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Pollution Analysis & Control By Waqas Ali Tunio

Pollution can be defined as the mixing of bad one with a good one. There are many causes of pollution. But, only a few can be
treated as the basic causes from which the other causes originate.

These causes can be classfied as industrial anddomestic causes. The description of them are as follows:
1. Industrial causes: The emissions from the factories and automobile causes air pollution and the wastes from dyeing industries
cause water pollution.
2. Domestic causes: The waste water from houses when disposed off to the rivers, cause water pollution. The burning of plastics
too causes air pollution.

Waste Management
Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials.[1] The term
usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health,
the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management can
involvesolid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each.
Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and
for residential and industrial producers. Management for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas
is usually the responsibility of local governmentauthorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial
waste is usually the responsibility of the generator

Hazardous Waste
A hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment. There are four factors
that determine whether or not a substance is hazardous:

 ignitability (i.e., flammable)

 reactivity
 corrosivity
 toxicity
U.S. environmental laws (see Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) additionally describe a "hazardous waste" as a waste
(usually a solid waste) that has the potential to:

 cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality (death) or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating
reversible illness; or

 pose a substantial (present or potential) hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored,
transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed.
These wastes may be found in different physical states such as gaseous, liquids, or solids. Furthermore, a hazardous waste is a
special type of waste because it cannot be disposed of by common means like other by-products of our everyday lives. Depending
on the physical state of the waste, treatment and solidification processes might be available. In other cases, however, there is not
much that can be done to prevent harm.
Pollution Analysis & Control By Waqas Ali Tunio

Municipal Solid Waste

Municipal solid waste (MSW), also called urban solid waste, is a waste type that includes predominantly household waste
(domestic waste) with sometimes the addition of commercial wastes collected by a municipality within a given area. They are in
either solid or semisolid form and generally exclude industrial hazardous wastes. The term residual waste relates to waste left
from household sources containing materials that have not been separated out or sent for reprocessing [1].

 Biodegradable waste: food and kitchen waste, green waste, paper (can also be recycled).
 Recyclable material: paper, glass, bottles, cans, metals, certain plastics, etc.
 Inert waste: construction and demolition waste, dirt, rocks, debris.
 Composite wastes: waste clothing, Tetra Paks, waste plastics such as toys.
 Domestic hazardous waste (also called "household hazardous waste") & toxic waste: medication, e-
waste, paints, chemicals, light bulbs, fluorescent tubes, spray cans, fertilizer and pesticide containers, batteries, shoe polish.
The functional elements of solid waste

Waste generation
Waste generation encompasses activities in which materials are identified as no longer being of value and are either thrown out
or gathered together for disposal.
Waste handling and separation, storage and processing at the source
Waste handling and separation involves the activities associated with management of waste until they are placed in storage
container for collection. Handling also encompasses the movement of loaded containers to the point of collection. Separation of
waste components is an important step in the handling and storage of solid waste at the source.
The functional element of collection includes not only the gathering of solid waste and recyclable materials, but also the
transport of these materials, after collection, to the location where the collection vehicle is emptied. This location may be a
materials processing facility, a transfer station or a landfill disposal site.
Separation and processing and transformation of solid wastes
The types of means and facilities that are now used for the recovery of waste materials that have been separated at the source
include curbside collection, drop off and buy back centers. The separation and processing of wastes that have been separated at
the source and the separation of commingled wastes usually occur at a materials recovery facility, transfer stations, combustion
facilities and disposal sites.
Transfer and transport
This element involves two steps:
i)the transfer of wastes from the smaller collection vehicle to the larger transport equipment
ii)the subsequent transport of the wastes, usually over long distances, to a processing or disposal site.
Today the disposal of wastes by land filling or land spreading is the ultimate fate of all solid wastes, whether they are residential
wastes collected and transported directly to a landfill site, residual materials from materials recovery facilities (MRFs), residue
from the combustion of solid waste, compost or other substances from various solid waste processing facilities. A modern
sanitary landfill is not a dump; it is an engineered facility used for disposing of solid wastes on land without creating nuisances or
hazards to public health or safety, such as the breeding of insects and the contamination of ground water.
Energy Generation
Municipal solid waste can be used to generate energy. Several technologies have been developed that make the processing of
MSW for energy generation cleaner and more economical than ever before, including landfill gas capture, combustion, pyrolysis,
gasification, and plasma arc gasification.[2] While older waste incineration plants emitted high levels of pollutants, recent
regulatory changes and new technologies have significantly reduced this concern. EPA regulations in 1995 and 2000 under the
Clean Air Act have succeeded in reducing emissions of dioxins from waste-to-energy facilities by more than 99 percent below
1990 levels, while mercury emissions have been reduced by over 90 percent.[3] The EPA noted these improvements in 2003, citing
waste-to-energy as a power source “with less environmental impact than almost any other source of electricity.”[4]
Pollution Analysis & Control By Waqas Ali Tunio

