Sei sulla pagina 1di 30

1

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Research Background


Language is a tool of communication used by people to relate one another. By
language they will be easy to express their ideas, opinions, feelings, etc. There are
many languages in the world. English is one of the languages used as international
language. As an international language, English is very important and has many
interrelationships with various aspects of life owned by human being. Many people
want to learn English in order to be able to communicate well and to be able to go
abroad when they have mastered English. In Indonesia, English is considered as the
foreign language and is taught formally from elementary school up to university
level.
There are four skills that should be mastered, they are: listening, speaking,
reading, and writing. The reading skill becomes very important in the education field,
students need to be exercised and trained in order to have a good reading skill.
Reading skill is also included in National Examination. It means that the students
need to comprehend the text given when they answer the questions.
Reading is also something crucial and indispensable for the students because the
success of their study depends on the greater part of their ability to read. If their
reading skill is poor they are very likely to fail in their study or at least they will have
difficulty in making progress. On the other hand, if they have a good ability in
reading, they will have a better chance to succeed in their study.

According to Burhan (2012: 9), reading is a physic and mental activity to reveal
the meaning of the written texts, while in that activity there is a process of knowing
letters. It says a physic activity because the parts of the body, our eyes particularly, do
it. And it says mental activity because perception and memory as parts of mind are
involved in it. He then concludes that the main goal of reading is a process of
comprehending written texts.
Grabe and Stoller (2011:3) state that reading is the ability to draw meaning from
printed page and interpret this information appropriately. It is also an interactive in
that sense of linguistic from the text interacts with information activated by the reader
from long-term memory, as background knowledge (Grabe and Stoller 2011:12). We
can conclude that reading as a way to draw information from a text and to form an
interpretation of that information.
Over the past decade, students had become responsible for learning more
complex content at the rapid pace to cover the material assessed on state wide
outcome assessment. Despite any reading difficulties a secondary student might have
our educational system had expectations that these students would be able to decode
fluently and comprehend material with challengging content.
In Indonesia English as foreign language is studied in order to master and
develop the knowledge, technology, arts and create a good relation with other
countries.
Most struggling middle school readers have deficits in reading comprehension.
Comprehension, the ability to gain meaning from the text, is essentially the ultimate
goal of reading.

Comprehension is something that occurs inside the reader. Teachers cannot


actually observe comprehension happening inside a student. They cannot view the
students brain when the student read. Even they cannot view how readers brains act
while reading gives only every limited information about the areas of the brain that
are more or less active while reading text.
Snow (2002:11) defines reading

comprehensions

as

the

process

of

simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and


involvement with written language. The emphasis is merely on the words extracting
and constructing. In line with some definitions above, Aebersold and Field (1997,
p.15) also argue that the processes of comprehending then involves decoding the
writers words and then using background knowledge to construct an approximate
understanding of the writers message. Furthermore, they state that the process of
comprehending of the text is not exact since reading is a personal activity. It means
that reading comprehension differs from one reader to another reader.
Reading comprehension is a very complex skill. It is thus much more than
decoding. Its most essential elements involve: skill in reading text accurately and
fluently, sufficient background knowledge and vocabulary to make sense of the
content, skill in using reading strategies that improve understanding or repair it when
it breaks down, ability to think and reason about the information and concept in the
text, motivation to understand and learn from the text.
According to Education Unit Level Curriculum (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan
Pendidikan, KTSP 2006) teaching reading in senior high school aims to develop the
students ability to comprehend and create kinds of short functional text monologue

essay formed procedure, descriptive, recount, report, narrative, and other genre that
related to surrounding environment. It also hopes that the students can read the texts
which have meaning of words, phrases and sentences with the utterance stress and
motivation related with the near area. The target of achievement in English
competence is hoped more than 70.
Not only do proficient readers demonstrate a willingness and ability to think
about what they read and discuss their thought with others, but they also enjoy asking
lots of questions and responding to what they have read. Davis observes (as quoted in
Brassell & Rasinski 2008: 27) Students who are able to comprehend a variety of text
will be able to integrate comprehension strategies according to the kind of text they
are reading. The students will be able to explain what they are doing when they
comprehend and what they do when they realize that they do not comprehend.
Based on the writers experience in making research at Grade XI of SMA N 1
Silimakuta, the writer found that many students achieved average levels but they were
unable to understand and comprehend the complex text structures, especially in the
contents area. They had limited ability to provide detailed information about the
source or nature of reading comprehension problem.
Other students were disruptive or disrespectful when asked to complete reading
comprehension that was too difficult for them. Thats why their average score in
reading comprehension was still bad. The detail scoring of the eleventh grade of SMA
N 1 Silimakuta in comprehending descriptive text can be seen in the following table :
No
1
Agung Prawira Ginting
2
Berliana Alhasia Girsang

