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Protozoology

INTRODUCTION

Isna Indrawati Department of Parasitology

PROTOZOA

Unicellular animal with full functions and

carry out complex metabolic activities.

relatively complex internal structure

Most species are free living

Total species > 50,000 and parasitic:

about 10,000

Some species are considered

commensals , some are pathogen

Protozoan diseases range from very mild to life-threatening

Protozoan diseases range from very mild to life-threatening depend on : – the species and strain

depend on :

the species and strain of the parasite the resistance of the host.

Classification

Class Rhizopoda

Ciliata

Mastigophora / Flagellata

Sporozoa

Morphology

Vary in size and shape

parasitic protozoa in humans are < 50 μm in size.

intracellular forms : are 1 - 10

μm long

Balantidium coli may measure

70 μm (extracellular)

Life Cycle Stages

1.

Trophozoites / vegetative / proliferative.

Active,

feeding and multiply

Relative thin wall/ cell membrane

2.

Cysts :

stages with a thickened wall

Not active

protective stages

resistant to bad

environment

2. Cysts : – stages with a thickened wall – Not active – protective stages resistant

Morphology

Cytoplasm

Morphology Cytoplasm Ectoplasm Endoplasm Nucleus : 1 or > 1 : vesicular / compact

Ectoplasm

Endoplasm

Nucleus : 1 or > 1 : vesicular / compact

Morphology

plasma / cell membrane enclosing the

cytoplasm

Ectoplasm: the outer and transparent

layer

Endoplasm : the inner layer containing organelles, such as Golgi apparatus,

mitochondria, lysosomes, food vacuoles,

contractile vacuoles

Morphology Nucleoplasma endoplasma ektoplasma

Morphology

Nucleoplasma
Nucleoplasma

endoplasma

ektoplasma

Several types of nucleus

Several types of nucleus Chromatin granule achromatic fibrils Nuclear membrane

Chromatin granule

achromatic fibrils

Several types of nucleus Chromatin granule achromatic fibrils Nuclear membrane
Several types of nucleus Chromatin granule achromatic fibrils Nuclear membrane
Several types of nucleus Chromatin granule achromatic fibrils Nuclear membrane

Nuclear membrane

Some protozoa have a cytosome or

cell “mouth” for ingesting and

cytopyge for excretion

Locomotive organelle

Pseudopodium, flagellum, cilia,

undulating membrane

In flagellata : a kinetoplast associated with the flagellum.

Reproduction

Asexual

Binary fission

Schizogony

Cyst

Sexual

Sporogony ( after gametogony)

syngamy

Sexual reproduction

Conjugation: exchange of nuclear materials

of 2 cells

Sporogony ( after Gametogony) : sexually

differentiated cells unit zygote

Reproduction

Binary fission : results in 2 daughter cells

simple,

Reproduction • Binary fission : results in 2 daughter cells – simple, longitudinal t r a

longitudinal

Reproduction • Binary fission : results in 2 daughter cells – simple, longitudinal t r a

transversal

Reproduction • Binary fission : results in 2 daughter cells – simple, longitudinal t r a

Binary fission

Endodyogeny: by internal budding results in 2

cells, e.g. : Toxoplasma

Binary fission • Endodyogeny: by internal budding results in 2 cells, e.g. : Toxoplasma

Schizogony: multiple fission, results in multiple cells

Schizogony: multiple fission, results in multiple cells Source :www.sciencedirect.com

Source :www.sciencedirect.com

Multiple fission: Cyst

Multiple fission: Cyst
Multiple fission: Cyst

Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction • Syngamy / conyugation • exchange of nuclear materials of 2 cells

Syngamy / conyugation

exchange of nuclear

materials of 2 cells

Sexual : Sporogony ( After Gametogony)

Gamogony

Sporogony : ordo Coccidia

Sporogony : ordo Coccidia Source:biology.unm.edu

Source:biology.unm.edu

Transmission

Cyst / oocyst

Vegetative / trophozoite

Method of transmission

Contaminated food and water

Sexual intercourse

Parentral

Sucking blood vector

Pathology and Clinical symptom

Depending on :

Organ that was infected

Life cycle and reproduction methods of species

Enzymes/ toxin produced by the protozoa

Progress of the disease

Diagnosis

Usually diagnosed from samples of

feces, blood, liquor cerebro-spinalis, and tissue

Indirect identification:

Serology

radiology

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