A landfill, also known as a dump or rubbish dump (and historically as a midden), is a site for the disposal of waste materials by
burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment. Historically, landfills have been the most common methods of organized waste
disposal and remain so in many places around the world.
Landfills may include internal waste disposal sites (where a producer of waste carries out their own waste disposal at the place of
production) as well as sites used by many producers. Many landfills are also used for other waste management purposes, such as
the temporary storage, consolidation and transfer, or processing of waste material (sorting, treatment, or recycling).
A landfill also may refer to ground that has been filled in with soil and rocks instead of waste materials, so that it can be used for
a specific purpose, such as for building houses. Unless they are stabilized, these areas may experience severe shaking
or liquefaction of the ground in a large earthquake.
Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste, and this remains a common practice in most countries. Landfills were
often established in abandoned or unused quarries, mining voids or borrow pits. A properly-designed and well-managed landfill
can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Older, poorly-designed or poorly-managed
landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of
liquid leachate. Another common byproduct of landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is
produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. This gas can create odor problems, kill surface vegetation, and is
a greenhouse gas.
Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate such as clay or plastic lining material. Deposited
waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stability, and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats).
Many landfills also have landfill gas extraction systems installed to extract the landfill gas. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using
perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity.

Sanitary Landfill
The term "sanitary landfill" was first used in the 1930s to refer to the compacting of solid waste materials. Initially adopted by
New York City and Fresno, California, the sanitary landfill used heavy earth-moving equipment to compress waste materials and
then cover them with soil. The practice of covering solid waste was evident in Greek civilization over 2,000 years ago, but the
Greeks did it without compacting.

Today, the sanitary landfill is the major method of disposing waste materials in North America and other developed countries,
even though considerable efforts are being made to find alternative methods, such as recycling, incineration, and composting.
Among the reasons that landfills remain a popular alternative are their simplicity and versatility. For example, they are not
sensitive to the shape, size, or weight of a particular waste material. Since they are constructed of soil, they are rarely affected by
the chemical composition of a particular waste component or by any collective incompatibility of co-mingled wastes. By
comparison, composting and incineration require uniformity in the form and chemical properties of the waste for efficient
operation. About 67% of the solid waste generated in the United States is still dumped in landfills. This corresponds to several
tons of waste per landfill daily, considering 4.5 lb (2 kg) of solid waste is generated each day per person in this country. Americans
will have created approximately 220 million tons of solid waste in the year 2000. The many tons of solid waste dumped in a
landfill today will not decompose until 30 years from now. In order to create environmentally friendly landfills, new sites are
being engineered to recover the methane gas that is generated during decomposition, and some older landfills are being mined
for useful products.

About 70% of materials that are routinely disposed of in landfills could be recycled instead. More than 30% of bulk municipal
garbage collections consist of paper that could be remanufactured into other paper products. Other materials like plastic, metal,
and glass can also be reused in manufacturing, which can greatly reduce the amount of waste materials disposed in landfills, as
well as preserving sources of nonrenewable raw materials.

Landfill leachate is liquid that moves through or drains from a landfill. This liquid may either exist already in the landfill, or it may
be created after rainwater mixes with the chemical waste. Modern landfills are often designed to prevent liquid from leaching
out and entering the environment; however, if not properly managed, the leachate is at risk for mixing with groundwater near
the site, which can have dire effects.
Pollution Analysis & Control By Waqas Ali Tunio

The most common source of landfill leachate is rainwater filtering down through the landfill. Landfill leachate may be virtually
harmless or dangerously toxic, depending upon the characteristics of the material in the landfill. Typically, landfill leachate has
high concentrations of nitrogen, iron, organic carbon, manganese, chloride and phenols. Other chemicals including pesticides,
solvents and heavy metals may also be present. In the past, this usually toxic soup was allowed to slowly leak away into the
nearby environment, eventually mixing with the local groundwater system.