Names

Scores
60
65

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

Bishop Tarigan
Dayfrina Angelia Sinaga
Desfrianty Saragih
Donna Chetryn Sipayung
Ely Sari Silalahi
Epi Lyna Jawak
Evri Pakpahan
Fatlia Purba
Grescia Suzettha
Hotlastri Telaumbenua
Indah Dewi Sartika Purba
Jurdamta Sipayung
Lestari Saragih
Linda WatiSipayung
Lita Juniarta Silitonga
Naomi Reuni Girsang
Novi Helen
Putra Dani Sianturi
Reinhard Oktaveri Gultom
Roselly Purba
Sapto Utomo
Sondang Purba
Sri Ulina Girsang
Sry Arista Manihuruk
Suryani Hasibuan
Susan Marbun
Sutari Tarigan
Tio Mahita Simarmata
Vivi Lastiar Sinurat
Yessi Sipayung
Total Score
Mean

55
55
40
45
65
35
70
35
50
45
60
45
70
40
45
70
60
55
65
45
70
50
65
70
55
45
65
65
70
65
1736
54,25

The data showed that =54,25. From 32 students, the writer found that the students
who got mark 70 were 26 person, whereas students who got mark 70 were 6
person. Many students when they were answering the test just predicted the aswers.

Therefore, English teacher has to be able to organize teaching and learning


activities; they have to give materials by using a suitable method and master the
lesson effectively.
The writer uses the PQRST method as the alternative to solve the problem of the
students in reading comprehension. With this method the students will be focused on
the text and read the text again.
According to Staton (1982:15-27) PQRST method has shown the improvement
of the readers understanding, and their ability to recall information. In other words,
the readers are more interested in learning the material they have read. This method
prioritizes the information in a way that relates directly to how they are asked to use
that information on the text.
There are five steps in PQRST such as the following:
1) Preview: They only read in a few second (skimming).
2) Question: The students will arrange the question in which they want to know
about the text.
3) Read: The students will read through all the text that the writer has given.
4) Summary: In this step, students will make summary.
5) Test: The students will answer the question in which the teacher has made.
Using PQRST (Preview, Question, Read, Summary, and Test) might be suitable
on the students ability in comprehending descriptive text. Moreover, descriptive text
should be read in full of concentration. And it has been found that the method is
appropriate for the students, senior high school students, particularly.

Based on the above reasons, the writer is interested in conducting a research


entitle The Effect of PQRST Method on Students Ability in Comprehending
Descriptive Text at Grade XI of SMA N 1 Silimakuta.

1.2 The Problem of the Study


Based on the background of the study, the problem of the study can be
formulated as follows: Does PQRST method significantly affect students ability in
comprehending descriptive text at grade XI of SMA N 1 Silimakuta?
1.3 The Objective of the Study
The objective of this study is to find out whether PQRST method significantly
affects on the students ability in comprehending descriptive text at grade XI of SMA
N 1 Silimakuta.

1.4 The Scope of the Study


The scope of this study is to find out the effect of PQRST method on the students
ability in comprehending descriptive text.
1.5 Hypotesis of the Study
The hypotesis of the study is as follows :
Ha: PQRST method significantly affects the students ability in comprehending
descriptive text at grade XI of SMA N 1 Silimakuta.
Ho: PQRST method doesnt significantly affect the students ability in
comprehending descriptive text at grade XI of SMA N 1 Silimakuta.

1.6 The Significance of the Study


This study is hoped to be useful to:
a. Encourage the English teachers to use PQRST method in teaching English
reading.
b. Help the young learners to learn English reading easily through PQRST
method.
c. Give more experience or input for readers that PQRST method can be used as
a method in teaching English reading.
1.7 Definition of Key Terms
1. Reading comprehension
Hill (2000:4-5) states, Reading is communication process and used by
readers to get the message which going to be delivered by the author through message
or written language.

