e. apply less force over
larger distance for the
same amount of work
2

Work done from constant force



W F d Fd cos

For a constant force:


Only the force in the direction of motion contributes to the work
done on an object.
This work is selected by the dot product.
Units of work:
1 N.m = 1 Joules (i.e. it is energy); 1 calorie = 4.186 J

Work done on a block


A block is pushed 2.5 m by a net force of
50.0 N in the direction of motion. How
much work was done?
F = 50.0 N

W = (50.0 N)(2.5 m)
d = 2.5 m

W=

125 Nm or
125 Joules

W-KE Theorem: non constant velocity


A mass of 10kg is acted on by a force of 10N at an angle of
30o above a frictionless surface. The force acts over a
distance of 5m. How much work was done on the object?

=
=
= .
M = 10 kg

F = 10N
300
s = 5m

Work done on a block


If the older brother used 100 N of force to pull his brother
using a sled for a distance of 1 km, Find the amount of
work he did if the angle of the Force is 50 degrees above
the horizontal. (see diagram)
W = (100.0 N)(1000 m)(cos 50.00)

50

Positive, Negative, or Zero Work


FN
Fapp

Direction of motion

Friction, Ffr

Negative work done


on an object
reduces the amount
of kinetic energy
it has.

FW
Applied force, Fapp, is parallel to the displacement ( = 0):
W = Fapps
Friction, Ffr, opposes the direction of motion ( = 1800):
W = -Ffrs
Gravitational force, Fw, and normal force, FN, are both perpendicular to
the direction of motion ( = 900):
W = zero!!!

Work and Kinetic Energy


Remember your Kinematic Equations?

v v 2as
2
f

2
i

v 2f

vi2

as
2
2

v 2f vi2

m as
2 2

mv

2
f

2
i

mv

mas
2
2

mv

2
f

2
i

mv

F s
2
2

F ma
Definition

1 2
KE mv
2

KE Wtot

A force acting on a body results in a change of kinetic energy. This


is known as the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem.
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ENERGY

The nine kinds of energy

Chemical - gasoline,
Light flash light,
Heat burner on a stove,
Nuclear - radioactive
Mechanical - car,
Sound music on the radio,
Electrical lightning
Magnetic -electromagnets
Radiant-Solar

Work is Exchange of Energy


Energy is the capacity to do work
Two main categories of energy
Kinetic Energy: Energy of motion
A moving baseball can do work
A falling anvil can do work

Potential Energy: Stored (latent) capacity to do work

Gravitational potential energy (perched on cliff)


Mechanical potential energy (like in compressed spring)
Chemical potential energy (stored in bonds)
Nuclear potential energy (in nuclear bonds)

Energy can be converted between types


11

Conversion of Energy
Falling object converts gravitational
potential energy into kinetic energy
Friction converts kinetic energy into
vibrational (thermal) energy
makes things hot (rub your hands together)
irretrievable energy

Doing work on something changes that


objects energy by amount of work done,
transferring energy from the agent doing
the work

12

Kinetic Energy and Work


Kinetic energy associated with the motion of
an object
1

KE

mv

Scalar quantity with the same unit as work


Work is related to kinetic energy
Units: N-m or Joules

4/29/2016

Kinetic energy of a baseball


A 145 g baseball is moving at
30 m/s. What is its kinetic
energy?

= .

= .

Kinetic energy of a car


The kinetic energy of car moving at 30 m/s
in the super highway is 675 kJ. What is the
mass of the car?

= =
=

,
=
=


= ,

Kinetic energy of a fish


What is the speed of a 2 kg (~4.4 lb) fish
which jumps out of the water with a kinetic
energy of 1 J?

= =
=

= /

Rough values of the energies of various occurrences


Occurrence

Energy (J)

Occurrence

Energy (J)

One day of heavy manual


labor

107

Woman running for 1 hr

106

Candy bar

106

Burning match

103

1015

Hard-hit baseball

103

Atomic Bomb (Hiroshima)

1014

Lifting an apple 1 m

Energy to put the space


shuttle in orbit

1013

Human heartbeat

0.5

Depressing typewriter key

10-2

One year of electricity for the


average house

1010

Hopping flea

10-7

10-19

Lightening bolt

1010

Photon of light

Human daily diet

107

Energy of room-temperature
air molecule

10-21

Creation of the Universe

1068

Exploding volcano (Krakatoa)

1019

Severe earthquake (Richter 8)

1018

Burning a million tons of coal

1016

Hurricane

Potential Energy
Potential energy is associated with the
position of the object
Gravitational Potential Energy is the
energy associated with the relative
position of an object in space near the
Earths surface
The gravitational potential energy

PE mgh
m is the mass of an object
g is the acceleration of gravity
h is the vertical position of the mass
relative the surface of the Earth
SI unit: joule (J)

4/29/2016

What is Potential Energy?


