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A.

Pre-watching - Match the words or phrases to their definitions on the right (write the correct
letter in each box).

retreat (v)

a low area between two high waves or hills

gravity (n)

a warning of danger or of a problem

level (v)

the highest part or point of a hill or wave

trough (n)

to surround a city with soldiers and try to take control of it

debris (n)

to move back and cover less of a place

besiege (v)

to happen or appear for the first time in a particular place

alert (n)

the force that makes things fall to the ground

divert (v)

the pieces that are left after something has been destroyed

originate (v)

to knock (someone or something) down to the ground

10

crest (n)

to change the direction of (something)

B. Now watch an animated video about how tsunamis work and fill in the gaps in the following
sentences. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wx9vPv-T51I

Tsunamis are commonly known as .

Ocean waves are limited in and .

An earthquake on the ocean floor is caused when the of the Earth's surface slip.

This energy travels up to the surface, water and raising it above the normal sea level.

Because there is less water to move through, this massive amount of energy is .

Tsunami means in Japanese.

If the of a tsunami reaches shore first, the water will .

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was one of the deadliest in history.

People have attempted to stop tsunamis with sea walls, , and channels.

10

When nature is too powerful to stop, the is to get out of its way.

C. Now watch the video again and decide whether the following statements are true or false?
Write T for True or F for False.
1

The Persian soldiers who were trying to invade Potidaea were drowned by a tsunami.

Tsunamis are caused by the gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun.

Tsunamis have low and high points just like regular waves.

Normal ocean waves only involve motion of the uppermost layer of the water.

The energy that causes normal ocean waves comes from underwater.

An earthquake on the ocean floor is the most common cause of a tsunami.

A tsunami can be easily noticed even when it is far from the shore.

When a tsunami approaches the coast, it travels faster.

A tsunami can travel a mile or more into the mainland.


The
The wall surrounding the power plant in Fukushima was high enough to protect it from the tsunami.

10

http://areti-aroundtheworldinenglish.blogspot.gr/

A. Pre-watching - Match the words or phrases to their definitions on the right (write the correct
letter in each box).

retreat (v)

a low area between two high waves or hills

gravity (n)

a warning of danger or of a problem

level (v)

the highest part or point of a hill or wave

trough (n)

to surround a city with soldiers and try to take control of it

debris (n)

to move back and cover less of a place

besiege (v)

to happen or appear for the first time in a particular place

alert (n)

the force that makes things fall to the ground

divert (v)

the pieces that are left after something has been destroyed

originate (v)

to knock (someone or something) down to the ground

10

crest (n)

to change the direction of (something)

B. Now watch an animated video about how tsunamis work and fill in the gaps in the following
sentences. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wx9vPv-T51I

Tsunamis are commonly known as .

Ocean waves are limited in and .

An earthquake on the ocean floor is caused when the of the Earth's surface slip.

This energy travels up to the surface, water and raising it above the normal sea level.

Because there is less water to move through, this massive amount of energy is .

Tsunami means in Japanese.

If the of a tsunami reaches shore first, the water will .

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was one of the deadliest in history.

People have attempted to stop tsunamis with sea walls, , and channels.

10

When nature is too powerful to stop, the is to get out of its way.

C. Now watch the video again and decide whether the following statements are true or false?
Write T for True or F for False.
1

The Persian soldiers who were trying to invade Potidaea were drowned by a tsunami.

Tsunamis are caused by the gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun.

Tsunamis have low and high points just like regular waves.

Normal ocean waves only involve motion of the uppermost layer of the water.

The energy that causes normal ocean waves comes from underwater.

An earthquake on the ocean floor is the most common cause of a tsunami.

A tsunami can be easily noticed even when it is far from the shore.

When a tsunami approaches the coast, it travels faster.

A tsunami can travel a mile or more into the mainland.


The
The wall surrounding the power plant in Fukushima was high enough to protect it from the tsunami.

10

http://areti-aroundtheworldinenglish.blogspot.gr/

ANSWER KEY
A. Pre-watching - Match the words or phrases to their definitions on the right (write the correct
letter in each box).

retreat (v)

gravity (n)

level (v)

trough (n)

debris (n)

besiege (v)

alert (n)

divert (v)

originate (v)

10

crest (n)

e
g
i
a
h
d
b
j
f
c

a low area between two high waves or hills

a warning of danger or of a problem

the highest part or point of a hill or wave

to surround a city with soldiers and try to take control of it

to move back and cover less of a place

to happen or appear for the first time in a particular place

the force that makes things fall to the ground

the pieces that are left after something has been destroyed

to knock (someone or something) down to the ground

to change the direction of (something)

B. Now watch an animated video about how tsunamis work and fill in the gaps in the following
sentences. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wx9vPv-T51I

Tsunamis are commonly known as tidal waves.