Reading comprehension is defined as the ability of the student under study in


understanding the content of reading text which is delivered by the teacher on the
present study. The students reading ability and achievement are measured by means
of administering a series of post test.
2. PQRST method
PQRST (Preview, Question, Read, State, Test). PQRST was found by Thomas
F. Stanton. This method is used to improve reading competency. PQRST method in
this study is a method of reading the passage which consists of five activities;
preview, question, read, state/summarize, and test and some additional activities that

consist of discussing the questions, discuss the answers, determining the main
sentence, sentences, main ideas, and ideas of explanatory.
3. SMA N 1 Silimakuta is defined as a senior high school which is located on Jln.
Pendidikan Ujung, Seribudolok, where is the researcher doing a research.

1.8 Theoretical Frame Work


This paper contains of some theories derived from the library research. The
writer selects some theories which support the reserach. The theories are :
Aebersold and Field (1997), Arikunto (2006), Brown (2004), Burhan (2012),
Chambers and Gregory (2006), David (Brassell & Rasinski 2008), Djiwandono
(2002), Grabe and Stoller (2011), Harris and Graham (2007), Hedgcock (2009), Kane
(2000), Linan et al. (2007), Luongo (2003), Nuttal (1985), Patel and Jain (2008),
Segretto (2002), Snow (2002), Soedarso (2010), Staton (1982), Sudjana (2005).

CHAPTER II

10

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


2.1 Definition of PQRST
PQRST was found by Thomas F. Stanton (1982:15-27). This method is used to
improve reading competency. It stands for the core activities of the preview, question,
read, state/summarize, test. PQRST actually is a method or strategy of reading a book
which is especially intended for the benefit of the study, but researchers can borrow
concepts and measures for the benefit of this method of teaching reading in school,
especially for students who are already classified as readers advanced (Nurhadi,
1987).
PQRST method in this study is a method of reading text which consists of five
activities; preview, question, read, state/summarize, and test and some additional
activities that consist of discussing the questions, discuss the answers, determining
the main sentence, sentences, main ideas, and ideas of explanatory.
Champion (2006:58) argues that PQRST method also increases the extent to
which information is processed by the brain, but it is used for written material, such
as that in a newspapers article.
The main goal of PQRST method is to help students to advance their reading
comprehension. PQRST method consists of these 5 steps below:

12

11

1. P (Preview)
In this first step, the reader determine what the entire text is about by skimming
through it all so they know theyre going to be covering. One way to do this is to read
the title, and then notice the graphs, pictures, diagrams in the text. Next, read the
introduction and summary or the first paragraph, also notice the organizational
structure text.
The point is to get an idea of the main topics and sections of the text. One of the best
things about previewing is that it takes very little time to do.
Once theyve had some practice, theyll usually be able to preview a text quickly. If
they have a general idea about what a reading assignment covers, they will be able to
determine how it relates to the course for which theyre reading, and what they want
to learn from it.
2. Q (Question)
After previewing the text, the students as the readers determine what they are
exactly looking for while reading. The students should make questions based on what
they have read before. The questions can lead them to find further information of text.
They should avoid adding questions that might distract or change the subject. With
specific questions in mind about a reading assignment, they will know exactly what
information to look for, and they will be motivated to find it. This will help them to
learn as much as they can from reading.

12

3. R (Read)
The third step is R or Read. In this step, the readers read the whole text. And while
reading it, they also try to find the answers of the questions they made before. Here,
they should remember the features that they notice during the last two steps: heading,
special term, pictures, and summaries. Those can be used to guide them toward the
main ideas. Remember also that each paragraph contains a main idea, and supporting
ideas that elaborate on this. Look for them, and underline or highlight them. The
reader should read for ideas rather than single words: train their eyes to look at cluster
of related words rather than at each individual word.
4. S (Summary)
After reading the text, the readers should know how much they can recall the
information they get from the text and state it by their own words.
Highlight, only the most important words. Without looking at the book, ask the
students to recite the main idea of the text generally and the main idea of each
paragraph.
Then tell themselves in a sentence or two what theyve read. Finally, scan over the
section quickly to pick up any essential points they may have missed. It is possible to
recite in our head or aloud, but many students find it most effective if they jot down
what they recite. Of course, also make it much easier to review later. Many students
also find Summarizing or Self-Reciting helpful because it requires monitoring their
attention carefully.