Energy that is stored
and waiting to be
used later

What is Gravitational Potential Energy?


o Potential energy
due to an objects
position

o P.E. = mass x
height x gravity

What is Elastic Potential Energy?


o Potential energy due compression or
expansion of an elastic object.

Notice the ball compressing


and expanding

What is Chemical Potential Energy?


o Potential energy
stored within the
chemical bonds of
an object

What is Nuclear Potential Energy?


o Potential energy
stored within the
nuclear bonds of
an atom

Energy is Conserved!
The total energy (in all forms) in a closed
system remains constant
This is one of natures conservation laws
Conservation applies to:

Energy (includes mass via E = mc2)


Momentum
Angular Momentum
Electric Charge

Conservation laws are fundamental in physics,


and stem from symmetries in our space and time
24

Conservation of Energy
Energy is conserved
This means that energy cannot be created
nor destroyed
If the total amount of energy in a system
changes, it can only be due to the fact that
energy has crossed the boundary of the
system by some method of energy transfer

4/29/2016

Conservation of Mechanical Energy


In the absence of outside forces, Mechanical Energy is
conserved. This is the concept of
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Mechanical Energy (ME) = sum of PE and KE

ME

PE

KE

Any decrease in PE results from a increase in KE

Any increase in PE results from a decrease in KE

Conservation of Mechanical Energy


In a system of conservative forces, any change in
Potential Energy is compensated for by an inverse
change in Kinetic Energy

PE + KE = ME
The total mechanical energy E remains constant

ME i = ME f
PE i + KE i = PE f + KE f

Energy Conservation Demonstrated

Roller coaster car lifted to initial height (energy in)


Converts gravitational potential energy to motion
Fastest at bottom of track
Re-converts kinetic energy back into potential as it
climbs the next hill
28

Accounting for Mechanical Energy


A 1 kg ball is dropped from a height of 10 m 10 m

Top ( h = 10m)
v = 0 m/s KE = 0, ME = PE + KE
8m
Etop=PEtop= mgh=(1 kg)(9.8 m/s2)(10m) = 98 J

P.E. = 98 J
K.E. = 0 J

Halfway down (i.e. 5 m from the floor)

6m
The ball has given up half its potential energy to
kinetic energy
PEhalf = mgh = (1 kg)(9.8 m/s2)(5 m) = 49 J
4m
KE = Etop PEhalf = 98 J 49 J = 49 J
KE = mv2 v2 = 98 m2/s2 v 10 m/s
2m
Floor (h = 0 m)

P.E. = 73.5 J
K.E. = 24.5 J

All potential energy is given up to kinetic energy


KE = 98 J v2 = 196 m2/s2 v = 14 m/s

P.E. = 49 J
K.E. = 49 J
P.E. = 24.5 J
K.E. = 73.5 J

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0m

P.E. = 0 J
K.E. = 98 J

10 m

Energy Conversion/Conservation
Example
P.E. = 98 J
Drop 1 kg ball from 10 m
K.E. = 0 J

8m

P.E. = 73.5 J
K.E. = 24.5 J

Height
=h

PE =
mgh

KE =
mv2

ME =
PE + KE

v=
2KE/m

6m
P.E. = 49 J
K.E. = 49 J
4m

2m

0m

P.E. = 24.5 J
K.E. = 73.5 J

P.E. = 0 J
K.E. = 98 J
30

10 m

Energy Conversion/Conservation
Example
P.E. = 98 J
Drop 1 kg ball from 10 m
K.E. = 0 J

8m

P.E. = 73.5 J
K.E. = 24.5 J

Height
=h

PE =
mgh

KE =
mv2

ME =
PE + KE

v=
2KE/m

10 m

6m
P.E. = 49 J
K.E. = 49 J
4m

2m

0m

7.5
5m

P.E. = 24.5 J
K.E. = 73.5 J

P.E. = 0 J
K.E. = 98 J

2.5 m
0m

31

10 m

Energy Conversion/Conservation
Example
P.E. = 98 J
Drop 1 kg ball from 10 m
K.E. = 0 J

8m

P.E. = 73.5 J
K.E. = 24.5 J

Height
=h

PE =
mgh

10 m

98 J

7.5

73.5 J

5m

49 J

KE =
mv2

ME =
PE + KE

v=
2KE/m

6m
P.E. = 49 J
K.E. = 49 J
4m

2m

0m

P.E. = 24.5 J
K.E. = 73.5 J

P.E. = 0 J
K.E. = 98 J

2.5 m 24.5 J
0m

0J

32

10 m

Energy Conversion/Conservation
Example
P.E. = 98 J
Drop 1 kg ball from 10 m
K.E. = 0 J