Groundwater is the source of drinking water for over 40% of the population, and up to 90% of the population in rural areas.
Groundwater is the source that wells and springs tap into. It was formerly always assumed that this source of water was not
subject to contamination, but recent studies have shown that this source of water can in fact become contaminated.

Modern landfill sites require that the landfill leachate be collected and treated. Since there is no method to ensure that rainwater
cannot enter the landfill site, landfill sites must now have an impermeable layer at the bottom. The landfill leachate that collects
at the bottom must be monitored and treated if required. This liquid can be treated in a similar manner to sewage, and the
treated water can then be safely released into the environment.

Older landfill sites at which landfill leachate is a problem must be dug up, and either a new impermeable bottom must be
installed, or the material must be relocated to another site. Frequently, the cost to dig up these old landfill sites is too high for the
municipality to cover and nothing is done. Even when the site is dug up and either relocated or properly prepared, the damage
has already been done and it may take years before the area can fully recover.

Noise Pollution
Noise pollution (or environmental noise) is displeasing human, animal or machine-created sound that disrupts the activity or
balance of human or animal life. The word noise comes from the Latin word nausea meaning seasickness.
The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is transportation systems, including motor vehiclenoise, aircraft noise and rail
noise.[1][2] Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in
noise pollution in the residential area.
Indoor and outdoor noise pollution sources include car alarms, emergency service sirens, mechanical equipment, fireworks,
compressed air horns, groundskeeping equipment, barking dogs, appliances, lighting hum, audio entertainment systems,
electric megaphones, and loud people.
Noise health effects are both health and behavioral in nature[citation needed]. The unwanted sound is called noise. This unwanted
sound can damage physiological and psychological health. Noise pollution can cause annoyance and aggression, hypertension,
high stress levels,tinnitus, hearing loss, sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects.[3][4][5][6] Furthermore, stress and
hypertension are the leading causes to health problems, whereas tinnitus can lead to forgetfulness, severe depression and at
times panic attacks.[4][7]
Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. Older males exposed to significant occupational
noise demonstratesignificantly reduced hearing sensitivity than their non-exposed peers, though differences in hearing sensitivity
decrease with time and the two groups are indistinguishable by age 79.[8] A comparison of Maaban tribesmen, who were
insignificantly exposed to transportation or industrial noise, to a typical U.S. population showed that chronic exposure to
moderately high levels of environmental noise contributes to hearing loss.[3]
High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects and exposure to moderately high levels during a single eight hour period
causes a statistical rise in blood pressure of five to ten points and an increase in stress[3] and vasoconstriction leading to
the increased blood pressurenoted above as well as to increased incidence of coronary artery disease.
Noise pollution is also a cause of annoyance. A 2005 study by Spanish researchers found that in urban areas households are
willing to pay approximately four Euros per decibel per year for noise reduction.

Land Pollution
Land pollution is the degradation of Earth's land surfaces often caused by human activities and their misuse of land resources. It
occurs when waste is not disposed properly. Health hazard disposal of urban and industrial wastes, exploitation of minerals, and
improper use of soil by inadequate agricultural practices are a few factors. Urbanization and industrialization are major causes of
Pollution Analysis & Control By Waqas Ali Tunio

land pollution. The Industrial Revolution set a series of events into motion which destroyed natural habitats and polluted the
environment, causing diseases in both humans and other species of animals.

