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5/6/2016

Ch12HW

Ch12HW

Due:9:30amonMonday,May2,2016

Youwillreceivenocreditforitemsyoucompleteaftertheassignmentisdue.GradingPolicy

AngularMotionwithConstantAcceleration

LearningGoal:

Tounderstandthemeaningofthevariablesthatappearintheequationsforrotationalkinematicswithconstantangularacceleration.

Rotationalmotionwithaconstantnonzeroaccelerationisnotuncommonintheworldaroundus.Forinstance,manymachineshavespinningparts.When

themachineisturnedonoroff,thespinningpartstendtochangetherateoftheirrotationwithvirtuallyconstantangularacceleration.Manyintroductory

problemsinrotationalkinematicsinvolvemotionofaparticlewithconstant,nonzeroangularacceleration.Thekinematicequationsforsuchmotioncanbe

writtenas

 

θ( t) = θ

0

and

+

ω

0

t+

1

2

Here,thesymbolsaredefinedasfollows:

ω(t) = ω

0

+ αt

.

θ(t)

θ 0

ω(t)

ω 0

istheangularpositionoftheparticleattime .

istheinitialangularpositionoftheparticle.

t

istheangularvelocityoftheparticleattime .

istheinitialangularvelocityoftheparticle.

t

α

istheangularaccelerationoftheparticle.

t

isthetimethathaselapsedsincetheparticlewaslocatedatitsinitialposition.

α t 2

Inansweringthefollowingquestions,assumethattheangularaccelerationisconstantandnonzero:

α ≠ 0

.

PartA

θ

Trueorfalse:Thequantityrepresentedby isafunctionoftime(i.e.,isnotconstant).

ANSWER: true false
ANSWER:
true
false

Correct

PartB

θ 0

Trueorfalse:Thequantityrepresentedby isafunctionoftime(i.e.,isnotconstant).

ANSWER: true false
ANSWER:
true
false

Correct

θ 0

Keepinmindthat representsaninitialvalue,notavariable.Itreferstotheangularpositionofanobjectatsomeinitialmoment.

PartC

Trueorfalse:Thequantityrepresentedby

ω 0

isafunctionoftime(i.e.,isnotconstant).

ANSWER: true false Typesettingmath:56%
ANSWER:
true
false
Typesettingmath:56%

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Correct

PartD

Trueorfalse:Thequantityrepresentedby isafunctionoftime(i.e.,isnotconstant).

ω

ANSWER: true false
ANSWER:
true
false

Correct

Theangularvelocity alwaysvarieswithtimewhentheangularaccelerationisnonzero.

ω

PartE

Whichofthefollowingequationsisnotanexplicitfunctionoftime ?Keepinmindthatanequationthatisanexplicitfunctionoftimeinvolves asa variable.

t

t

ANSWER: θ = θ 0 + ω 0 t+ 2 1 α t 2 ω
ANSWER:
θ =
θ
0 +
ω 0
t+
2 1 α t 2
ω = ω
0 + αt
2
ω =
2 + 2α(θ −
ω
θ 0
)
0

Correct

Anequationthatisnotanexplicitfunctionoftimeisusefulwhenyoudonotknowordonotneedthetime.

PartF

Intheequation

Choosetheanswerthatisalwaystrue.Severalofthestatementsmaybetrueinaparticularproblem,butonlyoneisalwaystrue.

ANSWER:

ω = ω

0

+ αt

t

,whatdoesthetimevariable represent?

themomentintimeatwhichtheangularvelocityequals themomentintimeatwhichtheangularvelocityequals

themomentintimeatwhichtheangularvelocityequals

themomentintimeatwhichtheangularvelocityequals

thetimeelapsedfromwhentheangularvelocityequals

ω 0

ω

ω 0

untiltheangularvelocityequals

ω

Correct

ConsidertwoparticlesAandB.TheangularpositionofparticleA,withconstantangularacceleration,dependsontimeaccordingto

θ

A

(t) =

θ 0

+

ω 0

t+

1

2

α t 2

.Attime

t = t 1

,particleB,whichalsoundergoesconstantangularacceleration,hastwicetheangularacceleration,half

theangularvelocity,andthesameangularpositionthatparticleAhadattime t = 0 . PartG
theangularvelocity,andthesameangularpositionthatparticleAhadattime
t = 0
.
PartG
WhichofthefollowingequationsdescribestheangularpositionofparticleB?
Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
ThegeneralequationfortherotationofBcanbewrittenas
θ
B (t) =
(t =
)+
(t =
)⋅(t−
)+
(t− t 1 ) 2
θ B
t 1
ω B
t 1
t 1
,
2 1 α B

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Ch12HW

where θ B (t = t 1 ) and ω B (t = t 1
where
θ
B (t =
t 1
)
and
ω
B (t =
t 1
)
arethepositionandangularspeed,respectively,ofparticleBattime .Notethetimefactorsof
t 1
t
B = (t −
t 1
)
andnot .ThischangeisbecausenothingisknownaboutparticleBattime
t
t = 0
.Insteadyouhaveinformationaboutparticle
Battime
t 1
.
Expressthequantitiesontheright­handsideofthisequationfor
θ
B (t)
intermsofparticleA'svariablesandconstantsofmotion.

ANSWER:

1 θ +2 (t) = θ α t 2 0 ω 0 t+ B 4
1
θ +2
(t) =
θ
α t 2
0
ω 0
t+
B
4
θ +
(t) =
θ
1
2 ω 0
t+α t 2
B
0
1
θ +2
(t) =
θ
ω 0
(t−
t 1
)+
α(t−
t
) 2
B
0
1
4
θ +
(t) =
θ
1
2 ω 0
(t−
t 1
)+α(t− t
) 2
B
0
1
1
θ +2
(t) =
θ
ω 0
(t+
t 1
)+
α(t+
t
) 2
B
0
1
4
θ +
(t) =
θ
(t+
B
0
1
2 ω 0
t 1
)+α(t+ t 1 ) 2

Correct

NotethatparticleBhasasmallerinitialangularvelocitybutgreaterangularacceleration.Also,ithasbeeninmotionforlesstimethanparticleA.

PartH

t 1

Howlongafterthetime doestheangularvelocityofparticleBequalthatofparticleA?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem

WriteexpressionsfortheangularvelocityofAandBasfunctionsoftime,eitherbycomparisonoftheaboveequationswiththegeneral

kinematicequationsorbydifferentiatingtheaboveequations.Thenequatethe2expressionsandsolvefor

t t 1

.

ANSWER: ω 0 4α ω 0 +4α t 1 2α ω 0 +2α t 1
ANSWER:
ω 0
ω 0
+4α
t 1
ω 0
+2α
t 1
Thetwoparticlesneverhavethesameangularvelocity.

Correct

AnExhaustedBicyclist

Anexhaustedbicyclistpedalssomewhaterraticallywhenexercisingonastaticbicycle.Theangularvelocityofthewheelsfollowstheequation

t

where representstime(measuredinseconds), =0.500

a

ω(t) = at bsin(ct)

for

t ≥ 0

,

rad/s 2

b

, =0.250

rad/s

and =2.00

c

rad/s

.

PartA

Thereisaspotofpaintonthefrontwheelofthebicycle.Takethepositionofthespotattime

axisparalleltotheground(andperpendiculartotheaxisofrotationofthetire)andmeasurepositiveanglesinthedirectionofthewheel'srotation.

t = 0

tobeatangle

θ = 0

radianswithrespecttoan

Whatangulardisplacement hasthespotofpaintundergonebetweentime0and2seconds?

Expressyouranswerinradiansusingthreesignificantfigures.

θ

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Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Thespotofpaintrotatestogetherwiththewheel.Therefore,theequationoftheangularvelocityofthewheelcanbeusedtodescribethe
rotationofthespotofpaint.Sincetheangularvelocityistherateofchangeoftheangulardisplacementwithtime,youneedtointegratethe
function
ω( t)
overthetimeintervalfrom0to2seconds.
Hint2.Findtheangulardisplacement
Giventheequationoftheangularvelocity
ω(t)
,findanexpressionfortheangulardisplacement
θ(t)
asafunctionoftime.
Expressyouranswerasafunctionintermsoftime(t).
Hint1.Integration
Theangulardisplacement
θ(t)
ofthespotofpaintisgivenby
θ(t) = ∫
t ω(
t ∗
)d
t ∗
.
0
Notetheinitialconditions
θ(0) = 0
and
ω(0) = 0
.
ANSWER:
1
1
1
θ(t) =
t 2
+
cos(2t)−
4
8
8
ANSWER:

θ = 0.793 rad

Correct

PartB

Expresstheangulardisplacementundergonebythespotofpaintat

shouldyouneedit.

t = 2

secondsindegrees.RemembertousetheunroundedvaluefromPartA,

Expressyouranswerindegreesusingthreesignificantfigures. Hint1.Radiansanddegrees Recallthatthevalue ofanangleindegreesis
Expressyouranswerindegreesusingthreesignificantfigures.
Hint1.Radiansanddegrees
Recallthatthevalue ofanangleindegreesis
θ d
θ r 180
θ
d =
,
π
where isthevalueoftheanglemeasuredinradians.
θ r

ANSWER:

θ = 45.5

Correct

PartC

Whatdistance hasthespotofpaintmovedin2secondsiftheradiusofthewheelis50centimeters?

