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A Brief History of Cryptography

Florian Deckert

23.03.2007

Encyclopedia Britannica:

“Cryptography: Practice of the enciphering and deciphering of messages in secret code in order to render them unintelligible to all but the intended receiver.

Early Cryptography

• 3500 BC: Sumerians

– Cuneiform writings

Early Cryptography • 3500 BC: Sumerians – Cuneiform writings 23.03.2007 Florian Deckert 3

Early Cryptography

• 1900 BC: Egypt

– First known use of cryptography

23.03.2007

Florian Deckert
Florian Deckert

4

Early Cryptography

Early Cryptography • 500 – 600 BC: ATBASH Cipher – Used by Hebrew scribes – Substitution

• 500 – 600 BC:

ATBASH Cipher

– Used by Hebrew scribes

– Substitution cipher (reversed alphabet)

Early Cryptography

486 BC: Greece

σκυτάλη – skytale

Early Cryptography • 486 BC: Greece – σκυτάλη – skytale 23.03.2007 Florian Deckert 6
Early Cryptography • 486 BC: Greece – σκυτάλη – skytale 23.03.2007 Florian Deckert 6

Early Cryptography

• 60 – 50 BC: Julius Caesar

– substitution cipher

– Shift letters by X positions:

• E.g. X = 3: A D, B E, C F,

– Weakness?

• Frequency analysis (1000 AD)

– 1466: Leon Albertini: cipher disk

• Used until 16th century

analysis (1000 AD) – 1466: Leon Albertini: cipher disk • Used until 16th century 23.03.2007 Florian

Medieval Cryptography

• 1587: Vigenère Cipher

– Polyalphabetic: one to many relationship

– Example

• Encrypt: lamp

• Keyword: ubc

• Ciphertext: fboj

• Apart from that

– Example • Encrypt: lamp • Keyword: ubc • Ciphertext: fboj • Apart from that 23.03.2007

Modern Cryptography

• 1845: Morse Code

– Represention by code signal

– States (on and off) composed into 5 symbols

Code – Represention by code signal – States (on and off) composed into 5 symbols 23.03.2007

Modern Cryptography

• 1863: Kasiski breaks Vigenere:

– Find length of keyword

– Divide message into substitution cryptograms

– Use frequency analysis to solve these

Modern Cryptography

• 1918: ADFGVX Cipher

– Used in the German army in WWI

 

ADFGX

A

BTALP

D

DHOZK

F

QFVSN

G

GJCUX

X

MREWY

Modern Cryptography

• 1918: The Enigma

– Arthur Scherbius

– Business: confidential docs

– No codebooks

– Rotors multi substitution

– Wireing changes as-you- type

– German forces in WWII

– Room 40

substitution – Wireing changes as-you- type – German forces in WWII – Room 40 23.03.2007 Florian

Modern Cryptography

• 1937 – 1945: Navajo Code Talkers

Modern Cryptography • 1937 – 1945: Navajo Code Talkers 23.03.2007 Florian Deckert 13

Modern Cryptography

• 1949: Shannon:

– Communication Theory of Secret Systems

– Proved: One time pad unbreakable

– Communication Theory of Secret Systems – Proved: One time pad unbreakable 23.03.2007 Florian Deckert 14

Modern Cryptography

• Until mid 70‘s

Modern Cryptography • Until mid 70‘s 23.03.2007 Florian Deckert 15

Modern Cryptography

• 1976: Diffie – Hellman Key Exchange

– Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman – Discrete logarithm problem:

G: finite cyclic group with n elements

• Modulo n multiplication

• b: generator of G: every element g of G can be written as g = b k for some integer k

• Goal: find k given g and b and n!

Very hard problem

Modern Cryptography

• So how does it work?

• Exploits?

– Man in the middle – Fix: additional authentication

Modern Cryptography

• Public Key Crypto

– Key exchange problem

– Asymmetric key algorithm

– E.g: RSA, MIT, 1977

Key Crypto – Key exchange problem – Asymmetric key algorithm – E.g: RSA, MIT, 1977 23.03.2007

Modern Cryptography

• 1991: PGP Pretty Good Privacy

– Protocol, uses RSA

– Encryption & decryption

– Digital signatures

• How does that work?

– Web of Trust

• Third party signs (public) key to attest association between person and key

– Other Possibility: Hierarchical, CA based

• E.g.: X.509 Certificates in SSL

Thank You!

Let’s go to Koerner’s.