Global Warming
Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and
its projected continuation. Global surface temperature increased 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) between the start and the end of
the 20th century.[2][A] The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that most of the observed temperature
increase since the middle of the 20th century was very likely caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting
from human activity such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation.[2] The IPCC also concludes that variations in natural phenomena
such as solar radiation and volcanic eruptions had a small cooling effect after 1950.[3][4] These basic conclusions have been
endorsed by more than 40 scientific societies and academies of science,[B] including all of the national academies of science of the
major industrialized countries.[5]

Climate model projections summarized in the latest IPCC report indicate that the global surface temperature is likely to rise a
further 1.1 to 6.4 °C (2.0 to 11.5 °F) during the 21st century.[2] The uncertainty in this estimate arises from the use of models with
differing sensitivity to greenhouse gas concentrations and the use of differing estimates of future greenhouse gas emissions.
Most studies focus on the period leading up to the year 2100. However, warming is expected to continue beyond 2100 even if
emissions stop, because of the large heat capacity of the oceans and the long lifetime of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.[6][7]

An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, probably
including expansion of subtropical deserts.[8] Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with
continuing retreat of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects include changes in the frequency and intensity of
extreme weather events, species extinctions, and changes in agricultural yields. Warming and related changes will vary from
region to region around the globe, though the nature of these regional variations is uncertain.[9]

Political and public debate continues regarding global warming, its causes and what actions to take in response. The available
options are mitigation to reduce further emissions; adaptation to reduce the damage caused by warming; and, more
speculatively, geoengineering to reverse global warming. Most national governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol
aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Greenhouse effect
The greenhouse effect is the rise in temperature that the Earth experiences because certain gases in the atmosphere(water
vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane, for example) trap energy from the sun. Without these gases, heat would
escape back into space and Earth’s average temperature would be about 60ºF colder. Because of how they warm our world,
these gases are referred to as greenhouse gases.

Have you ever seen a greenhouse? Most greenhouses look like a small glass house. Greenhouses are used to grow plants,
especially in the winter. Greenhouses work by trapping heat from the sun. The glass panels of the greenhouse let in light but keep
heat from escaping. This causes the greenhouse to heat up, much like the inside of a car parked in sunlight, and keeps the plants
warm enough to live in the winter.
The Earth’s atmosphere is all around us. It is the air that we breathe. Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere behave much like the
glass panes in a greenhouse. Sunlight enters the Earth's atmosphere, passing through the blanket of greenhouse gases. As it
reaches the Earth's surface, land, water, and biosphere absorb the sunlight’s energy. Once absorbed, this energy is sent back into
the atmosphere. Some of the energy passes back into space, but much of it remains trapped in the atmosphere by the
greenhouse gases, causing our world to heat up.

The greenhouse effect is important. Without the greenhouse effect, the Earth would not be warm enough for humans to live. But
if the greenhouse effect becomes stronger, it could make the Earth warmer than usual. Even a little extra warming may cause
problems for humans, plants, and animals.
Pollution Analysis & Control By Waqas Ali Tunio

Acid Rain
Acid rain describes any form of precipitation with high levels of nitric and sulfuric acids. It can also occur in the form of snow, fog,
and tiny bits of dry material that settle to Earth.
Rotting vegetation and erupting volcanoes release some chemicals that can cause acid rain, but most acid rain falls because of
human activities. The biggest culprit is the burning of fossil fuels by coal-burning power plants, factories, and automobiles.
When humans burn fossil fuels, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are released into the atmosphere. These chemical
gases react with water, oxygen, and other substances to form mild solutions of sulfuric and nitric acid. Winds may spread these
acidic solutions across the atmosphere and over hundreds of miles. When acid rain reaches Earth, it flows across the surface in
runoff water, enters water systems, and sinks into the soil.
Acid rain has many ecological effects, but none is greater than its impact on lakes, streams, wetlands, and other aquatic
environments. Acid rain makes waters acidic and causes them to absorb the aluminum that makes its way from soil into lakes and
streams. This combination makes waters toxic to crayfish, clams, fish, and other aquatic animals.
Some species can tolerate acidic waters better than others. However, in an interconnected ecosystem, what impacts some
species eventually impacts many more throughout the food chain—including non-aquatic species such as birds.
Acid rain also damages forests, especially those at higher elevations. It robs the soil of essential nutrients and releases aluminum
in the soil, which makes it hard for trees to take up water. Trees' leaves and needles are also harmed by acids.
The effects of acid rain, combined with other environmental stressors, leave trees and plants less able to withstand cold
temperatures, insects, and disease. The pollutants may also inhibit trees' ability to reproduce. Some soils are better able to
neutralize acids than others. In areas where the soil's "buffering capacity" is low, the harmful effects of acid rain are much
The only way to fight acid rain is by curbing the release of the pollutants that cause it. This means burning fewer fossil fuels. Many
governments have tried to curb emissions by cleaning up industry smokestacks and promoting alternative fuel sources. These
efforts have met with mixed results. But even if acid rain could be stopped today, it would still take many years for its harmful
effects to disappear.
Individuals can also help prevent acid rain by conserving energy. The less electricity people use in their homes, the fewer
chemicals power plants will emit. Vehicles are also major fossil fuel users, so drivers can reduce emissions by using public
transportation, carpooling, biking, or simply walking wherever possible