Ocean waves are limited in size and speed.

An earthquake on the ocean floor is caused when the tectonic plates of the Earth's surface slip.

This energy travels up to the surface, displacing water and raising it above the normal sea level.

Because there is less water to move through, this massive amount of energy is compressed.

Tsunami means harbor wave in Japanese.

If the trough of a tsunami reaches shore first, the water will withdraw.

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was one of the deadliest natural disasters in history.

People have attempted to stop tsunamis with sea walls, flood gates, and channels.

10

When nature is too powerful to stop, the safest course is to get out of its way.

C. Now watch the video again and decide whether the following statements are true or false?
Write T for True or F for False.
1

The Persian soldiers who were trying to invade Potidaea were drowned by a tsunami.

Tsunamis are caused by the gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun.

Tsunamis have low and high points just like regular waves.

Normal ocean waves only involve motion of the uppermost layer of the water.

The energy that causes normal ocean waves comes from underwater.

An earthquake on the ocean floor is the most common cause of a tsunami.

A tsunami can be easily noticed even when it is far from the shore.

When a tsunami approaches the coast, it travels faster.

A tsunami can travel a mile or more into the mainland.


The
The wall surrounding the power plant in Fukushima was high enough to protect it from the tsunami.

10

http://areti-aroundtheworldinenglish.blogspot.gr/

T
F
T
T
F
T
F
F
T
F

TRANSCRIPT
In 479 BC, when Persian soldiers besieged the Greek city of Potidaea, the tide retreated much farther than
usual, leaving a convenient invasion route. But this wasn't a stroke of luck. Before they had crossed
halfway, the water returned in a wave higher than anyone had ever seen, drowning the attackers. The
Potidaeans believed they had been saved by the wrath of Poseidon. But what really saved them was likely
the same phenomenon that has destroyed countless others: a tsunami. Although tsunamis are commonly
known as tidal waves, they're actually unrelated to the tidal activity caused by the gravitational forces of
the Sun and Moon. In many ways, tsunamis are just larger versions of regular waves. They have a trough
and a crest, and consist not of moving water, but the movement of energy through water. The difference is
in where this energy comes from. For normal ocean waves, it comes from wind. Because this only affects
the surface, the waves are limited in size and speed. But tsunamis are caused by energy originating
underwater, from a volcanic eruption, a submarine landslide, or most commonly, an earthquake on the
ocean floor caused when the tectonic plates of the Earth's surface slip, releasing a massive amount of
energy into the water. This energy travels up to the surface, displacing water and raising it above the
normal sea level, but gravity pulls it back down, which makes the energy ripple outwards horizontally.
Thus, the tsunami is born, moving at over 500 miles per hour. When it's far from shore, a tsunami can be
barely detectable since it moves through the entire depth of the water. But when it reaches shallow water,
something called wave shoaling occurs. Because there is less water to move through, this still massive
amount of energy is compressed. The wave's speed slows down, while its height rises to as much as 100
feet. The word tsunami, Japanese for "harbor wave," comes from the fact that it only seems to appear near
the coast. If the trough of a tsunami reaches shore first, the water will withdraw farther than normal
before the wave hits, which can be misleadingly dangerous. A tsunami will not only drown people near the
coast, but level buildings and trees for a mile inland or more, especially in low-lying areas. As if that
weren't enough, the water then retreats, dragging with it the newly created debris, and anything, or
anyone, unfortunate enough to be caught in its path. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was one of the
deadliest natural disasters in history, killing over 200,000 people throughout South Asia. So how can we
protect ourselves against this destructive force of nature? People in some areas have attempted to stop
tsunamis with sea walls, flood gates, and channels to divert the water. But these are not always effective.
In 2011, a tsunami surpassed the flood wall protecting Japan's Fukushima Power Plant, causing a nuclear
disaster in addition to claiming over 18,000 lives. Many scientists and policy makers are instead focusing on
early detection, monitoring underwater pressure and seismic activity, and establishing global
communication networks for quickly distributing alerts. When nature is too powerful to stop, the safest
course is to get out of its way.