Expressyouranswerincentimetersusingthreesignificantfigures.

d

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Consideraparticlethatrotatesaboutthezaxisinthexyplane.Theangulardiplacement traveledbytheparticleisgivenby θ θ = s ,
Consideraparticlethatrotatesaboutthezaxisinthexyplane.Theangulardiplacement traveledbytheparticleisgivenby
θ
θ = s
,
r
where isthedistancetraveledbytheparticleinthexyplaneand isthedistanceoftheparticlefromthezaxis.
s
r
ANSWER:

d = 39.7 cm

Correct

PartD

Whichoneofthefollowingstatementsdescribesthemotionofthespotofpaintat t = 2.0 seconds? Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Whichoneofthefollowingstatementsdescribesthemotionofthespotofpaintat
t = 2.0
seconds?
Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Asthebicyclistpedals,thewheelsrotateinthepositivedirectionaswehavedefinedit.Thismakestheangularvelocityofthewheelalways
nonnegative,andconsequentlytheangularvelocityofthespotofpaintisalwaysnonnegative.Inaddition,theangularvelocityofthespotof
paintincreasesifitsangularaccelerationispositive,anditdecreasesifitsangularaccelerationisnegative.
Hint2.Findtheangularaccelerationat
t = 2
seconds
Whatistheangularacceleration ofthespotofpaintat
α
t = 2
seconds?
Expressyouranswerinradianspersecondpersecond.
Hint1.Findtheangularaccelerationofthespotofpaint
Writeanexpressionfortheangularacceleration
α(t)
ofthespotofpaintasafunctionoftime.
Expressyouranswerasafunctionintermsoftime(t).
Hint1.Angularacceleration
Theangularacceleration ofaparticlethatrotateswithangularvelocity istherateofchangeof withtime;thatis,
α
ω
ω
α = dω
.
dt
ANSWER:
1
α(t) =
1 2 cos( 2t)
rad/sec 2
2
ANSWER:
α = 0.827 rad/s 2

ANSWER:

Theangularaccelerationofthespotofpaintisconstantandthemagnitudeoftheangularspeedisdecreasing.Theangularaccelerationofthespotofpaintisconstantandthemagnitudeoftheangularspeedisincreasing.

Theangularaccelerationofthespotofpaintisconstantandthemagnitudeoftheangularspeedisincreasing.

Theangularaccelerationofthespotofpaintispositiveandthemagnitudeoftheangularspeedisdecreasing.

Theangularaccelerationofthespotofpaintispositiveandthemagnitudeoftheangularspeedisincreasing.

Theangularaccelerationofthespotofpaintisnegativeandthemagnitudeoftheangularspeedisdecreasing.

Theangularaccelerationofthespotofpaintisnegativeandthemagnitudeoftheangularspeedisincreasing.Theangularaccelerationofthespotofpaintisnegativeandthemagnitudeoftheangularspeedisdecreasing.

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Correct

LinearandRotationalKinematicsRankingTask

Thepulleyinrepresentsdifferentpulleysthatareattachedwithouterradiusandinnerradius

indicatedinthetable.Thehorizontalropeispulledtotherightataconstantlinearspeedthatis

thesameineachcase,andnoneofthetwoseparateropesslipsinitscontactwiththepulley.

PartA

PartA

Rankthesescenariosonthebasisofthelinearspeedoftheblock.

Rankfromlargesttosmallest.Torankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

Hint1.Relatingthetworopespeeds

Bypullingthehorizontalropeatconstantlinearspeed,thepulleyisgivenaconstantangularvelocity.Thisangularvelocityinturncausesthe

ropeattachedtotheblocktowindupataconstantlinearspeed.Sincebothropesareattachedtothesamepulley,eachoftheirspeedsmust

satisfytherelationship

v =

,

where istheangularvelocityofthepulleyand istheradiusfortherope.

ω

r

ANSWER:

istheradiusfortherope. ω r ANSWER:

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Correct

Analysisofasinglepulley

Severalpointsonthepulleyareindicatedin.Eachletterdesignatesapointoneitherthepulley

oroneofthetworopesandpointDisatthecenteroftheaxle.Thehorizontalropeispulledto

therightataconstantlinearspeed,andneitherropeslipsinitscontactwiththepulley.

PartB

PartB

Rankthedesignatedpointsonthebasisoftheirlinearortangentialspeed.

Rankfromlargesttosmallest.Torankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

Hint1.Determiningspeed

Sinceeachpointislocatedonthesamepulley(orislocatedonaropeattachedtothesamepulley),eachpoint’slinearortangentialspeedis

determinedbyitsradialdistancefromtherotationaxisvia

.

v =

ANSWER:

. v = rω ANSWER: Correct PartC

Correct

PartC

Rankthedesignatedpointsinonthebasisofthemagnitudeoftheirlinearorradialacceleration.

Rankfromlargesttosmallest.Torankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

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5/6/2016 Ch12HW Hint1. Constantspeed

Hint1.Constantspeed

Thehorizontalropeispulledatconstantlinearspeed,givingthepulleyaconstantangularspeed.Anypointonthepulley,however,is

undergoingcircularmotionandmusthaveanonzeroradialacceleration(exceptforthepointontheaxisofthepulley).Anypointnotonthe

pulleydoesnothavearadialacceleration,becausetheymoveinastraightlineatconstantspeed.

ANSWER:

ANSWER: Correct Problem12.1

Correct

Problem12.1

Askaterholdsherarmsoutstretchedasshespinsat100

r

pm

.

PartA

Whatisthespeedofherhandsiftheyare140

Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.

cm apart?

ANSWER: 7.33 m s
ANSWER:
7.33 m
s

Correct

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Thethreemassesshowninthefigureareconnectedbymassless,rigidrods.Assumethat

220

g

and

m

2

=350

g

.

m 1

=

220 g and m 2 =350 g . m 1 = PartA Whatisthe ­coordinateofthecenterofmass? x

PartA

Whatisthe ­coordinateofthecenterofmass?

x

Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.

ANSWER:

x = 5.2 cm

Correct

PartB

Whatisthe ­coordinateofthecenterofmass?

y

Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.

ANSWER:

y = 3.3 cm

Correct

Problem12.15

Thethreemassesshowninthefigureareconnectedbymassless,rigidrods.

PartA Findthecoordinatesofthecenterofmass.Findthe

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Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.

ANSWER:

x

c m

= 6.0

cm

Correct

PartB

Findthe ­coordinate.

y

Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.

ANSWER:

y

cm = 4.0

cm

Correct

PartC

FindthemomentofinertiaaboutanaxisthatpassesthroughmassAandisperpendiculartothepage.

Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.

ANSWER:

I

= 2.0×10 3

kg⋅m 2

Correct

PartD

FindthemomentofinertiaaboutanaxisthatpassesthroughmassesBandC.

Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.

ANSWER:

I

= 1.3×10 3

kg⋅m 2

Correct

TorqueaboutthezAxis

LearningGoal:

Tounderstandtwodifferenttechniquesforcomputingthetorqueonanobjectduetoanappliedforce.

F

Imagineanobjectwithapivotpointpattheoriginofthecoordinatesystemshown.Theforcevector liesinthexyplane,andthisforceofmagnitude

actsontheobjectatapointinthexyplane.Thevector isthepositionvectorrelativetothepivotpointptothepointwhere isapplied.

r

F

F

F

Thetorqueontheobjectduetotheforce isequaltothecrossproduct

τ ⃗= r⃗× F

.When,asinthisproblem,theforcevectorandleverarmbothliein

thexyplaneofthepaperorcomputerscreen,onlythezcomponentoftorqueisnonzero.