8m

P.E. = 73.5 J
K.E. = 24.5 J

Height
=h

PE =
mgh

10 m

98 J

7.5

73.5 J

5m

49 J

KE =
mv2

ME =
PE + KE

v=
2KE/m

0 m/s

6m
P.E. = 49 J
K.E. = 49 J
4m

2m

0m

P.E. = 24.5 J
K.E. = 73.5 J

P.E. = 0 J
K.E. = 98 J

2.5 m 24.5 J
0m

0J

33

10 m

Energy Conversion/Conservation
Example
P.E. = 98 J
Drop 1 kg ball from 10 m
K.E. = 0 J

8m

P.E. = 73.5 J
K.E. = 24.5 J

Height
=h

PE =
mgh

KE =
mv2

10 m

98 J

0J

7.5

73.5 J

5m

49 J

ME =
PE + KE

v=
2KE/m

0 m/s

6m
P.E. = 49 J
K.E. = 49 J
4m

2m

0m

P.E. = 24.5 J
K.E. = 73.5 J

P.E. = 0 J
K.E. = 98 J

2.5 m 24.5 J
0m

0J

34

10 m

Energy Conversion/Conservation
Example
P.E. = 98 J
Drop 1 kg ball from 10 m
K.E. = 0 J

8m

P.E. = 73.5 J
K.E. = 24.5 J

Height
=h

PE =
mgh

KE =
mv2

ME =
PE + KE

v=
2KE/m

10 m

98 J

0J

98 J

0 m/s

7.5

73.5 J

5m

49 J

6m
P.E. = 49 J
K.E. = 49 J
4m

2m

0m

P.E. = 24.5 J
K.E. = 73.5 J

P.E. = 0 J
K.E. = 98 J

2.5 m 24.5 J
0m

0J

35

10 m

Energy Conversion/Conservation
Example
P.E. = 98 J
Drop 1 kg ball from 10 m
K.E. = 0 J

8m

P.E. = 73.5 J
K.E. = 24.5 J

Height
=h

PE =
mgh

KE =
mv2

ME =
PE + KE

v=
2KE/m

10 m

98 J

0J

98 J

0 m/s

7.5

73.5 J

98 J

5m

49 J

98 J

6m
P.E. = 49 J
K.E. = 49 J
4m

2m

0m

P.E. = 24.5 J
K.E. = 73.5 J

P.E. = 0 J
K.E. = 98 J

2.5 m 24.5 J

98 J

0m

98 J

0J

36

10 m

Energy Conversion/Conservation
Example
P.E. = 98 J
Drop 1 kg ball from 10 m
K.E. = 0 J

8m

P.E. = 73.5 J
K.E. = 24.5 J

Height
=h

PE =
mgh

KE =
mv2

ME =
PE + KE

v=
2KE/m

10 m

98 J

0J

98 J

0 m/s

7.5

73.5 J 24.5 J 98 J

5m

49 J

6m
P.E. = 49 J
K.E. = 49 J
4m

2m

0m

P.E. = 24.5 J
K.E. = 73.5 J

P.E. = 0 J
K.E. = 98 J

49 J

98 J

2.5 m 24.5 J 73.5 J 98 J


0m

0J

98 J

98 J

37

10 m

Energy Conversion/Conservation
Example
P.E. = 98 J
Drop 1 kg ball from 10 m
K.E. = 0 J

8m

P.E. = 73.5 J
K.E. = 24.5 J

Height
=h

PE =
mgh

KE =
mv2

ME =
PE + KE

v=
2KE/m

10 m

98 J

0J

98 J

0 m/s

7.5

73.5 J 24.5 J 98 J

5m

49 J

6m
P.E. = 49 J
K.E. = 49 J
4m

2m

0m

P.E. = 24.5 J
K.E. = 73.5 J

P.E. = 0 J
K.E. = 98 J

98 J

-9.9 m/s

2.5 m 24.5 J 73.5 J 98 J

-12.1 m/s

0m

0J

49 J

-7 m/s

98 J

98 J

-14 m/s
38

10 m

Energy Conversion/Conservation
Example
P.E. = 98 J
Drop 1 kg ball from 10 m
K.E. = 0 J

8m

P.E. = 73.5 J
K.E. = 24.5 J

Height
=h

PE =
mgh

KE =
mv2

ME =
PE + KE

v=
2KE/m

10 m

98

98 J

0 m/s

6m
P.E. = 49 J
K.E. = 49 J
4m

2m

0m

P.E. = 24.5 J
K.E. = 73.5 J

P.E. = 0 J
K.E. = 98 J

98 J

6m

98 J

4m

98 J

2m

98 J

98 J
39

10 m

Energy Conversion/Conservation
Example
P.E. = 98 J
Drop 1 kg ball from 10 m
K.E. = 0 J

