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# MEHB323 Heat Transfer

Chapter 1
1. A glass window of width 1m and height 2m is 5 mm thick and has a thermal conductivity
of kg = 1.4 W/mK.
(a) If the inner and outer surface temperatures of the glass are 15C and -20C,
respectively, on a cold winter day, what is the rate of heat loss through the glass?
(b) To reduce heat loss through windows, it is customary to use a double pane
construction in which adjoining panes are separated by an air space. If the spacing is
10 mm and the glass surfaces in contact with the air have temperatures of 10C and 15C, what is the rate of heat loss from a 1 m 2 m window? The thermal conductivity
of air is ka = 0.024 W/mK.
(a) q = 19.6 kW
(b) q = 120 W

## 2. A 60 mm 55 mm 30 mm cell phone charger has a surface temperature of Ts = 40C

when plugged into an electrical wall outlet but not in use. The surface of the charger is of
emissivity = 0.92 and is subjected to an air flow which provides a convection heat
transfer, h = 4.5 W/m2.K. The room air and wall temperatures are 22C and 20C,
respectively. Determine the daily cost of leaving the charger plugged in when not in use
if the electricity cost is \$0.18/kWh.
Daily cost = \$0.00869

3. A spherical, stainless steel (AISI 302) canister is used to store reacting chemicals that
provide for a uniform heat flux qi to its inner surface. The canister is suddenly submerged
in a liquid bath of temperature T<Ti, where Ti is the initial temperature of the canister wall.

535 J/kgK

(a) Assuming negligible temperature gradients in the canister wall and a constant heat
flux qi, develop an equation that governs the variation of the wall temperature with
time during the transient process. What is the initial rate of change of the wall
temperature if qi = 105 W/m2?
(b) What is the steady-state temperature of the wall?
(a) dT/dt = -0.084 K/s
(b) T = 438.89 K

## MEHB323 Heat Transfer

Chapter 1
4. Consider an orange, assumed to be a sphere of 8 cm diameter generating 22.5 kW/m 3 of
heat during its ripening. Thermal conductivity of the orange is 0.15 W/mK and its centre
temperature is observed to be 50C. The orange is exposed to open air and surrounding
hence the steady-state heat transfer from the outer surface of the orange is by convection
and radiation. The convection coefficient is 10 W/m2K and the air and surrounding
temperature is 27C. The surface emissivity of the orange can be assumed to be 0.9.
Determine the outer surface temperature of the orange.
Ts 45.7C

5. Consider a 1.2 m high and 2 m wide double pane window consisting of two layers of 3
mm thick glass (kglass = 0.78 W/m.K) separated by a 12 mm wide stagnant air space (kair =
0.026 W/m.K).

The room temperature is maintained at 24C while the temperature at the outdoor is -5C.
The corresponding convection coefficient at the inner and outer surfaces of the window
to be hi = 10 W/m2.K and ho = 25 W/m2.K.
(a) Determine the steady-state rate of heat transfer through this double pane window.
(b) In order to maintain the room temperature, resistance heater is used where the energy
price is RM0.25/kWh. Calculate the cost of heating if the resistance heater is to be
operated 12 hours a day for 1 year (365 days).
(a) q = 114.24 W
(b) Annual cost = \$125.10

## MEHB323 Heat Transfer

Chapter 1
6. Humans are able to control their heat generation rate and heat loss rate to maintain a nearly
constant core temperature of Tc = 37C under a wide range of environment. Consider a
layer of skin and fat, with its outer surface is exposed to environment and its inner surface
is at a temperature Ti = 35C. Consider a person with a skin/fat layer thickness L = 3 mm
and thermal conductivity of 0.3 W/m.K. The average skin area of a person is 1.8 m2.

(a) When the person is in air (T = 24C, h = 2 W/m2.K), what is the skin surface
temperature and rate of heat loss to the environment?
(b) When the person is in water (T = 24C, h = 200 W/m2.K), what is the skin surface
temperature and rate of heat loss to the water.
(a) Ts 33.49 C
q 271.96 W
(b) Ts 27.60 C
q 1333.25 W