 

^

Whenthetorquevectorisparalleltothezaxis(

τ ⃗= τk

θ

),itiseasiesttofindthemagnitudeandsignofthetorque, ,intermsoftheangle betweenthe

τ

positionandforcevectorsusingoneoftwosimplemethods:theTangentialComponentoftheForcemethodortheMomentArmoftheForcemethod.

 

^

^

^

Notethatinthisproblem,thepositivezdirectionisperpendiculartothecomputerscreenandpointstowardyou(givenbytheright­handrule

i ×

j

= k

),

soapositivetorquewouldcausecounterclockwiserotationaboutthezaxis.

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5/6/2016 Ch12HW Tangentialcomponentoftheforce PartA Decomposetheforcevector intoradial(i.e.,parallelto

Tangentialcomponentoftheforce

PartA

Decomposetheforcevector intoradial(i.e.,parallelto )andtangential(perpendicularto

F

r

r

)componentsasshown.Findthemagnitudeoftheradialandtangentialcomponents,

F

r

and .Youmayassumethat isbetweenzeroand90degrees.

F t

θ

Enteryouranswerasanorderedpair.Express and intermsof and .

F t

F r

F

θ

and intermsof and . F t F r F θ ⃗ Hint1.Magnitudeof F r ⃗ ⃗
⃗ Hint1.Magnitudeof F r ⃗ ⃗ Usethegivenanglebetweentheforcevector anditsradialcomponent F F
Hint1.Magnitudeof
F
r
Usethegivenanglebetweentheforcevector anditsradialcomponent
F
F
tocomputethemagnitude .
F
r
r
ANSWER:
(F ,
r
F t
) =
Fcosθ,Fsinθ
Correct
PartB
Isthefollowingstatementtrueorfalse?
r
Thetorqueaboutpointpisproportionaltothelength ofthepositionvector .
r
ANSWER: true false
ANSWER:
true
false

Correct

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PartC

Isthefollowingstatementtrueorfalse?

F

Boththeradialandtangentialcomponentsof generatetorqueaboutpointp.

ANSWER: true false
ANSWER:
true
false

Correct

PartD

Isthefollowingstatementtrueorfalse?

Inthisproblem,thetangentialforcevectorwouldtendtoturnanobjectclockwisearoundpivotpointp.

ANSWER: true false
ANSWER:
true
false

Correct

PartE

F

Findthetorque aboutthepivotpointpduetoforce .Youranswershouldcorrectlyexpressboththemagnitudeandsignof .

τ

τ

Expressyouranswerintermsof and orintermsof , ,and .

ANSWER:

F t

r

F

θ

r

τ =

rFsinθ

Correct

Momentarmoftheforce

Inthefigure,thedashedlineextendingfromtheforcevectoriscalledthelineofactionof .Theperpendiculardistance

lineofactioniscalledthemomentarmoftheforce.

F

r m

fromthepivotpointptothe

PartF

F

Whatisthelength, ,ofthemomentarmoftheforce aboutpointp?

r m

θ

Expressyouranswerintermsof and .

r

aboutpointp? r m θ Expressyouranswerintermsof and . r

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ANSWER:

r

m

= rsinθ

Correct

PartG

Findthetorque aboutpdueto .Youranswershouldcorrectlyexpressboththemagnitudeandsignof .

Expressyouranswerintermsof

ANSWER:

F

τ

τ

r m

and

F

orintermsof , ,and .

r

θ

F

τ =

rFsinθ

Correct

Threeequivalentexpressionsforexpressingtorqueaboutthezaxishavebeendiscussedinthisproblem:

1.Torqueisdefinedasthecrossproductbetweenthepositionandforcevectors.Whenboth and lieinthexyplane,onlythezcomponentof

torqueisnonzero,andthecrossproductsimplifiesto:

F

r

^

^

τ ⃗= r⃗× F = r F ∗ sin(θ)

k

= τ k

.

Notethatapositivevaluefor indicatesacounterclockwisedirectionaboutthezaxis.

τ

F

r

2.Torqueisgeneratedbythecomponentof thatistangentialtothepositionvector (thetangentialcomponentofforce):

τ = r F

t

= r F sin(θ)

.

3.Themagnitudeoftorqueistheproductoftheforceandtheperpendiculardistancebetweenthezaxisandthelineofactionofaforce, ,

calledthemomentarmoftheforce:

r m

τ = r

m F = r ∗ sin(θ) ∗ F

.

Problem12.18

PartA

In,whatisthenettorqueabouttheaxle?

Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.

ANSWER:

τ =

­0.20 N⋅m

Correct

ANSWER: τ ⃗ = ­0.20 N⋅m Correct

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±PSS12.1RotationalDynamicsProblems

LearningGoal:

TopracticeProblem­SolvingStrategy12.1forrotationaldynamicsproblems.

Supposethatyouareholdingapencilbalancedonitspoint.Ifyoureleasethepencilanditbeginstofall,whatwillbetheangularaccelerationwhenithas

anangleof10.0degreesfromthevertical?Atypicalpencilhasanaveragelengthof15.0

pencildoesnotslipasitfalls.

c m

andanaveragemassof10.0 .Assumethetipofthe

g

PROBLEM­SOLVINGSTRATEGY12.1Rotationaldynamicsproblems

MODEL:Modeltheobjectasasimpleshape.

VISUALIZE:Drawapictorialrepresentationtoclarifythesituation,definecoordinatesandsymbols,andlistknowninformation.

Identifytheaxisaboutwhichtheobjectrotates.

Identifyforces,anddeterminetheirdistancefromtheaxis.Formostproblems,itwillbeusefultodrawafree­bodydiagram.

Identifyanytorquescausedbytheforcesandthesignsofthetorques.

SOLVE:ThemathematicalrepresentationisbasedonNewton’ssecondlawforrotationalmotion:

τ net

=

I α

or

α

=

τ net

I .

Findthemomentofinertiainthetableofcommonshapesofobjects,orifneeded,calculateitasanintegralorbyusingtheparallel­axis

theorem.

Userotationalkinematicstofindanglesandangularvelocities.

ASSESS:Checkthatyourresulthasthecorrectunits,isreasonable,andanswersthequestion.

Model

Therearetworeasonableapproximationstoconsiderforthepencilinthisproblem:acylinderandathinrod.However,inthisproblemwewilltreatthe

pencilasauniformthinrodoflength15.0

cm

andmass10.0 .

g

Visualize

PartA

Thepencilrotatesaboutanaxisperpendiculartotheplaneofthefigure.Whichofthelabeledpointsisthepointthattheaxisofrotationpasses

through?

through? ANSWER: A B C D E Correct
ANSWER: A B C D E
ANSWER:
A
B
C
D
E

Correct

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PartB

Identifyanddrawtheforcesthatactonthepencil.Becertaintodraweachforceatthecorrectlocation(thepointatwhichtheforceactsonthe

pencil).Theblackdotrepresentsthecenterofmassofthepencil.

Drawthevectorsstartingatthepointsofapplicationofthecorrespondingforces.Thelocationandorientationofthevectorswillbegraded.

Thelengthofthevectorswillnotbegraded.

ANSWER:

Thelengthofthevectorswillnotbegraded. ANSWER: Correct Solve PartC

Correct

Solve

PartC

Whatistheangularaccelerationofthepencilwhenitmakesanangleof10.0degreeswiththevertical?

