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5)TEACHINGATDIFFERENTLEVEL
Morris.L.Bigge:Teachinglearningsituationsmaybeclassifiedonacontinuum
whichrangesfromthoughtfultothoughtless
modesofoperation.
Teachercanpresentthecontentatthreelevels
a)Memorylevelb)Understandinglevelc)Reflectivelevel.
a)Memorylevel:WoodsworthMemoryisthedirectuseofwhatis
learned.
RossAmemoryisanewexperiencedeterminedbythedispositionslaid
downbyapreviousexperience,therelationbetweenthetwobeingclearly
apprehended.
McDougallMemoryimpliesimaginingofeventsasexperiencedinthe
pastandrecognizingthemtoonesownpastexperience.
PhasesofMemory:
1)Learning:learningofsomefacts.
2)Retention:tomakethecontentsintheminds.
3)Recall:thelearntmaterialexperienceswhenbroughttoconscious
mind
4)Recognition:
Classificationofmemory:
1)Immediatememory:whenrecallisimmediate
2)Permanentmemory:therecallingofmaterialforalongertime.

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3)Personalmemory:whilerecallingpastexperience,werememberour
personalpastexperience.

AboutAuthor

4)Impersonalmemory:recallingfrombooks,andcompanion.

Dr.MuntajeebAliBaigis
LecturerinEducationin
MarathwadaCollegeOf
Education,aurangabad.
muntajeeb@gmail.com
alumni2000@gmail.com

5)Activememory:makeefforttorecallpastexperiences,recalling
answerinexams.
6)Passivememory:recallpastexperiencewithouteffort.
7)Mechanicalmemoryorphysicalmem:bodybecominghabitualof
doinganytaskrepeatedly.
8)Rotememory:crammingfactswithoutunderstanding.
9)Logicalmemory:tolearnsomethingbyusingintellectandits
recallingwhenneeded.
Characteristicsofgoodmemory:
i)rapidityinlearning:
ii)stabilityofretention
iii)rapidityinrecall

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iv)serviceable
v)Forgettingirrelevantthings.
Memorylevelofteaching:
Inthislevelemphasisislaiddownonthepresentationofthefacts
andinformationsanditscramming.
Modelsofmemorylevelpfteaching:Herbartistheexponentofmemorylevelof
teaching.
STEPS:
A)Focus:emphasisoncrammingoffactsanddevelopmentoffollowing
capacities
a)Trainingofmentalaspects.
b)Providingknowledgefacts.
c)Retainingthelearntfacts.
d)Recallingthelearntfacts.
B)SYNTAX:
HERBARTIANSTEPS:
a)Preparation:questionsareaskedtotestthepreviousknowledge.
b)StatementofAim:toacquaintthenameofthetopic.
c)Presentation:stimulatingthementalactivity,thepupilsareprovided
withopportunitiesforselflearning.
d)Association:Mutualrelationshipisestablishedamongfacts,events,
andexptsbycomparison.
e)Generalization:principlesandlawsareformulatedforthefuturelife
situations.
f)Application:newlearntknowledgeisusedinnewsituations.
C)Socialsystem:a)Pupilb)teacher.
D)Supportsystem:oral,writtenandessaytypeexaminationisused
Understandinglevelofteaching:
Memorylevelofteachingisaprerequisitefortheunderstandinglevelof
teaching.Inunderstandinglevelofteachingteacherstressestomake
understandtothepupilsthegeneralizations,principlesandfacts.
Modelofunderstandinglevelofteaching:
A)Focus:masteryofthecontent.
B)Syntax:Morrisonhasdividedunderstandinglevelofteachinginto5
steps
a)Exploration:testingpreviousknowledge,analyzingthecontent.
b)Presentation:contentispresented,diagnosis,andrecapitulationtill
thestudentsunderstands.
c)Assimilation:generalization,individualactivities,workingin
laboratoryandlibrary,testofcontent.
d)Organization:pupilsareprovidedwiththeoccasionsfor
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representation.
e)Recitation:pupilpresentsthecontentorally.
C)Socialsystem:teachercontrolthebehaviorofthepupil,pupiland
teacherremainactiveinassimilation,pupilworkswithfullinvolvement.
D)Supportsystem:pupilpassexaminpresentationtoenterinto
assimilation,toenterintoorganizationandrecitation,attheendwritten
testistaken.Similarlyrecitationisfollowedbytheoraltest.Essayand
objectivetypeQsisasked.
Reflectivelevelofteaching:
Itincludesbothunderstandinglevelandmemorylevelofteaching.Reflective
levelofteachingmeansproblemcenteredteaching.Inthistheclassroom
environmentisopensufficiently.Theteachercreatessuchaproblembeforethe
pupil,whicharousessomuchtensioninthepupilsthattheystartsolvingtheir
problemsbyformulatingandtestingtheirhypothesisasaresultoftheir
motivationandactiveness.
ModelofReflectivelevelofteaching:
Huntdevelopedthereflectivemodelofteaching.
a)Focus:objectivetoTodevelopproblemsolving,criticaland
constructive,independent,originalthinking.
b)Syntax:steps
i)Creatingaproblematicsituation.
ii)Formulationofthehypothesis.
iii)Verifyhypothesis
iv)Collectionofdata.
v)Testingofhypothesis.
c)Socialsystem:pupiloccupiestheprimaryplaceandteacher
secondaryplace.
d)Supportsystem:Objectivetypetestisnotusedbutessaytypetest
isused.Attitude,beliefsandinvolvementisevaluated