13

If they have difficult Self- Reciting, it means that they are not concentrating fully on
the reading but can also provide incentive for improving their concentration.
5. T (Test)
The last step is T or Test. At the end of the reading activity, the reader checks their
knowledge by testing themselves to know how far their understanding of the text they
read is. It can be done by reviewing all the material and storing it into their long-term
memory. Starting by recalling as much as they can without looking at the book or
their recitation notes. If they have any difficulties, they look at the questions they
wrote to jog their memory, but they shouldnt look at their answers or other notes
until they have given their memory a chance to work. Then, look back over their
recitation notes to make sure they remember all the important points and main ideas.
If they still think they miss something, look over the reading assignment too. The
more they test themselves, the more firmly the information will be planted in their
long-term memory.

2.2 Definition of Reading


Reading is one of English skills besides speaking, listening and writing. It is the
way to understand written messages.
According to Nuttal (2000:2) reading means result of interaction between the writers
mind and the readers mind.

14

It is the way how to the reader tries to get the message or the intended meaning from
the writer. In this process, the reader tries to create the meanings intended by the
writer, the reader can get the message, and the writers meaning sense.
Grabe and Stoller (2001:2) state that reading is the ability of drawing meaning
and interpreting information in the printed page appropriately. They state that reading
is also interactive in term that linguistic information from the text interacts with
information activated by the reader from long-run memory, as background
knowledge.
Soedarso (2010) states that Reading is a complex activity by recruiting a
large number of separate actions, including the need to use the understanding and
imagination, observing, and remembering. Reading is an active which provide a
response to the meaning that is read. When reading, the reader will form a conclusion
about the content of reading. Making the conclusion is an indication that readers
respond to literature.

2.3 Aspects of Reading


According to Nuttal (1985:2), there are five sort reading skills that should be
mastered by the reader to comprehend the text deeply, which is as follows:
1. Identifying Main Idea
Determining idea is a skill to grasp and find the main point of the passage by
summarizing the passage and look for repetition of ideas or words (Kelly, R. 2004).

15

The main idea is important to a reader because it tells what the story is mainly about.
There are 3 of main ideas; to inform, to persuade, and to entertain.
2. Identifying Details
Identfying details are the facts and ideas that explain or prove the topic sentence
or main idea. As stated by Segretto (2002:12) that supporting details provide the
reader with more information about the main idea or subject of a passage. They are
pieces of information that help you see the big picture in a text. Supporting details
give readers the answers to questions they might ask before they ask them.
3. Determining Inference
Inference is an educational guess or conclusion drawn based on logic of the
passage. An inference is when the student take clues from a story plus what they
already know from our their own experiences to decide what the teacher means.
The teacher will not always tell us everything, so need to use inferences to understand
and visualize the story. The students will make inferences to help them understand
what they are reading. As follow :
a. Think about the type of information the teacher is giving.
b. Think about how the topic of the text relates to own life or the experiences of
students have had.
4. Understanding Vocabulary
The communication will success or not it depends on the accurate vocabulary
understanding. It means comprehend what the words mean is important in
vocabulary.

16

When vocabulary mastery improved, comprehension will be deeper and apply letter
sound correspondence to a pretend word and matching it to a known word in the
readers oral vocabulary. Linan et al. (2007:87) state that the role of vocabulary in
reading is clearly understood: vocabulary knowledge, the understanding of word
meanings and their use, contributes to reading comprehension and knowledge
building.
5. Reference
One of sub process in sentence comprehension is referential representation; this
process identifies the references that words in a sentence make to external word.
Referential representation is aided by making referents easy to identify. Readers take
less tone to identify the referents of a pronoun when the referent has been mentioned
recently in the text than when it was mentioned earlier. (Young, 2011:146).