Expressyouranswernumericallyinradianspersecondsquaredtothreesignificantfigures. Hint1.Findthemomentofinertia
Expressyouranswernumericallyinradianspersecondsquaredtothreesignificantfigures.
Hint1.Findthemomentofinertia
InPartA,youdeterminedthepointaboutwhichthepencilrotates.Todeterminetheangularaccelerationofthepencil,youwillneedtoknowits
momentofinertiaaboutthatpoint.Whatisthemomentofinertia ofthepencilaboutanend,givenourapproximationthatitisauniformthin
I
rodoflength15.0
c m
andmass10.0 ?
g
Expressyouranswernumericallyinkilogram­meterssquaredtofoursignificantfigures.
Hint1.Themomentofinertiaofathinrod
1
Theformulaformomentofinertiaofathinrodaboutanendis
m L 2
,where isthemassand isthelength.Youhavethemass
m
L
3
andlengthingramsandcentimeters,respectively.Besuretoconvertthesequantitiestotheappropriateunitsbeforeenteringtheminto
theformula.
ANSWER:
I = 7.500×10 −5
kg ⋅ m 2
Hint2.Findthenettorque

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Whatisthenettorque actingonthepencilwhentorqueiscalculatedabouttheendthatisincontactwiththeground(i.e.,thepointthat τ n
Whatisthenettorque
actingonthepencilwhentorqueiscalculatedabouttheendthatisincontactwiththeground(i.e.,thepointthat
τ n et
youidentifiedinPartA)?
Expressyouranswernumericallyinnewton­meterstofoursignificantfigures.
Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Recallthatthemagnitude ofatorqueisdefinedby
τ
τ = rF sinϕ
,where isthedistancefromthepivotpointtothepointof
r
applicationfortheforce, isthemagnitudeoftheforcethatexertsthetorque,and istheanglebetweentheforceandtheline
F
ϕ
connectingthepivottothepointofapplication.
Hint2.Findthedistancefromtheaxisforeachforceactingonthepencil
Whatisthedistance betweenthepointofapplicationof andtheaxisofrotation?Whatisthedistance
n⃗
r n
r w
betweenthepointof
applicationof andtheaxis?Whatisthedistance betweenthepointofapplicationof andtheaxis?Recallthattheaxisof
w⃗
f
r f
rotationinthisproblemishorizontal.
Expressyouranswersnumericallyinmeterstothreesignificantfiguresseparatedbyacomma.
ANSWER:
r
,
,
m
, m
n
r w
r f
= 0,7.50×10 −2 ,0
Hint3.Findtheweightofthepencil
Whatisthemagnitude
F G
oftheweightofthepencil?
Expressyouranswernumericallyinnewtonstofoursignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
F G
N
= 9.800×10 −2
ANSWER:
N ⋅ m
τ net
= −1.276×10 −3
ANSWER:

α = ­17.0 rad/s 2

Correct

Assess

PartD

Calculatethetime forthepenciltohittheground,assumingthatitfallsfromstandingperfectlyverticalandmaintainsthisangularacceleration.

Expressyouranswernumericallyinsecondstothreesignificantfigures.

t

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem

Recallthatanglesmeasuredclockwisearenegative.Infallingfromverticaltostrikingtheground,thepenciltravelsclockwiseandgoesthrough

achangeinangleof

kinematicsequationstofindthetimeforthepenciltotraverse

−90

degrees,or

π/2 rad

.UsetheangularaccelerationthatyoufoundinPartCalongwithoneoftheangular

π/2 rad

.

Hint2.Determinewhichequationtouse

Whichofthefollowingequationsformotionunderconstantangularacceleration\texttip{\alpha}{alpha}shouldyouusetofind\texttip{t}{t}?Let

\texttip{\omega_{\rm0}}{omega_0}betheinitialangularspeed,\texttip{\omega}{omega}theangularspeedattime\texttip{t}{t},and

\texttip{\Delta\theta}{Deltatheta}thechangeinangleduringtime\texttip{t}{t}.

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ANSWER: \omega=\omega_0+\alphat \large{\Delta\theta=\omega_0t+\frac{_1}{^2}\alphat^2}
ANSWER:
\omega=\omega_0+\alphat
\large{\Delta\theta=\omega_0t+\frac{_1}{^2}\alphat^2}
\omega^2=\omega_0^2+2\alpha\Delta\theta
ANSWER:

\texttip{t}{t}= 0.430 \rms

Correct

Inthispart,youassumedthattheangularaccelerationfrompartwaythroughthefallistheconstantangularaccelerationthroughtheentirefall. Thisissimilartothecalculationusingtheaverageangularacceleration.Therefore,youshouldgetavaluesimilarto(i.e.,withthesameorderof magnitudeas)whatyoufindinreallife.Youcalculatedatimeofaroundhalfasecond.Thisiscertainlyreasonable,basedonyourexperience

withpencils.Ifyouhadfoundananswersuchas50secondsor1/100second,thenyouwouldneedtorethinkyouranswerandcheckoveryour

work.

AccelerationofaPulley

Astringiswrappedaroundauniformsolidcylinderofradius\texttip{r}{r},asshowninthefigure.

Thecylindercanrotatefreelyaboutitsaxis.Thelooseendofthestringisattachedtoablock.

Theblockandcylindereachhavemass\texttip{m}{m}.Notethatthepositiveydirectionis

downwardandcounterclockwisetorquesarepositive.

y directionis downwardandcounterclockwisetorquesarepositive. PartA Findthemagnitude \texttip{\alpha}{alpha}

PartA

Findthemagnitude\texttip{\alpha}{alpha}oftheangularaccelerationofthecylinderastheblockdescends.

Expressyouranswerintermsofthecylinder'sradius\texttip{r}{r}andthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravity\texttip{g}{g}.
Expressyouranswerintermsofthecylinder'sradius\texttip{r}{r}andthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravity\texttip{g}{g}.
Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
1.Theblockdoesnotrotate.Toanalyzeitsmotion,youshoulduseNewton'ssecondlawinitslinearform:F=ma.
2.Thepulleyrotates.Toanalyzeitsmotion,youshoulduseNewton'ssecondlawinitsangularform:\tau=I\alpha.
3.Usingthegeometryofthesituation,youneedtofindtherelationshipbetween\texttip{a}{a}and\texttip{\alpha}{alpha}.
4.Finally,solvethesystemofthreeequationstoobtainanexpressionfor\texttip{\alpha}{alpha}.
Hint2.Findthenetforceontheblock
Theblockhastwoforcesactingonit:thetensionofthestringanditsownweight.Whatisthenetforce\texttip{F}{F}actingontheblock?Use
thecoordinatesystemshowninthefigure.
Expressyouranswerintermsof\texttip{m}{m},\texttip{g}{g}(themagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravity),and\texttip{T}{T}(the
tensioninthestring).
ANSWER:
F=ma== mg­T

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Hint3.Findthenettorqueonthepulley Thetension\texttip{T}{T}inthestringproducesatorquethatactsonthepulley.Whatisthetorque?
Hint3.Findthenettorqueonthepulley
Thetension\texttip{T}{T}inthestringproducesatorquethatactsonthepulley.Whatisthetorque?
Expressyouranswerintermsofthecylinder'sradius\texttip{r}{r}andthetension\texttip{T}{T}inthestring.
Hint1.Formulafortorque
Recallthat\tau=rF\sin(\phi),where\texttip{F}{F}istheforcecausingthetorque,\texttip{r}{r}isthedistancefromthepivottothepointat
whichtheforceacts,and\texttip{\phi}{phi}istheanglebetweenthepositionvectorofthepointmentionedaboveandtheforcevector.
ANSWER:
I\alpha== ­Tr
Hint4.Relatelinearandangularacceleration
Thestringdoesnotstretch.Therefore,thereisageometricconstraintbetweenthelinearacceleration\texttip{a}{a}andtheangularacceleration
\texttip{\alpha}{alpha}.Whatisthecylinder'sangularacceleration\texttip{\alpha}{alpha}intermsofthelinearacceleration\texttip{a}{a}ofthe
block?
Expressyouranswerintermsof\texttip{a}{a}and\texttip{r}{r}.Becarefulwithyoursigns.
ANSWER:
\texttip{\alpha}{alpha}= \large{\frac{­a}{r}}
Hint5.Puttingittogether
Solvethesystemofequationstoeliminate\texttip{T}{T}andobtainanexpressionfor\texttip{\alpha}{alpha}.
ANSWER:

\texttip{\alpha}{alpha}= \large{\frac{g}{1.5r}}

Correct

Notethatthemagnitudeofthelinearaccelerationoftheblockis\large{\frac{2}{3}g},whichdoesnotdependonthevalueof\texttip{r}{r}.

PSS12.2StaticEquilibriumProblems

LearningGoal:

TopracticeProblem­SolvingStrategy12.2forstaticequilibriumproblems.

TweedledumandTweedledeearecarryingauniformwoodenboardthatis\texttip{L}{L}=3.00{\rmm}longandhasamass\texttip{M}{M}=15.0{\rmkg}.

IfTweedledumappliesanupwardforceofmagnitude\texttip{F_{\rm1}}{F_1}=60.0{\rmN}attheleftendoftheboard,atwhatpointandwithwhat

magnitude\texttip{F_{\rm2}}{F_2}offorcedoesTweedledeehavetoliftfortheboardtobecarried?

PROBLEM­SOLVINGSTRATEGY12.2Staticequilibriumproblems

MODEL:Modeltheobjectasasimpleshape.

VISUALIZE:Drawapictorialrepresentationshowingallforcesanddistances.Listknowninformation.