6)Modificationoftheteacherbehavior.
Microteaching:
AllenMicroteachingisascaledownteachingencounterinclasssizeandclass
time.
Importanceofmicroteaching
a)Safepracticeb)focusedinstrumentc)continuoustrainingd)modeling
instructionalskillse)newapproachtosupervision
f)Newapproachtoresearch.
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Characteristicsofmicroteaching:
Meritsanddemeritsofmicroteaching:
Limitationsofmicroteaching
Phasesofmicroteaching:
1.Knowledgeacquisitionphase:
2.skillacquisitionphase
3.transferphaseofMT:

PhaseI:Preactivephase
1)Orientation
2)Discussionofteachingskills
3)Selectionofaparticularskill.
4)Presentationofamodelofdemonstrationlessonobservationofthe
modelofthelesson.
PhaseII:Interactivephase
1)Preparationofthemicrolesson.
2)Creationofmicroteaching.
3)Practiceofteachingskills
4)Feedback
5)Replanning
6)Reteaching
7)Refeedback
8)Repetitionofthemicroteachinglesson
PhaseIII:Postactivephase:
1)Integrationofskills.
2)Integrationofskillsinparts
3)Integrationofskillaswhole
4)Evaluationofmicroteachinglesson.

InteractionAnalysis:
1)MeaningofInteractionanalysis.
2)ObjectivesofFlandersInteractioncategory.
3)AssumptionofFlanderscategorysystem.
4)ModelofFlanderscategorysystem.
(1)Teacherstalk.
A)IndirecttalkB)Directtalk.
A1)AcceptingfeelingsB1)Lecturing
A2)praiseB2)Giving
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direction
A3)AcceptingandusingIdeaB3)Criticizing
A4)Askingquestions
(2)Pupilstalk.
A)RespondingB)PupiltalksC)Silence
ToteacherInitiation
i)Procedureofobservation
ii)Rulesofobservation

SimulationTeaching:
i)Concept
ii)Meaninganddefinition:Simulationisanartificialsettingof
situationinwhichatraineeperformsrealactstofacethereal
situationtoattainproficiencyratherthancompetency.
iii)Patternofsimulationteaching:
a)identifysimulation
b)laboratorysimulation
c)Analyticalsimulation
d)Casestudysimulation
e)Roleplayingsimulation
iv)Stepsinvolvedinsimulation
a)Assigningdesignationtothemembers
b)Planningpresentationanddecidingthetopic
c)Decidingmemberstostartingtheconversation
d)Decidingprocedureanddatatobecollected
e)Conductthepracticesessiononatopic.
f)Teachershouldaltertheproceduretokeepinterest
v)Useofsimulationinmicroteaching.
vi)Meritsanddemeritsofsimulationteaching.

7)ProgrammeInstruction.
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1)Introduction
2)NeedandImportanceObjectivesofProgrammedInstruction:
3)BasicprincipleofProgrammedInstruction
i)Smallstep
ii)Activeresponding
iii)Immediateconfirmation
iv)Selfpacing
v)Constantevaluation.
4)CharacteristicofProgrammedInstruction:
5)StagesofProgrammedInstruction
i)Stageofpreparation
ii)StageofProgramwriting.
iii)Stageoftryoutandrevision
6)TypesofProgramInstruction.
A)LinearProgramofInstruction
B)BranchingProgramofInstruction
I)BackwardbranchingII)ForwardBranching.
7)AdvantagesandLimitations.