2.4 Types of Reading


According to Brown (2004:189), there are four types of reading. They are:
1. Perceptive
Perceptive reading tasks involve attending to the components of larger
stretches of discourse: letters, words, punctuation, and other graphemic
symbols. Bottom-up processing is implied.
2. Selective
This category is largely an artifact of assessment formats. In order to
ascertain ones reading recognition of lexical, grammatical, or discourse
features of language within a very short stretch of language, certain typical

17

tasks are used: picture-cued tasks, matching, true/false, and multiple-choice.


Stimuli include sentences, brief paragraphs, and simple charts and graphs.
Brief responses are intended as well. A combination of bottom-up and topdown processing may be used.
3. Interactive
Included among interactive reading types are stretches of language of several
paragraphs to one page or more in which the reader must interact with the
text. That is, reading is a process of negotiating meaning; the reader brings to
the text a set of schemata for understanding it, and intake is the product of
that interaction. Typical genres that lend themselves to interactive reading are
anecdotes, short narratives and descriptions, experts from longer texts,
questionnaires, memos, announcements, directions, and recipes. The focus of
an interactive task is to identify relevant features (lexical, symbolic,
grammatical, and discourse) within texts of moderately short length with the
objective of retaining the information that is processed. Top-down processing
is typical of such tasks, although some instances of bottom-up performance
may be necessary.
4. Extensive
Extensive reading applies to texts of more than a page, up to and including
professional articles, essays, technical reports, short stories, and books.

2.5 Definition of Reading Comprehension


Djiwandono (2002:76) states that reading comprehension is thus much more than
decoding. Reading comprehension result when the readers know which skill and

18

strategies are appropriate for the type of the text, and understand how to apply them
to accomplish the reading process. So by mastery of reading, it can improve other
language skills.
According to Harris and Graham (2007:8), reading comprehension involves
much more than readers responses to the text. Reading comprehension is a
multicomponent, highly complex process that involves many interactions between
readers and what they bring to the text (previous knowledge, strategy use) as well as
variables related to the text itself (interest in text, understanding of text types).
Furthermore Hedgcock (2009:210) states that reading comprehension is a
complex construct that involves the interaction of a number of psycholinguistics
processes. It goes far beyond the ability to state the main idea of a text in one
sentence, answer question about details, define vocabulary, accurately read the text
aloud, and forth comprehension further involves the simultaneous and largely
subconscious application of various type of background knowledge (schemata) and
reading skills to particular text.

2.6 Assessment of Reading Comprehension


Assessment used to determine the quality of students work. Luongo (2003:7)
states that authentic assessment involves students in task that requires the application

19

of knowledge and skills in real-life situations. These alternative methods offer realworld challenges and frameworks, such as audiences for demonstrating concepts and
strategies that students have learned. Authentic assessment rooted in classroom
instruction, address education goals and groups of learning objectives.These practices
place greater emphasis on problem solving, critical thinking, comprehension, and
reasoning, or self-reflection skills than traditional assessment techniques. Final
products include exhibitions, performances that permit more than one solution. The
formats for students work recognize students multiple intelligences, different
learning style and varying developmental levels.
According to Chambers and Gregory (2006:162) state that a function of any
assessment regime is that it should act as a guide to reinforcing teachers priorities
and helping the students to identify what activities, knowledge, and understanding are
centrally important to their progress. Assessment of the students should be explicitly
linked to the learning process and outcomes of their degree program is not so much
an invitation to teachers to work these things out for themselves as it may at first
sight. Hill in Hernawati (2011:31-32) adds that the combination of the reading test is:

1. Multiple-choice Question

20

The multiple choice question have four possible labeled A, B, C, D. the


students will choose one answer per question. Each question correctly answered is
given one point.
2.

Short answer Question


The short answer questions have a Read, Think, and Explain symbol next to

them. Students should spend bout three to five minutes answering each short-answer
questions on the lines provided. Each question answered correctly is given up to two
points; partial credit is given. There can be some variation in the answer.
3. Long-answer Question
The long answer questions have a read Read, Thinking and Explain
symbols with more lines next to them. Students should spend about seven to ten
minutes answering each long-answer question on the lines provided. Each question
correctly answered given up to four points and partial credit is given.
There can be some variation in the answers. The material of reading
comprehension test should be closely related to the precise type of practical material
conducted by the teacher to develop reading skill, so the test would be helpful to
attempt to identify some of the specific skills involving in reading. (Patel and Jain,
2008:130).
In relation to this study, the students ability in comprehending descriptive text
will be ensured through administering a series of post test in the form of multiple
choice test, question and answer test.