Pickanypointyouwishasapivotpoint.Thenettorqueaboutthispointiszero.

Determinethemomentarmsofallforcesaboutthispivotpoint.

Determinethesignofeachtorqueaboutthispivotpoint.

SOLVE:Themathematicalrepresentationisbasedonthefactthatanobjectintotalequilibriumhasnonetforceandnonettorque:

\vec{F}_{\rmnet}=\vec{0}and\tau_{\rmnet}=0.

Writeequationsfor\sumF_x=0,\sumF_y=0,and\sum\tau=0.

Solvethethreesimultaneousequations.

ASSESS:Checkthatyourresultisreasonableandanswersthequestion.

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Model

Modeltheboardasauniformrod,withitscenterofmassatthecenter.NotethatinorderforTweedledumandTweedledeetocarrytheboardsafely,the

boardmustbeinstaticequilibrium.Iftheboardwerenotinequilibrium,thenetforceactingontheboardwouldexertatorqueonit,causingtheboardto

rotate,likelyhittingoneofthecarriers.

Visualize

PartA

Whichofthefollowingdiagramsrepresentsthecorrectfree­bodydiagramforthissituation?

ANSWER: A B C D Correct PartB
ANSWER: A B C D
ANSWER:
A
B
C
D

Correct

PartB

Taketheleftendoftheboardasapivotpoint.Sorttheforcesactingontheboardaccordingtowhethertheyexertapositive,negative,orzerotorque

aboutthispoint.

Dragtheappropriateitemstotheirrespectivebins.

Hint1.Thedefinitionofthepositivesenseofrotation

Byconvention,thepositivesenseofrotationiscounterclockwise.

ANSWER:

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5/6/2016 Ch12HW Correct
Correct
Correct
Nowthatyouhaveidentifiedthecorrectfree­bodydiagram,completeyourpictorialrepresentationoftheproblembydefiningsymbolsrepresenting
theimportantvariables,suchasdistancesandmagnitudesofforces.Makesureyouidentifywhattheproblemistryingtofind.Here,wewillcall
\texttip{d}{d}thedistancebetweentheleftendoftheboardandthepointatwhichTweedledeeexertsaforceofmagnitude\texttip{F_{\rm2}}{F_2}.
Therefore,yourtargetvariablesare\texttip{d}{d}and\texttip{F_{\rm2}}{F_2}.
Acompletepictorialrepresentationforthisproblemshouldlooklikethesketchshownbelow.Keepinmindthatbyconventionthepositivesense
ofrotationiscounterclockwise.

Solve

PartC

IfTweedledumappliesaforceof\texttip{F_{\rm1}}{F_1}attheleftendoftheboard,atwhatdistance\texttip{d}{d}fromtheleftendandwithwhat

magnitudeofforce\texttip{F_{\rm2}}{F_2}doesTweedledeehavetoliftfortheboardtobecarried?

Expressyouranswersnumericallyinnewtonsandmeterstothreesignificantfiguresseparatedbycommas.

Hint1.Setuptheequilibriumconditionforthenetforce

Fortheboardtobeinequilibrium,thereshouldbenotranslationalmotion,i.e.,thenetforceactingontheboardmustbezero.Thisequilibrium

conditionbecomes\SigmaF_y=0inthisproblembecausealltheforcesactingontheboardarevertical.

Writeanexpressionfor\SigmaF_y,thesumoftheverticalcomponentsofallforcesactingontheboard.Assumethattheverticalaxisis

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positiveintheupwardsdirection.

Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariables\texttip{F_{\rm1}}{F_1},\texttip{F_{\rm2}}{F_2},\texttip{L}{L},and

\texttip{M}{M}.Use\texttip{g}{g}fortheaccelerationduetogravity.

ANSWER:

\SigmaF_y=0== F_{1}+F_{2}­Mg

Hint2.Setuptheequilibriumconditionforthenettorque

Becausetheboardisnotrotating,thenettorque\tau_{\rmnet}=\Sigma\tauaboutanypointmustbezero.Belowisalistofequationsfor

\Sigma\taufordifferentpivotpoints.Ineachcase,thexcoordinateofthepivotpointisgivenassumingthatthexaxisisparalleltotheboard

withtheoriginlocatedattheleftendoftheboard.

Whichofthefollowingisthecorrectequationfor\Sigma\tauforthegivenpivotpoint?Torquesthatwouldcauseacounterclockwiserotationare

positive.Theremaybemorethanonecorrectanswer.

Pivotpoint

\Sigma\tau

A x=0

\large{\frac{1}{2}MgL+F_2d=0}

B x=L

\large{\frac{1}{2}MgL­F_2(L­d)­F_1L=0}

C x=0

\large{­\frac{1}{2}MgL+F_2d=0}

D x=d

\large{­F_1d­F_2\left(d­\frac{1}{2}L\right)=0}

E \large{x=\frac{1}{2}L}

\large{­\frac{1}{2}F_1L+F_2\left(d­\frac{1}{2}L\right)=0}

F \large{x=\frac{1}{2}L}

\large{\frac{1}{2}F_1L+F_2\left(d­\frac{1}{2}L\right)=0}

Entertheletter(s)ofthecorrectequation(s)inalphabeticalorder.Forinstance,ifyouthoughtthatchoicesA,B,andDwerecorrect,

youwouldenterABD.

Hint1.Findingthetorque

Thetorque\texttip{\tau}{tau}duetoaforceistheproductofthemagnitude\texttip{F}{F}oftheforceandthemomentarm\texttip{l}{l}of

theforce:

\tau=F\cdotl.

Asshowninthefigure,themomentarmoftheforceistheperpendiculardistancebetweentheaxisofrotationandthelineofactionof

theforce.

Ifthelineofactionoftheforcegoesthroughtheaxisofrotationthatyouhave

chosen,themomentarmoftheforceisequaltozero.Hence,thisforcewill

notcauseatorqueaboutthechosenaxis.

ANSWER:

BCE

ANSWER:

\texttip{F_{\rm2}}{F_2},\texttip{d}{d}= 87.0,2.53 {\rmN},{\rmm}

, \texttip{d}{d} = 87.0,2.53 {\rmN} , {\rmm}

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Correct

Assess

PartD

Now,assumethatTweedledumappliesanupwardforceatthefarleftendoftheboard(\texttip{F_{\rmleft}}{F_left})andthatTweedledeeappliesan

upwardforceatthefarrightendoftheboard(\texttip{F_{\rmright}}{F_right}).Withwhatforcedoeseachpersonlift?Recallthatthemassoftheboard

is\texttip{M}{M}and\texttip{g}{g}istheaccelerationduetogravity.

ANSWER:

F_{\rmleft}=2Mg; F_{\rmright}=2Mg ;F_{\rmright}=2Mg

F_{\rmleft}=0; F_{\rmright}=Mg ;F_{\rmright}=Mg

\large{F_{\rmleft}=\frac{1}{2}Mg}; \large{F_{\rmright}=\frac{1}{2}Mg} ;\large{F_{\rmright}=\frac{1}{2}Mg}

\large{F_{\rmleft}=\frac{1}{2}Mg}; \large{F_{\rmright}=\frac{3}{2}Mg} ;\large{F_{\rmright}=\frac{3}{2}Mg}

F_{\rmleft}=Mg; F_{\rmright}=0 ;F_{\rmright}=0

Correct

Whentwopeopleholdtheboardatequaldistancesfromtheboard'scenterofmass,theymusteachexertthesameforceontheboard,thatis, F_{\rmleft}=F_{\rmright}.IfF_{\rmleft}\neqF_{\rmright},theboardwouldrotate.Sincethenetforceontheboardmustbezero,F_{\rmleft}+

F_{\rmright}=Mg.Hence,eachpersonmustexertaforceontheboardequaltoMg/2.

Considertheoriginalsituation,inwhichthepersonontheright(Tweedledee)heldtheboardclosertothecenterofmassthanthepersonholding

theleftendoftheboard(Tweedledum).Ifyouconsiderarotationaxisthroughthecenterofmass,thenettorqueaboutthataxismustbezero.

Sincetorqueisdirectlyproportionaltobothforceandmomentarm,whenonepersonholdstheboardclosertothecenterofmass(smaller

momentarm),thatpersonmustexertmoreforcetocreateatorquewiththesamemagnitudeasthepersonholdingtheboardfartherfromthe

centerofmass.Yourcalculationsconfirmedthisfact.