8.ModelsofTeaching.
JoyceandWellTeachingmodelisapatternorplan,whichcanbeusedto
shapeacurriculumorcourse,toselectinstructionalmaterialsandtoguidea
teachersaction.
Modelofteachingisjustablueprintdesignedinadvanceforproviding
necessarystructureanddirectiontotheteacherforrealizingthe
stipulatedobjectives.
FamiliesofModels:
1.Informationprocessingmodel.
2.Personalmodels
3.socialInteractionmodels
4.Behavioralmodels.
1)Informationprocessingmodel.Thesemodelsharean
orientationtowardtheinformationnprocessingcapabilityof
studentsandwaystheycanimprovetheirabilitytomaster
information.
Informationprocessingreferstothewayspeoplehandlestimuli
fromtheenvironment,organizedata,senseproblems,generate
conceptsandsolutionstoproblemsandemployverbalandnon
verbalsymbols.
a)Inductivemodel::HildaTaba::Developmentofinductive
mentalprocesses.
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b)Inquirytrainingmodel::RichardSuchman::Academic
reasoning.
c)Conceptattainmentmodel::Jerome::Developinductive
reasoning&concept.
d)Scientificinquiry::Schwab::researchandproblemsolving.
2)Personalmodels:Membersofthisfamilysharean
orientationtowardsthedevelopmentofselfhood.
a)Nondirectingteaching::CarlRogers::Personal
developmentintermsofselfawareness&selfconcept.
b)Synecticsmodels::WilliamGordan::Personaldevelopment
creativityandproblemsolving.
c)Conceptualsystem::DavidHunt::increasepersonal
complexityandcomplexity.
3)SOCIALInteractionmodels:Relationshipsoftheindividual
withthesociety
a)GroupInvestigation::HerbartDemocraticskill,Interpersonal
skillandacademicinquiryskill.
b)Inquirytrainingmodel::JohnDewey::,,
c)Socialinquirymodel::BenjaminCox::Socialproblem
solvingthroughacademicinquiry&logicalreasoning.
d)Laboratorymethod
e)Roleplaying::Shaftel::Inquireintopersonalandsocial
values
4)Behaviormodel:Theemphasisisonchangingthevisible
behaviorofthelearnerratherthantheunderlyingpsychological
structureandunobservablebehavior.
a)Contingencymanagement::Skinner::Facts,Concept,skills.
b)Selfcontrol::Skinner::Socialbehavior/skills.
c)Relaxationmodel::Masters::Personalgoals.
d)Stressreduction::Masters::substitutionofrelaxationfor
anxietyinsocialsituation.
e)
Conceptsfordescribingmodels:
1)Focus:Objectivesofteaching,goalsandaspectsoftheenvironment
constitutethefocusofthemodels.
2)Syntax:Sequencesofactivitiescalledasphase.
3)Thesocialsystem:Describesthestudentsandteachers
relationshipsandthenormsthatareencouragedexstudentcenteredor
teacherandstudentcentered.
4)Principlesofreaction:selectingmodelaccordingtothestudents.
5)Supportintheformsofbooks,films,filmsandselfinstructional
material.
9)DesigningInstructionaldesign:
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*Formulationofinstructionaldesign
*TaskAnalysis.
*Designingofinstructionaldesigningsuchaslecture,teamteaching,seminars,
discussion.
StepsforISD:=>
1)Analysisandidentificationofneeds.
2)Definitionofgoalsandobjectives.
3)Identificationofalternativewaystomeetneeds.
4)Designofsystemcomponents.
5)Analysisof(A)Resourcesrequired(B)resourcesavailable(C)
constraints.
6)Actiontomodifyorremoveconstraints.
7)Developmentofinstructionalmaterial.
8)Designofstudentsassessmentmaterial.
9)Fieldtesting
10)Adjustment,revisions,andfurtherevaluation..
11)Summativeevaluation.
10)CommunicationProcess:
1)MeaningofCommunication:
ThewordcommunicationhasbeenderivedfromtheLatinwordCommunis
meaningcommon.
EdgarDaleCommunicationisdefineasthesharingofideasandfeelingsina
moodofmutuality.
Communicationisthe
1.Passingofinformation
2.ExchangeofIdeas.
3.Sharingofideaswithoneanother.

2)ProcessofCommunication:
1)Source.
2)Encoding.
3)Transmission.
4)Decoding.
5)Receiver.
6)Feedback.
7)Noise.
3)ComponentsofCommunication:=>
1)SenderorSource.
2)Message.
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3)Channel.
4)receiver
5)Feedback.
4)PrinciplesofCommunication:=>
1)Communicationisperception.
2)Communicationisexpectation
3)Comm.makesdemand.
4)Comm.shouldbecomplete.
5)Comm.shouldbepositive.
6)Comm.shouldbetoexpressandnottoimpress.
7)Comm.shouldbeconcise.
5)BarrierstoCommunication:=>
1)Cultural/Semantic.
2)Perceptualbarr
3)Perceptualdistortion.
4)Emotionalbarr
5)Priorrelationship.
6)Timing.
7)Filterproblem.
8)PrestigiousJargon.
9)Geographicaldistance.
10)Wrongchannelsandmedium.
11)Poorverbalskills.
12)Unconvincingarguments.
13)Leaderarrogance.
14)Sourcecredibility.
15)Statusofthecommunicator.
5)TypesofCommunications:=>
A)VerbalComm.
B)NonverbalComm.
a)Kinesics:Languageofbodymovement
i)Emblemsii)Illustratorsiii)Regulator.iv)Adaptor.
b)Proxemics:usingandperceivingsocialandpersonal
i)Intimatedistanceii)Personaldistanceiii)Socialdistanceandiv)Public
distance.
C)Time:keepingprecisetime.
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6)ScopeofCommunication:
A)Smallgroupofnetworks.
1)Wheelnetwork.
2)Chainnetwork.
3)Circlenetwork.
4)Ynetwork.
5)Allchannelnetwork.
B)Institutionalnetwork.
1)Upwardcomm..
2)Downwardcomm..
3)Lateralcomm..
7)Effectivenessintheclassroom.

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