21

2.7 Descriptive Text


According to Kane (2000:352): Description is about sensory experience how
something looks, sounds, tastes. Mostly it is about the visual experience, but
description also deals with other kinds of perception .
So, to conclude from the above explanation, writing meaningful descriptive text
that describes the experiences related to the senses, such as what form, sound, taste.
Most descriptive text is about the visual experience, but in fact apart from sensory
experience can be used in descriptive text .
Descriptive is an adjective that if we mean in Indonesia means that the
description (picture). If you were asked to describe an object, it means you have to
describe the object in question both in the size, color, etc.
It can be said that this text is descriptive text that describes what kind of person
or an object described, good shape, its properties, numbers and others. Objective
(purpose) of any clear descriptive text, ie to explain, describe or express a person or
an object.

2.7.1 Generic Structure


1. Identication : Identifies phenomenon to be described.
2. Description : Describes parts, qualities, and characteristics.

2.7.2 Significant Lexicogrammatical Features.

22

1. Focus on specific participants


2. Use of attributive and identifying processes
3. Frequent use of epithets and classifiers in nominal groups
4. Use of simple present tense

2.7.3 Example of Descriptive Text


My Mom
I have to tell you about my mother. Her name is Meriana. She is outstandingly
beautiful anyway she is not tall. She has chestnut and light skin. Her eyes shading is
chestnut. Her eyes are dazzling and amazing. I really love her eyes.
She is a greatly kind person. She is sporty. She venerates to divert and engross
her adolescents when her children were exasperates. She by and large rouses me to
understand various things and research the data with experience. She is patient and
compelling woman I have ever known. She appreciates to help people. She is an
average individual, as a wife and mother. She by and large manages her group. She
loves her life partner and children all that much.
She adores her home to be clean and faultless. She does most of the
assignments without home accomplice and she similarly can manage her work. She
works as an advisor. She opens an office at home. Her clients genuinely like her work
in light of the fact that my mother is surprising in mind science. She is the best place
to grant stories and she for the most part gives remarkable advices in case we have
issues.
For my father, my mother is everything. She is his life. He can't live without
my mother. Everything seems, by all accounts, to be so untidy if my mother goes to
other city for a couple of days. My mother is a blessed courier without wings. She is a
holy person for me. She is someone who I treasure the most in my life. I wish she will
reliably be sound and energetic.

CHAPTER III

23

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
This study is aimed to find out whether PQRST method significantly affects
students ability in comprehending descriptive text at grade XI of SMA N 1
Silimakuta. This research uses experimental method. It deals with two variables, they
are using of PQRST method and students achievement. The experimental group is
taught by using PQRST method, the control group is taught without using PQRST
method.
TABLE I
DESIGN OF THE RESEARCH

Group
Pre-test
Treatment
Post-test
Experimental
O
X1
O
Control
O
X2
O
X1
= the experimental group, where the sample is taught by using
PQRST method
X2

= the control group, where the sample is taught without using


PQRST method

3.2 Population and Sample


26
3.2.1 Population
According to Arikunto (2006:130), population is defined as all members of
any well-defined class of people, events, or objects. Population is also the group of

24

the people that you want to find out about by doing your research. So in doing this
research there must be population that will be investigated. The population of this
research is the eleventh grade of SMA N 1 Silimakuta. The writer focuses on XIIPA. There are five classess of XI-IPA in this grade and the total of the students is
155 students which consist of 54 males and 101 females students.
3.2.2

Sample
Arikunto (2006:131) states a sample is a portion of a population. Based

on Arikunto (2002:108), if the population is more than 100, the researcher may
take 25% - 50% as the sample, if the population less than 100, the researcher may
take the entire sample. So the writer takes two classess to be researched where
experimental group consists of 32 students (XI-IPA A), and control group
consists of 32 students (XI-IPA B) and total members of sample are 64.
3.3 The Subject of the Study
This research is focused on the students of class XI IPA-1 of SMA N 1 Silimakuta.

3.4 Research Object


The object of this study is to know the effect of PQRST method on students
ability in comprehending descriptive text.