Land Pollution
Land pollution is basically about the contamination of the land surface and soil of the Earth.

Land pollution basically is about contaminating the land surface of the Earth through dumping urban waste matter
indiscriminately, dumping of industrial waste, mineral exploitation, and misusing the soil by harmful agricultural practices. Land
pollution includes visible litter and waste along with the soil itself being polluted. The soil gets polluted by the chemicals in
pesticides and herbicides used for agricultural purposes along with waste matter being littered in urban areas such as roads,
parks, and streets.

Land Pollution Comprises Of: Solid Waste and Soil Pollution

Solid Waste: Semisolid or solid matter that are created by human or animal activities, and which are disposed because they are
hazardous or useless are known as solid waste. Most of the solid wastes, like paper, plastic containers, bottles, cans, and even
used cars and electronic goods are not biodegradable, which means they do not get broken down through inorganic or organic
processes. Thus, when they accumulate they pose a health threat to people, plus, decaying wastes also attract household pests
and result in urban areas becoming unhealthy, dirty, and unsightly places to reside in. Moreover, it also causes damage to
terrestrial organisms, while also reducing the uses of the land for other, more useful purposes.
Pollution Analysis & Control By Waqas Ali Tunio

Some of the sources of solid waste that cause land pollution are:

Wastes from Agriculture: This comprises of waste matter produced by crop, animal manure, and farm residues.

Wastes from Mining: Piles of coal refuse and heaps of slag.

Wastes from Industries: Industrial waste matter that can cause land pollution can include paints, chemicals, and so on.

Solids from Sewage Treatment: Wastes that are left over after sewage has been treated, biomass sludge, and settled solids.

Ashes: The residual matter that remains after solid fuels are burned.

Garbage: This comprises of waste matter from food that are decomposable and other waste matter that are not decomposable
such as glass, metal, cloth, plastic, wood, paper, and so on.

Soil Pollution: Soil pollution is chiefly caused by chemicals in pesticides, such as poisons that are used to kill agricultural pests like
insects and herbicides that are used to get rid of weeds. Hence, soil pollution results from:

 Unhealthy methods of soil management.

 Harmful practices of irrigation methods.

Land pollution is caused by farms because they allow manure to collect, which leaches into the nearby land areas. Chemicals that
are used for purposes like sheep dipping also cause serious land pollution as do diesel oil spillages.

What are the Consequences of Land Pollution?

Land pollution can affect wildlife, plants, and humans in a number of ways, such as:

 Cause problems in the respiratory system

 Cause problems on the skin
 Lead to birth defects
 Cause various kinds of cancers

The toxic materials that pollute the soil can get into the human body directly by:

 Coming into contact with the skin

 Being washed into water sources like reservoirs and rivers
 Eating fruits and vegetables that have been grown in polluted soil
 Breathing in polluted dust or particles

How can Land Pollution be Prevented?

 People should be educated and made aware about the harmful effects of littering
 Items used for domestic purposes ought to be reused or recycled
 Personal litter should be disposed properly
 Organic waste matter should be disposed in areas that are far away from residential places
 Inorganic matter such as paper, plastic, glass and metals should be reclaimed and then recycled

A large percentage of material that is dumped into waters not only destroys habitats for animals but for humans as well. Below is
a list of some impacts of land pollution.