ABarSuspendedbyTwoVerticalStrings

Arigid,uniform,horizontalbarofmass\texttip{m_{\rm1}}{m_1}andlength\texttip{L}{L}issupportedbytwoidenticalmasslessstrings.Bothstringsare

vertical.StringAisattachedatadistanced<L/2fromtheleftendofthebarandisconnectedto

theceiling;stringBisattachedtotheleftendofthebarandisconnectedtothefloor.Asmall

blockofmass\texttip{m_{\rm2}}{m_2}issupportedagainstgravitybythebaratadistance

\texttip{x}{x}fromtheleftendofthebar,asshowninthefigure.

\texttip{x}{x} fromtheleftendofthebar,asshowninthefigure.

Throughoutthisproblempositivetorqueisthatwhichspinsanobjectcounterclockwise.Use

\texttip{g}{g}forthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravity.

PartA

Find\texttip{T_{\mitA}}{T_A},thetensioninstringA.

ExpressthetensioninstringAintermsof\texttip{g}{g},\texttip{m_{\rm1}}{m_1},\texttip{L}{L},\texttip{d}{d},\texttip{m_{\rm2}}{m_2},and

\texttip{x}{x}.

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Hint2.Findthetorquearoundthebestaxis
Hint2.Findthetorquearoundthebestaxis
ItisconvenienttochoosetherotationaxistobethroughthepointwherestringBisattachedtothebar.Thiseliminatesanytorquefromthe
tensioninstringB.Findthetotaltorqueaboutthispoint.
Answerintermsof\texttip{T_{\mitA}}{T_A},\texttip{m_{\rm1}}{m_1},\texttip{m_{\rm2}}{m_2},\texttip{L}{L},\texttip{x}{x},\texttip{d}
{d},and\texttip{g}{g}.
ANSWER:
\sum\tau_B= \large{T_{A}d­\frac{m_{1}gL}{2}­m_{2}gx}
Hint3.Summingthetorques
\sum\tau_p=0forastaticsystem.Solvefor\texttip{T_{\mitA}}{T_A}.
ANSWER:

\texttip{T_{\mitA}}{T_A}= \large{{\frac{g}{d}}\left({\frac{m_{1}L}{2}}+m_{2}x\right)}

Correct

PartB

Find\texttip{T_{\mitB}}{T_B},themagnitudeofthetensioninstringB.

ExpressthemagnitudeofthetensioninstringBintermsof\texttip{T_{\mitA}}{T_A},\texttip{m_{\rm1}}{m_1},\texttip{m_{\rm2}}{m_2},and

\texttip{g}{g}.

Hint1.Twodifferentmethodstofind\texttip{T_{\mitB}}{T_B}

Therearetwoequivalentwaystofind\texttip{T_{\mitB}}{T_B}.Onewayistobalancethetorquesaswasdoneinthecalculationof \texttip{T_{\mitA}}{T_A},exceptusingadifferentrotationaxis.Inthiscase,aconvenientaxisisthroughthepointwherestringAisattachedto

thebar.Thesecond,andeasier,methodistousethesecondequationforstaticequilibrium,\sum\vec{F}=0.

Hint2.Directionofforces

Sincebothstringsarevertical,allforcesonthebar­­thetensionforcesandtheweightsofthebarandblock­­actvertically.Thus,onlyvertical

componentsofforcesneedbeconsidered.

ANSWER:

\texttip{T_{\mitB}}{T_B}= T_{A}­\left(m_{1}+m_{2}\right)g

Correct

PartC

Ifthebarandblockaretooheavythestringsmaybreak.Whichofthetwoidenticalstringswillbreakfirst?

ANSWER: stringA stringB
ANSWER:
stringA
stringB

Correct

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Whatisthesmallestpossiblevalueof\texttip{x}{x}suchthatthebarremainsstable(callit\texttip{x_{\rmcritical}}{x_critical})?

Expressyouranswerfor\texttip{x_{\rmcritical}}{x_critical}intermsof\texttip{m_{\rm1}}{m_1},\texttip{m_{\rm2}}{m_2},\texttip{d}{d},and

\texttip{L}{L}.

Hint1.Natureoftheunstablemotion

Whenthebarbecomesunstablethereareonlytwopointsaboutwhichthebarcanrotate:thepointswherethestringsattachtothebar.About

whichpointwillthebarrotatewhenx<x_{\rmcritical}?

ANSWER:

ThepointwherestringAisattachedtothebar

ThepointwherestringBisattachedtothebar

Hint2.TensioninstringBatthecriticalpoint

ThetensioninstringBcounteractstheclockwiserotationofthebaraboutthepointwherestringAisattachedtothebar.As\texttip{x}{x}is decreased,\texttip{T_{\mitB}}{T_B}islikewisedecreasedbecausetheclockwisetorqueaboutthispointdecreases.Thecriticalvalue

\texttip{x_{\rmcritical}}{x_critical}correspondstowhenT_B=0.If\texttip{x}{x}isdecreasedfurther,\texttip{T_{\mitB}}{T_B}willcontinuetobe

zeroandthecounterclockwisetorqueduetotheweightoftheblockwillbegreaterthantheclockwisetorqueduetotheweightofthebar,

causingthesystemtorotate.

Hint3.Calculatethetorques

AddupthetotaltorqueaboutthepointinwhichstringAattachestothebarwhenthemass\texttip{m_{\rm2}}{m_2}isat\texttip{x_{\rmcritical}}

{x_critical}.Rememberthat\texttip{T_{\mitB}}{T_B}hasaspecialvalueatthispointandthat,owingtothechoiceoforigin,thetorquedueto

stringAis0.Remembertopayattentiontothedirectionofthetorques.

Answerintermsof\texttip{m_{\rm2}}{m_2},\texttip{m_{\rm1}}{m_1},\texttip{d}{d},\texttip{L}{L},\texttip{g}{g},and\texttip{x_{\rm

critical}}{x_critical}.

Hint1.FindthedistanceofthecenterofmassofthebarfromstringA

Whatisthedistance\texttip{d_{\rm1}}{d_1}ofthecenterofmassofthebarfromstringA?

Answerintermsofthegivenvariables.

ANSWER:

\texttip{d_{\rm1}}{d_1}= \large{\frac{L}{2}­d}

Hint2.Findthedistanceof\texttip{m_{\rm2}}{m_2}fromthestringA

Whatisthedistance\texttip{d_{\rm2}}{d_2}of\texttip{m_{\rm2}}{m_2}fromthestringA?

Answerintermsofthegivenvariables.

ANSWER:

\texttip{d_{\rm2}}{d_2}= d­x_{\rm{critical}}

ANSWER:

\sum\tau_A=0= \large{m_{2}g\left(d­x_{\rm{critical}}\right)­m_{1}g\left(\frac{L}{2}­d\right)}

ANSWER:

\texttip{x_{\rmcritical}}{x_critical}= \large{d­\frac{m_{1}}{m_{2}}\left({\frac{L}{2}}­d\right)}

Correct

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PartE

Notethat\texttip{x_{\rmcritical}}{x_critical},ascomputedinthepreviouspart,isnotnecessarilypositive.Ifx_{\rmcritical}<0,thebarwillbestable

nomatterwheretheblockofmass\texttip{m_{\rm2}}{m_2}isplacedonit.

Assumingthat\texttip{m_{\rm1}}{m_1},\texttip{d}{d},and\texttip{L}{L}areheldfixed,whatisthemaximumblockmass\texttip{m_{\rmmax}}{m_max}

forwhichthebarwillalwaysbestable?Inotherwords,whatisthemaximumblockmasssuchthatx_{\rmcritical}\leq0?

Answerintermsof\texttip{m_{\rm1}}{m_1},\texttip{d}{d},and\texttip{L}{L}.

Hint1.Requirementofstability

If\texttip{x}{x}iscalculatedtobelessthanzero,thesolutionisunphysical.(Thebardoesnotextendtheretosupportit!)Theminimumvalue

that\texttip{x}{x}canhaveisobviouslyzero.If\texttip{m}{m}islessthanthemassthatwouldgivex_{\rmcritical}=0thenthebarwillbestable

foranyphysicalvalueof\texttip{x}{x}.

ANSWER:

\texttip{m_{\rmmax}}{m_max}= \large{\frac{m_{1}\frac{L}{2}­m_{1}d}{d}}

Correct

AnUnfairRace

Thisappletshowstheresultsofreleasingafrictionlessblockandarollingdiskwithequalmassesfromthetopofidenticalinclinedplanes.