3.5 Instrument of Collecting Data


According to Arikunto (2006:131), instrument is a tool when the researcher uses a

25

method. The instrument is used to achieve the accuracy of the data and can indicate
that the writer is successful or not in his/her research. There are many instruments
which are used to collect the data. They are test, questionnaire, interview and
observation. The writer chooses the written test. It is multiple choice that consists of
20 items with 5 passages. The test is conducted by the writer in order to measure the
ability of the students in comprehending the reading text.

3.6 Technique of Collecting Data


In this study, the writer uses test to get the scores of the students. Arikunto
(2006:150) states that test is question which is used to measure the skills, knowledge,
intelligence, achievement attitude, and other capability of individual or a group of
people. In this study there are procedures to collect the data namely pre test, treatment
and post test.

3.6.1 Pre test


Pre test is given to the population of the students to be sampled out. In pre
test, both of the control group and experimental group are asked to comprehend
reading text without applying PQRST method. The function of pre test is to know
the main scores of the control and the experimental class before getting treatment.

26

3.6.2 Treatment
The treatment is conducted after the pre test. The writer gives the treatment to
both groups. The writer will give the same topic to both groups with different way.
In experimental group, the writer will teach descriptive text by applying PQRST
method and in the control group the writer will teach descriptive text without
PQRST method.

3.6.3 Post test


After treatment, the writer will give the post test in the last meeting. The
students are given a post test which is similar with the pre test. The function of the
post test is to know the mean scores of the control group and the experimental
group after treatment.

3.7 Scoring of the Test


In scoring the test, the writer use scoring range from 0 100 by counting the
correct answer and applying this formula Arikunto (2010:244) :
S R x 100
N
Where:
S

: the score

27

R
: total correct answer
N
: the number of test items
For instance , if one students can answer 16 correctly out 20 items, the score is
:
S

16
20 x 100

= 80
3.8 Standardized Test
Standarized test is compiled by the institution or organization specially for
designing the test. They are experts in curriculum and also as teachers. The test has
standardized. It means that management and scoring is done through standard and
assumption of the same condition so that the result of scoring can be compared for
class or different school.

According to Arikunto (2009: 146-147), the differences between standardized


test and teacher made test showed by following table :

Table of the differences between standardized test and teacher made test.
No
1

Standardized Test
Teacher Made Test
Depend on materials and general Depend on materials
purose of schools in all country.

and

specific

purpose that formulated by teacher for

certain class.
Include wide aspect and knowledge or Sometimes just included the narrow
skill in little test item for all of skill or knowledge or skill.
topic.

28

Compiled

by equipment of staff, Compiled by teaher with a little or

professor, solver, editor, and item test.


without help by the other.
Using test items had tried out, Seldom use the test items had tried out,
analyzed, and revised before become a analyzed and revised.
test.
The test has high realibility.
The test use norm for all country.

5
6

The test has average or low realibility.


Using limited group of certain class.

Based on the differences above, the writer chooses standardized test. It means
that the writer does not need to calculate realibility and validity because the
standardized test has had high realibility and compiled by some experts of making
test. Standardized test consists of aspect knowledge, skill and the norm which suitable
for all of school in all of country.

3.9 The Technique of Analyzing Data


There are two groups of data : those are the control and experimental group. To
analyze the data, this research will use the test formula:
t=

Note:
t = test formula
Mx = the mean of group A (control group)
My = the mean of Group B (experimental group)
dx = the standard deviation of score A (control group)

29

dy = the standard deviation of score B (experimental group)


Nx = the total sample of A (control group)
Ny = the total sample of B (experimental group)
According to Sudjana (2005:67), the formula to get the Mean is:

xi

Mean ( x )= n
Note:

= the means

= the sum of all the scores

= number of the scores

According to Sudjana (2005:94), the formula to get the mean and standard deviation
are:
S=

Note:
S = standard deviation
N = number of sample in X1 or X2
xi = the sum of the score X
The formula to get the statistical hypothesis :
H0 = X = Y
Ha = X>Y

30

The research instruments are needed to collect the data for the present study. The
researcher believes that without instruments, it is impossible for the researcher to
collect the data. In collecting the data, there are several instruments used, such as
Teaching Learning Scenario, Test, Questionnaire.