 Smothered habitats, where aquatic animals feed and live, thus driving them out of a home.
 Reduced oxygen levels from decomposition of organic material dumped from drains.
Pollution Analysis & Control By Waqas Ali Tunio

 Reduced light penetration in the water column, from sediments and excessive algal growth, leading to oxygen depleted
water. *Massively changed flow regimes, large fast flows can scour existing habitat and wash species downstream.
 Increased human health risks, from syringes, broken glass and cans washing onto creek banks and beaches.
 Reduced aesthetic appeal of areas from litter strewn on banks and beaches, thus reducing recreation and tourist appeal.
 Acid rain damages trees and other plants.

Controlling Land Pollution

 Reduce: Source reduction is any practice that reduces the quantity and/or toxicity of pollutants entering a waste stream
before recycling, treatment or disposal. Examples include equipment or technology modifications, reformulation or redesign of
products, substitution of less toxic raw materials, improvements in work practices, maintenance, worker training and better
inventory control.
 Reuse: Is using a product or component in its original form more than once. Examples include refilling a glass bottle that
has been returned, donating clothes to charity or using a coffee can to hold nuts and bolts.
 Recycling: Is the use, reuse, and/or reclamation of waste residuals or hazardous materials in waste. A material is "used or
reused" if it is used as an ingredient in an industrial process to make a product or if it is used as an effective substitute for a
commercial product. A material is reclaimed if it is processed to recover a usable product, or if it is regenerated.

Avoid chemicals in your home and yard: Substitute green cleaning practices for chemical cleaners. If you do use household
chemicals or fertilizers, dispose of them safely.

Well one obvious solution would be recycling...Not only does it keep our trash off of our land and out of our soil but it reuses our
waste and conserves energy...Using biodegradable products also helps...Not littering and picking up trash one sees on the ground
can help and reusing things yourself. You don't necesarilly have to take your recycled trash to a recyclling place but you can reuse
glass bottles at home for foods, storage, decoration,etc. also with plastic bottles, old ice cube trays, old bedframes, etc... And
desposing of harmful chemicals the proper way is also another way to prevent land pollution...there are more of course so just
google it


1) Using reusable products, so that natural resources are not overly exploited is a good first step in preventing land pollution.
2) Not littering while going on picnics will prevent pollution at the location.
3) Taking along your own bags while going to the neighborhood grocer, buying products with little packaging or buying in bulk so
as to reduce packaging will result in less addition of pollutants.
4) Limiting the use of plastics, and going in for biodegradable products will cause less long term damage to the land.

Nuclear Pollution
Nuclear Pollution is caused by Radioactive waste product containing radioactive material. It is usually the product of a nuclear
process such as nuclear fission though industries not directly connected to the nuclear power industry may also produce
quantities of radioactive waste. The majority of radioactive waste is "low-level waste", meaning it contains low levels of
radioactivity per mass or volume.

Radioactivity by definition reduces over time, so in principle the waste needs to be isolated for a period of time until its
components no longer pose a hazard. This can mean hours to years for some common medical or industrial radioactive wastes or
many thousands of years for high-level wastes. The main approaches to managing radioactive waste to date have been
segregation and storage for short-lived wastes, near-surface disposal for low and some intermediate level wastes, and deep and
secure burial for the long-lived high-level wastes.

A summary of the amounts of radioactive wastes and management approaches for most developed countries are presented and
reviewed periodically as part of the IAEA Joint Convention on Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive
Waste Management.
Pollution Analysis & Control By Waqas Ali Tunio

Nuclear Polltution Control

Nuclear create no polution (emission gases), altough it does create radioactive waste, but the waste itself can be isolated by
burying the waste underground (at depth about 500 m) so that it will not contaminate the environment. Or, the waste can be
isolated somewhere safe, and thus, there is a way to decrease the radioactivity by decreasing the neutrons activity, so the waste
will degrade sooner than just leaving it to degrade naturally. All of that is the way to just throw the "trash" away, you can also
recycle some of the waste for power plant usage or medical usage…

Geologic disposal

The process of selecting appropriate deep final repositories for high level waste and spent fuel is now under way in several
countries (Schacht Asse II and the waste Isolation Pilot Plant) with the first expected to be commissioned some time after 2010.
The basic concept is to locate a large, stable geologic formation and use mining technology to excavate a tunnel, or large-bore
tunnel boring machines (similar to those used to drill the Channel Tunnel from England to France) to drill a shaft 500–1,000
meters below the surface where rooms or vaults can be excavated for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The goal is to
permanently isolate nuclear waste from the human environment. Many people remain uncomfortable with the immediate
stewardship cessation of this disposal system, suggesting perpetual management and monitoring would be more prudent.