PartA

Whichofthefollowingisthebestexplanationoftheresultsshownintheapplet?

ANSWER:

Thedisklosesenergytofrictionasitrolls,buttheboxisfrictionlessandsoitspeedsupmorequicklyandgetstothebottomfirst.Thepotentialenergyofthediskisconvertedintotranslationalandrotationalkineticenergy,sothetranslationalspeedgrowsmoreslowly

Thepotentialenergyofthediskisconvertedintotranslationalandrotationalkineticenergy,sothetranslationalspeedgrowsmoreslowly

thanthatofthebox,whichhasnorotationalenergy.

Thenetforcesonthetwoobjectsareequal,buttheforceonthediskgetspartiallyusedupincreatingthetorquenecessarytomakeitroll.thanthatofthebox,whichhasnorotationalenergy.

Thenetforcesonthetwoobjectsareequal,buttheforceonthediskisnotdirectedparalleltotheramp,andsodoesnotcreateasgreatan accelerationdowntheramp.

accelerationdowntheramp.

Correct

Thisappletshowsthesamesituation,butitalsoshows,throughbargraphsthatchangewithtime,thewaythattheenergyistransformedastheboxand

thediskgodowntheinclinedplane.

Assumethattheboxanddiskeachhavemass\texttip{m}{m},thetopoftheinclineisatheight\texttip{h}{h},andtheanglebetweentheinclineandthe

groundis\texttip{\theta}{theta}(i.e.,theinclineisatanangle\texttip{\theta}{theta}abovethehorizontal).Also,lettheradiusofthediskbe\texttip{R}{R}.

PartB

Howmuchsoonerdoestheboxreachthebottomoftheinclinethanthedisk?

Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariables\texttip{m}{m},\texttip{h}{h},\texttip{\theta}{theta},and\texttip{R}{R},aswellas

theaccelerationduetogravity\texttip{g}{g}.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem

Youcanuseconservationofenergytodeterminethefinalspeedatthebottomoftherampforeachobject.Fromthat,youcandeterminethe

averagespeedandthenusekinematicstodeterminethetimetogettothebottom.Thedifferenceintimesforthetwoobjectstogettothe

bottomiswhatyouaretryingtofind.Ifyoutakethedirectiondowntheinclinedplaneasthepositivexaxis,thenthevelocitiesarealways

positiveandone­dimensionalinthexdirection,sothevelocityandthespeedhavethesamesign.

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Hint2.Findthefinalspeedofthebox

Determinethespeed\texttip{v_{\rmbox}}{v_box}oftheboxatthebottomoftheramp.

Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariables\texttip{m}{m},\texttip{h}{h},\texttip{\theta}{theta},and\texttip{R}{R},as

wellastheaccelerationduetogravity\texttip{g}{g}.

Hint1.Usingconservationofenergy

Initially,theboxhasonlygravitationalpotentialenergymgh.Atthebottomoftheincline,allitspotentialenergyhasbeenconvertedto

kineticenergy\large{\frac12mv_{\rmbox}^2}.Thus,

\large{mgh=\frac12mv_{\rmbox}^2}.

Youcansolvethisequationtofind\texttip{v_{\rmbox}}{v_box}intermsofthegivenvariables.

ANSWER:

\texttip{v_{\rmbox}}{v_box}= \sqrt{2gh}

Hint3.Findthefinalspeedofthedisk

Determinethespeed\texttip{v_{\rmdisk}}{v_disk}ofthecenterofmassofthediskatthebottomoftheramp.Becertaintoaccountfor

translationalandrotationalkineticenergy.

Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariables\texttip{m}{m},\texttip{h}{h},\texttip{\theta}{theta},and\texttip{R}{R},as

wellastheaccelerationduetogravity\texttip{g}{g}.

Hint1.Usingconservationofenergy

Initially,thediskhasonlygravitationalpotentialenergymgh.Atthebottomoftheincline,thepotentialenergyhasbeenentirely

convertedtokineticenergy.However,thekineticenergyisnotsimply\large{\frac12mv_{\rmdisk}^2},becausethediskhasrotational

kineticenergyaswell.Thetotalkineticenergyis\large{\frac12mv_{\rmdisk}^2+\frac12I\omega^2},where\texttip{I}{I}isthemomentof

inertiaand\texttip{\omega}{omega}istheangularspeed.Thus,

\large{mgh=\frac12mv_{\rmdisk}^2+\frac12I\omega^2}.

Youneedtofindthevaluesof\texttip{I}{I}and\texttip{\omega}{omega}intermsofthegivenvariablesbeforeyousolvefor

\texttip{v_{\rmdisk}}{v_disk}.

Hint2.Momentofinertiaforadisk

Themomentofinertia\texttip{I}{I}forauniformdiskofradius\texttip{R}{R}andmass\texttip{m}{m}is

\large{I=\frac12mR^2}.

Hint3.Relatingangularspeedandthespeedofthecenterofmass

Recallthatyouareassumingthatthediskisrollingwithoutslipping.Whenadisk(orotherobjectwithcircularcrosssection)rolls

withoutslipping,itfollowstherelationv=\omegaR,where\texttip{v}{v}isthespeedofthecenterofmass,\texttip{R}{R}istheradius,

and\texttip{\omega}{omega}istheangularspeed.

ANSWER:

\texttip{v_{\rmdisk}}{v_disk}= \large{\sqrt{\frac{4gh}{3}}}

Hint4.Findingtheaveragespeed

Sincetheforcesremainconstantthroughoutthemotion,thismustbemotionwithconstantacceleration.Therefore,thevelocitymustchange linearly.Recallthatinmotionwithconstantacceleration,theaveragevelocity\texttip{v_{\rmavg}}{v_avg}isgivenbytheformulav_{\rmavg}=

(v_{\rminitial}+v_{\rmfinal})/2,where\texttip{v_{\rminitial}}{v_initial}and\texttip{v_{\rmfinal}}{v_final}aretheinitialandfinalvelocities.

Hint5.Findingthetimefromtheaveragespeed

Recallthataveragevelocity\texttip{v_{\rmavg}}{v_avg}isdefinedby

\large{v_{\rmavg}=\frac{x_{\rmfinal}­x_{\rminitial}}{t_{\rmfinal}­t_{\rminitial}}},

where\texttip{x_{\rmfinal}}{x_final}and\texttip{x_{\rminitial}}{x_initial}arethefinalandinitialpositions,and\texttip{t_{\rmfinal}}{t_final}and

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\texttip{t_{\rminitial}}{t_initial}arethefinalandinitialtimes.Thechangeintimeiswhatyouwanttofind,andthechangeinpositionisjustthe
lengthoftheinclinedplane.
Hint6.Findthelengthoftheincline
Whatisthelength\texttip{L}{L}oftheinclinedplane?Thefiguremaybehelpful.
Expressyouranswerintermsofoneorbothofthevariables\texttip{h}{h}and
\texttip{\theta}{theta}.
ANSWER:
\texttip{L}{L}= \large{\frac{h}{{\sin}\left({\theta}\right)}}

ANSWER:

\large{\frac{\sqrt{\frac{3h}{g}}­\sqrt{\frac{2h}{g}}}{{\sin}{\theta}}}

Correct

Youshouldlookatyouranswerandconsiderlimitingcases.Asimpleoneisthatthetimedifferenceshouldtendtozeroasthelengthoftheboard

shrinkstozero.Simplyexpresstheheightoftheboardintermsofthelengthoftheinclineandyou'llseethatyouranswerindeedbehavesthis

way.

Youransweralsopredictsthatthedifferenceintimegrowslongeras\texttip{\theta}{theta}shrinkstowardzerowhiletheheightremainsfixed(i.e.,

thedifferenceintimegrowslongerasthelengthoftheboardgrowslonger).Itmightnotbeimmediatelyobvioustoyouthatthisshouldhappen,

butitisnotinconceivable,andyoucandosomesimpleexperimentstoseethatitisactuallytrue.

As\texttip{\theta}{theta}growstoward\pi/2\;{\rmrad}=90^\circ,youmightexpectthedifferenceintimetogotozero,becauseifyoudropadisk

andaboxtheyfallatthesamerate.However,recallthatyourderivationincludedtheassumptionthatthediskrollswithoutslipping,whichis

definitelynotthecaseifthediskissimplydroppedvertically.Therefore,thisformulashouldn'tapplytothecaseofsimplydroppingthediskand

box.Canyouthinkofasituationwithaverticaldropinwhichthediskwouldobeyv=\omegaR?

