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Statistics

When would you

use them?

Inferential Statistics

What are inferential statistics?

Why use inferential statistics?

When are inferential statistics utilized?

Which types of inferential statistics

What is important for you to know

Inferential Statistics

What are inferential statistics?

Inferential statistics infer from the sample to the

population

They determine probability of characteristics of

sample

They help assess strength of the relationship

you dependent (effect) variables.

Inferential Statistics

Why learn about inferential statistics?

BEFORE you use any intervention, you should do some

(i.e., Does the head start program increase educational

performance for low income children)

BEFORE you work with any group, you want to base your

want to know what proportion of Latino boys join gangs?)

BEFORE you make recommendations, you want to understand

child will have success in school if they participate in your

tutorial program?)

Before you continue on with a program/intervention, you want

effort.

As you apply for grants, you want to ensure the grantees that

When making policy recommendations or participating in

your intervention actually works.

Inferential Statistics

Why use inferential statistics?

Many top-tiered journals will not publish articles

Allows you to generalize your findings to the larger

population.

Can determine not just what CAN happen, but

what tends to happen in programs like yours.

Helps assess strength of the relationship between

dependent (effect) variables.

Can assess the relative impact of various program

Inferential Statistics

When are inferential statistics utilized?

Inferential statistics can only be used under the

following conditions.

You have a complete list of the members of the population.

You draw a random sample from this population

Using a pre-established formula, you determine that your

Inferential statistics can help determine strength of

can assess the strength of the impact of your

independent variables (program inputs) on your

outcomes (program outputs)

IF it is very difficult to obtain a population list and/or

with what you have. In this case, you can use

inferential statistics and journals may publish it.

Inferential Statistics

Which types of inferential statistics are most

One sample test of difference/One sample

hypothesis test

Confidence Interval

Contingency Tables and Chi Square Statistic

T-test or Anova

Pearson Correlation

Bi-variate Regression

Multi-variate Regression

Inferential Statistics

First consider uni-variate statistics.

One sample test of difference OR one

When is it used?

on a pre and post test.

impact on one particular outcome.

How do you interpret it?

make a mistake in asserting there is a

difference between the pre and post-test

scores in the population, then you can assert

that the program did make a difference on this

outcome. In other words, your program is

working.

Inferential Statistics

First consider uni-variate statistics.

Confidence Interval

When is it used?

on the score of the participants in your sample.

How do you interpret it?

95% confident that you can predict/infer the

value/score of a population within a specified

range based on the value/score of your sample.

Inferential Statistics

Next consider bi-variate statistics.

Contingency tables and Chi-Square

statistic

AND you want to know if they are related. (i.e.,

gender and score on outcome measurement).

How do you interpret them?

determine the strength of the relationship (i.e.,

Does knowing someones gender help you

predict their outcome score/value). If the

probability associated with the chi-square

statistics is .05 of less, then you can assert that

the independent variable can be used to predict

scores on the dependent or outcome variable.

You can also use the contingency table to

compare the actual scores across the

independent variable on the dependent variable

or outcome measurement (i.e., compare the

number/percent of males who agreed that the

program had a positive impact on their lives to

the percent of females who agreed.)

Inferential Statistics

Next consider bi-variate statistics.

T-test or Anova

When is it used?

variable.

And you want to compare mean scores of two

or more groups (i.e., you want to compare mean

GRP of students you have tutored across race).

How do you interpret it?

determine if the groups have significantly

different means. If the probability associated

with the F statistics is .05 or less then we can

assert that there is a difference in the means.

Inferential Statistics

Next consider bi-variate statistics.

Pearson Correlation

When is it used?

independent variable and a

continuous dependent variable.

How do you interpret it?

with the T statistics is .05 of less

then you can assume there is a

relationship between the dependent

and independent variable. For

instance you may want to know if

the number of hours participants

spend in your program is positively

related to their scores on school

exams.

Inferential Statistics

Next consider bi-variate statistics.

Bi-variate Regression

When is it used?

variable and a continuous dependent (outcome)

variable. For instance, you may want to know if

the number of hours participants spend in your

program is positively related to their scores on

school exams.

How do you interpret it?

statistic is .05 or less then you can assume

there is a relationship between the dependent

and the independent variable.

* NOTE

Inferential Statistics

Finally let us consider multi-variate statistics

Elaborated Chi-Square statistic

When is it used?

categorical variable, and one dependent

categorical variable.

How is it interpreted?

two groups and then do a chi square for each

group (i.e., divide gender into males and

females, then do a chi-square of males and one

for females. So for females you can do a chisquare of outcome measurement by race, and

then do the same for males.)

Inferential Statistics

Multivariate Regression

When is it used?

than one independent (causal) variable and one

dependent (effect or outcome) variable.

You not only want to know if you intervention

has an impact on the outcome, but you want to

know WHICH aspects of your intervention has

an impact and/or the relative impact of different

aspects of your intervention.

How do you interpret it?

is .05 of less, then you can

for each of the independent variables is .05 or

less, then you can assert that independent

variable has an impact on the outcome,

independent of the other variables. The

value of the T statistics can be compared

across the independent variables to determine

the relative value of each.

Inferential Statistics

What is important for you to know

You should be able to

1. Read and understand computer printouts

2. Construct tables and graphs from the computer

printouts.

3. Interpret and explain these tables and graphs to an

audience.

4. Make wise decisions based on valid and accurate data.

use Inferential Statistics?

All of us are consumers of information

We can learn about inferential statistics and be wiser

consumers of information. We are empowered, and

have the tools to determine if the information we are

reading is accurate/valid.

If you implement programs, you are ethically

accurately measure the outcomes of your

intervention.

If you use government/foundation funding to

responsible for using their monies wisely and

efficiently.

USU Extension Specialist

carol.albrecht@usu.edu

979-777-2421

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