There have been proposals for reactors that consume nuclear waste and transmute it to other, less-harmful nuclear waste. In
particular, the Integral Fast Reactor was a proposed nuclear reactor with a nuclear fuel cycle that produced no transuranic waste
and in fact, could consume transuranic waste. It proceeded as far as large-scale tests but was then canceled by the U.S.
Government. Another approach, considered safer but requiring more development, is to dedicate subcritical reactors to the
transmutation of the left-over transuranic elements.

Re-use of waste

Another option is to find applications for the isotopes in nuclear waste so as to re-use them.[55] Already, caesium-137, strontium-
90 and a few other isotopes are extracted for certain industrial applications such as food irradiation and radioisotope
thermoelectric generators. While re-use does not eliminate the need to manage radioisotopes, it may reduce the quantity of
waste produced.

A 1990 proposed type of breeder reactor called a traveling wave reactor is claimed, if it were to be built, to be able to be fueled
by depleted uranium, which is currently considered nuclear waste.

Space disposal

Space disposal is an attractive notion because it permanently removes nuclear waste from the environment. It has significant
disadvantages, not least of which is the potential for catastrophic failure of a launch vehicle. The high number of launches that
would be required — due to the fact that no individual rocket would be able to carry very much of the material relative to the
material needed to be disposed of—makes the proposal impractical (for both economic and risk-based reasons). To further
complicate matters, international agreements on the regulation of such a program would need to be established.

In the future, alternative, non-rocket space launch technologies may provide a solution. It has been suggested that through the
use of a stationary launch system many of the risks of catastrophic launch failure could be avoided. A promising concept is the
use of high power lasers to launch "indestructible" containers from the ground into space. Such a system would require no rocket
propellant, with the launch vehicle's payload making up a near entirety of the vehicle's mass. Without the use of rocket fuel on
board there would be little chance of the vehicle exploding.

One possibility involves encasing the waste in vitrified form inside a steel shell 9 inches (230 mm) thick, which in turn is tiled with
shuttle tile to its exterior. If the launch vehicle failed just before reaching orbit, the waste ball would safely re-enter the Earth's
atmosphere. The steel shell would deform on impact, but would not rupture due to the density of the shell.
Pollution Analysis & Control By Waqas Ali Tunio

Ecology (from Greek: οἶκος, "house" or "living relations"; -λογία, "study of") is the scientificstudy of the distributions, abundance,
share affects, and relations of organisms and their interactions with each other in a common environment.[1] The word ecology is
also used in the medical field which has a somewhat different meaning. The definition here applies to the study of Nature.
Ecology is the study of the interactions between life and its physical environment; the relationship between animals and plants
and how one species affect another. A component in ecological study usually focuses on the ecosystem of an area. An ecosystem
is the unique network of animal and plant species who depends on the other to sustain life. The interactions between and among
organisms at every stage of life and death can impact the system. An ecosystem can be a small area or big as the ocean. In fact,
one can say the whole world is one big ecosystem. So an ecologist could be studying and researching everything from the tiniest
forms of life like bacteria to every chain of organisms it affects and how those organisms can impact the tropical rain forests, the
deserts, the oceans, the atmosphere, etc. The discipline of ecology emerged from the natural sciences in the late 19th century.
Ecology is not synonymous with environment, environmentalism, or environmental science.[1][2][3] Ecology is closely related to the
disciplines of physiology, evolution, genetics and behavior.[4]
Like many of the natural sciences, a conceptual understanding of ecology is found in the broader details of study, including:

 life processes explaining adaptations

 distribution and abundance of organisms
 the movement of materials and energy through living communities
 the successional development of ecosystems, and
 the abundance and distribution of biodiversity in context of the environment.[1][2][3]
Ecology is distinguished from natural history, which deals primarily with the descriptive study of organisms. It is a sub-discipline
of biology, which is the study of life.
There are many practical applications of ecology in conservation biology, wetland management, natural resource management
(agriculture, forestry , fisheries), city planning (urban ecology), community health, economics, basic & applied science and it
provides a conceptual framework for understanding and researching human social interaction (human ecology).[5][6][7][8]