Problem12.46

PartA

Whatisthemagnitudeoftheangularmomentumofthe2.70{\rmkg},5.70­cm­diameterrotatingdiskinthefigure?

{\rmkg} ,5.70­cm­diameterrotatingdiskinthefigure?

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ANSWER:

6.89×10 −2 \rm{kg\,m^2/s}

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Correct

PartB

Whatisitsdirection?

ANSWER: xdirection ­xdirection ydirection ­ydirection zdirection ­zdirection
ANSWER:
xdirection
­xdirection
ydirection
­ydirection
zdirection
­zdirection

Correct

Problem12.70

Blocksofmassm_1andm_2areconnectedbyamasslessstringthatpassesoverthepulleyinthefigure.Thepulleyturnsonfrictionlessbearings,and

massm_1slidesonahorizontal,frictionlesssurface.Massm_2isreleasedwhiletheblocksare

atrest.

m_2 isreleasedwhiletheblocksare atrest. PartA Assumethepulleyismassless.Findtheaccelerationof m_1 .

PartA

Assumethepulleyismassless.Findtheaccelerationofm_1.

Expressyouranswerintermsofthegivenquantities.

ANSWER:

a_1= \large{\frac{m_{2}g}{m_{1}+m_{2}}}

Correct

PartB

Findthetensioninthestring.

Expressyouranswerintermsofthegivenquantities.

ANSWER:

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T= \large{\frac{m_{1}m_{2}g}{m_{1}+m_{2}}}

Correct

PartC

Supposethepulleyhasmassm_pandradiusR.Findtheaccelerationofm_1.VerifythatyouranswersagreewithpartAifyousetm_p=0.

Expressyouranswerintermsofthegivenquantities.

ANSWER:

a_1= \large{\frac{2m_{2}g}{2m_{1}+2m_{2}+m_{p}}}

Correct

PartD

Findthetensionintheupperportionofthestring.VerifythatyouranswersagreewithpartBifyousetm_p=0.

Expressyouranswerintermsofthegivenquantities.

ANSWER:

T_{upper}= \large{\frac{2m_{1}m_{2}g}{2m_{1}+2m_{2}+m_{p}}}

Correct

PartE

Findthetensioninthelowerportionsofthestring.VerifythatyouranswersagreewithpartBifyousetm_p=0.

Expressyouranswerintermsofthegivenquantities.

ANSWER:

T_{lower}= \large{\frac{2m_{1}m_{2}g+m_{p}m_{2}g}{2m_{1}+2m_{2}+m_{p}}}

Correct

Problem12.79

A10\rmgbullettravelingat430{\rmm/s}strikesa11{\rmkg},0.90­\rmm­widedoorattheedgeoppositethehinge.Thebulletembedsitselfinthedoor,

causingthedoortoswingopen.

PartA

Whatistheangularvelocityofthedoorjustafterimpact?

Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.

ANSWER:

w= 1.3\large{{\rm\frac{rad}{s}}}

Correct

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Thefigureshowsangularpositionversustimegraphsforsixdifferentobjects.

PartA

PartA

Rankthesegraphsonthebasisoftheangularvelocityofeachobject.Rankpositiveangularvelocitiesaslargerthannegativeangularvelocities.

Rankfromlargesttosmallest.Torankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

Hint1.Determiningangularvelocityfromanangularpositionversustimegraph

Theslopeofanangularpositionversustimegraphisthe"rise"(changeinangularposition)overthe"run"(changeintime).Inphysics,theratio

ofchangeinangularpositiontochangeintimeisdefinedastheangularvelocity.Thus,theslopeofanangularpositionversustimegraph

givestheangularvelocityoftheobjectbeinggraphed.

ANSWER:

givestheangularvelocityoftheobjectbeinggraphed. ANSWER: Correct PartB

Correct

PartB

Rankthesegraphsonthebasisoftheangularaccelerationoftheobject.Rankpositiveangularaccelerationsaslargerthannegativeangular

accelerations.

Rankfromlargesttosmallest.Torankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

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Hint1.Determiningangularacceleration

Angularaccelerationisproportionaltothechangeinanobject'sangularvelocity.Sinceangularvelocitycanbedeterminedfromtheslopeofan

angularpositionversustimegraph,angularaccelerationcanbedeterminedfromchangesinslope.

ANSWER:

ANSWER: Correct BalancingTorquesRankingTask

Correct

BalancingTorquesRankingTask

Asignistobehungfromtheendofathinpole,andthepolesupportedbyasinglecable.Yourdesignfirmbrainstormsthesixscenariosshownbelow.In

scenariosA,B,andD,thecableisattachedhalfwaybetweenthemidpointandendofthepole.InC,thecableisattachedtothemid­pointofthepole.InE

andF,thecableisattachedtotheendofthepole.

PartA

Rankthedesignscenarios(AthroughF)onthebasisofthetensioninthesupportingcable.

Rankfromlargesttosmallest.Torankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem

Inallcases,thepoleandsignareheldinequilibriumbythetorquesuppliedbythecable.Therefore,bysettingthetorqueduetothecableequal

tothetorqueduetothesignandthepole,youcandeterminetherelativetensioninthecable.Notethatthepoleandsignarethesameineach

case,sothetorqueduetothemisthesameforeachcase.

Hint2.Themathematicalrelationship

Thetorqueduetothecableisgivenby

\tau=rF\sin\theta,

where\texttip{r}{r}isthedistancefromthehingetotheforceand\texttip{\theta}{theta}istheangleoftheforcerelativetothepole.Sincethe

poleisinequilibrium,thetorqueduetothecableisequalinmagnitudetothenettorqueduetothesignandtheweightofthepole.Thus,

\tau_{\rmcable}=\tau_{\rmsign}+\tau_{\rmpole},

or

rF\sin\theta=\tau_{\rmsign}+\tau_{\rmpole},

andtherefore

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\large{F=\frac{\tau_{\rmsign}+\tau_{\rmpole}}{r\sin\theta}}.

Substitutingdifferentvaluesof\texttip{r}{r}and\texttip{\theta}{theta}intothisrelationshipcangiveyoutherelativesizesoftherequiredcable

forces.

ANSWER:

forces. ANSWER: Correct VideoTutor:BalancingaMeterStick First,

Correct

VideoTutor:BalancingaMeterStick

First,launchthevideobelow.Youwillbeaskedtouseyourknowledgeofphysicstopredicttheoutcomeofanexperiment.Then,closethevideowindow

andanswerthequestionatright.Youcanwatchthevideoagainatanypoint.

PartA

PartA

Supposewereplacethemassinthevideowithonethatisfourtimesheavier.Howfarfromthefreeendmustweplacethepivottokeepthemeter

stickinbalance?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem.

Forthemetersticktobeinequilibrium,thenettorqueonitmustbezero.Torquesaboutthefulcrummaybeexertedbythemasshangingfrom theendofthestickandbythestick’sownweight.

Usetheconditionthatthenettorquemustbeequaltozerotoobtainarelationshipinvolving1)thedistancebetweentheleftendofthestick

andthefulcrumand2)thedistancebetweenthecenterofmassofthestickandthefulcrum.Thesetwodistancesmustadduptoaconstant.

Youshouldgettwoequationsthatyoucansolveforthelocationofthefulcrum.

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ANSWER: 50cm(inthemiddle) 25cm 10cm 75cm(25cmfromtheweight) 90cm(10cmfromtheweight)
ANSWER:
50cm(inthemiddle)
25cm
10cm
75cm(25cmfromtheweight)
90cm(10cmfromtheweight)

Correct

VideoTutor:Walkingtheplank

First,launchthevideobelow.Youwillbeaskedtouseyourknowledgeofphysicstopredicttheoutcomeofanexperiment.Then,closethevideowindow

andanswerthequestionatright.Youcanwatchthevideoagainatanypoint.

PartA

PartA

Inthevideo,thetorqueduetothemassoftheplankisusedinthecalculations.Forthisquestion,ignorethemassoftheboard.Rank,fromlargestto

smallest,themass\rmmneededtokeeptheboardfromtippingover.

Torankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem

Inequilibrium,thesumoftheclockwisetorquesaboutanaxismustequalthesumofthecounterclockwisetorques.

ANSWER:

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5/6/2016 Ch12HW Correct ScoreSummary: Yourscoreonthisassignmentis118%.

Correct

ScoreSummary:

Yourscoreonthisassignmentis118%.

Youreceived103.37outofapossibletotalof105points,plus20.56pointsofextracredit.