8m

P.E. = 73.5 J
K.E. = 24.5 J

Height
=h

PE =
mgh

KE =
mv2

ME =
PE + KE

v=
2KE/m

10 m

98 J

0J

98 J

0 m/s

7.5

73.5 J 24.5 J 98 J

5m

49 J

6m
P.E. = 49 J
K.E. = 49 J
4m

2m

0m

P.E. = 24.5 J
K.E. = 73.5 J

P.E. = 0 J
K.E. = 98 J

98 J

-9.9 m/s

2.5 m 24.5 J 73.5 J 98 J

-12.1 m/s

0m

0J

49 J

-7 m/s

98 J

98 J

-14 m/s
40

10 m

Energy Conversion/Conservation
Example
P.E. = 98 J
Drop 1 kg ball from 10 m
K.E. = 0 J

8m

P.E. = 73.5 J
K.E. = 24.5 J

Height
=h

PE =
mgh

KE =
mv2

ME =
PE + KE

v=
2KE/m

10 m

98 J

0 m/s

98 J

6m

98 J

4m

98 J

2m

98 J

98 J

6m
P.E. = 49 J
K.E. = 49 J
4m

2m

0m

P.E. = 24.5 J
K.E. = 73.5 J

P.E. = 0 J
K.E. = 98 J

41

height
(m)

PE = mgh

10

98 J

0J

98 J

0 m/s

8m

78.4 J

(98-78.4) =
19.6J

98 J

6.26 m/s

6m

58.8 J

39.2 J

98 J

8.85 m/s

4m

39.2 J

58.8 J

98 J

10.84 m/s

19.6 J

78.4 J

98 J

12.52 m/s

0J

98 J

98 J

14.00 m/s

10 m

2m

0m

KE = mv2 ME = PE + KE

Speed

Platform Diver
A diver of mass m drops
from a board 10.0 m above
the waters surface. Neglect
air resistance.
(a) Find is speed 5.0 m
above the water surface
(b) Find his speed as he hits
the water

4/29/2016

Platform Diver
(a) Find his speed 5.0 m above the water
surface 1
1
mvi2 mgyi mv2f mgy f
2
2
1
0 gyi v 2f mgy f
2
v f 2 g ( yi y f )
2(9.8m / s 2 )(10m 5m) 9.9m / s

(b) Find his speed as he hits the water


1
0 mgyi mv2f 0
2
v f 2 gyi 14m / s

4/29/2016

Conservation of Mechanical Energy: Exemption

If other forces are present


they are included in the initial stage

PE i + KE i + W F = PE f + KE f
If friction is involved

PE i + KE i + Wfriction = PE f + KE f
PE i + KE i + Ffrictiond cos(180) = PE f + KE f
PE i + KE i - Ffrictiond = PE f + KE f

Example
A 1 kg ball was dropped from a 10 m building. Find the work
done by friction if the ball attained a speed of 12 m/s before it hits
the ground.
+ + = +
1
1 9.8 10 + 0 + = 1 9.8 0 + (1)(12)2
2
98 + = 0 + 72
= 0 + 72 98
= 26
Find the magnitude of Friction
=
= 180
= (1)
=
26 = 10
= 2.6
46

V = 0m/s, m = 2 kg

5m

30 0

V = ????

+ = +
1
2(9.8)(5) + 0 = 0 + (2)()2
2
1
98 = (2)()2
2
= 9.9 /
47

If friction was present, the velocity of the crate at the bottom is 6


m/s. Find the work done by friction and mag of frictional force.
+ + = +
1
2 9.8 5 + 0 + = 0 + (2)(6)2
2
98 + = 36
= 62
=
= 180
= (1)
=
62 =
62 = 10
= 6.2

48

V = 0m/s, m = 2 kg

Sin 30 = 5/d

d = 5/sin30
d = 10 m

5m

30 0

V = ????

49

How fast work gets done is POWER


Average Power
When an amount of work W is
done during a time interval t,
the average work done per unit
time is the average power.

Instantaneous Power
The instantaneous power P is
defined as

W dW
P lim

F v
t 0 t
dt
In simple terms, power is the

energy exchanged per unit


time P = W /t
Units: 1 watts = Joules/sec
1 horsepower (hp) = 745 W
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A 1500 kg race car was speeding at 20 m/s when the driver


initiated the nitrous boost of 200,000 J.
What is the final speed of the car?

+ + = +

+ ()() + = + ()()

, + , = ()()

, = ()()

(, )
= . /


=
=
=