The term ecosystem refers to the combined physical and biological components of an environment.[citation needed] An ecosystem is
generally an area within the natural environment in which physical (abiotic) factors of the environment, such as rocks and soil,
function together along with interdependent (biotic) organisms, such as plants and animals, within the same habitat to create a
stable system.[citation needed]Ecosystems can be permanent or temporary. Ecosystems usually form a number offood webs.[1]
Ecosystem is a functional unit consisting of living things in a given area, non-living chemical and physical factors of their
environment, linked together through nutrient cycle and energy flow.[citation needed]

1. Natural
1. Terrestrial ecosystem
2. Aquatic ecosystem
1. Lentic, the ecosystem of a lake, pond or swamp.
2. Lotic, the ecosystem of a river, stream or spring.
2. Artificial, environments created by humans.

Water Pollution
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater).
Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging either
to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities. Water pollution occurs when pollutants are
discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.

Pollution Analysis & Control By Waqas Ali Tunio

Sewage is water-carried wastes, in either solution or suspension, that is intended flow away from a community. Also known
as wastewater flows, sewage is the used water supply of the community. It is more than 99.9% pure water and is characterized by
its volume or rate of flow, its physical condition, its chemical constituents, and the bacteriological organisms that it contains.
Depending on their origin, wastewater can be classed as sanitary, commercial, industrial, agricultural or surface runoff.
Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and
household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove
physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce a waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste
or sludge suitable for discharge or reuse back into the environment. This material is often inadvertently contaminated with
many toxic organic and inorganic compounds.

Water Purification
Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, materials, and biological contaminants from raw water. The
goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is purified for human consumption (drinking water) but water
purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including meeting the requirements of medical, pharmacology,
chemical and industrial applications. In general the methods used include physical process such as filtration and sedimentation,
biological processes such as slow sand filters or activated sludge, chemical process such as flocculation and chlorination and the
use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light.
The purification process of water may reduce the concentration of particulate matter including suspended particles, parasites,
bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi; and a range of dissolved and particulate material derived from the surfaces that water may have
made contact with after falling as rain.
The standards for drinking water quality are typically set by governments or by international standards. These standards will
typically set minimum and maximum concentrations of contaminants for the use that is to be made of the water.
It is not possible to tell whether water is of an appropriate quality by visual examination. Simple procedures such as boiling or the
use of a household activated carbon filter are not sufficient for treating all the possible contaminants that may be present in
water from an unknown source. Even natural spring water – considered safe for all practical purposes in the 1800s – must now be
tested before determining what kind of treatment, if any, is needed. Chemical analysis, while expensive, is the only way to obtain
the information necessary for deciding on the appropriate method of purification.
According to a 2007 World Health Organization report, 1.1 billion people lack access to an improved drinking water supply, 88%
of the 4 billion annual cases of diarrheal disease are attributed to unsafe water and inadequate sanitation and hygiene, and 1.8
million people die from diarrheal diseases each year. The WHO estimates that 94% of these diarrheal cases are preventable
through modifications to the environment, including access to safe water.[1] Simple techniques for treating water at home, such
as chlorination, filters, and solar disinfection, and storing it in safe containers could save a huge number of lives each
year.[2] Reducing deaths from waterborne diseases is a major public health goal in developing countries.

Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. It comprises liquid waste
discharged by domestic residences, commercial properties, industry, and/or agriculture and can encompass a wide range of
potential contaminants and concentrations. In the most common usage, it refers to the municipal wastewater that contains a
broad spectrum of contaminants resulting from the mixing of wastewaters from different sources.
Sewage is correctly the subset of wastewater that is contaminated with feces or urine, but is often used to mean any waste
water. "Sewage" includes domestic, municipal, or industrial liquid waste products disposed of, usually via a pipe or sewer or
similar structure, sometimes in a cesspool emptier.
The physical infrastructure, including pipes, pumps, screens, channels etc. used to convey sewage from its origin to the point of
eventual treatment or disposal is termed sewerage.