Sei sulla pagina 1di 14
1
1

(Internal) List of Abbreviations

° C

Degree(S) Celsius/Centigrade

° F

Degree(S) Fahrenheit

4WD

Four Wheel Drive

A&D

Alcohol & Drugs

AASHTO

American Association of State Highway and Transport Officers

ABS

Anti Blocking System (as installed on car brake systems)

ABS

American Bureau of Shipping

AC

Alternating Current

ACGIH

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

ACI

Alloy Casting Institute

ACI

American Concrete Institute

ACQ

Annual Contract Quantity

ADM

Automated Drilling Machine

ADP

Automatic Data Processing

AFNOR

French standards institute

AGMA

American Gear Manufacturers Association

AHD

Along Hole Depth

AISC

American Institute of Steel Constructors

AISI

American Iron and Steel Institute

ALARP

As Low As Reasonably Practicable

ALP

Articulated Loading Platform

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

AOC

Accidentally Oil Contaminated

API

American Petroleum Institute

API

American Petroleum Institute

api

application program interface

ARR

Annual Review of Reserves

AS

Australian Standards

ASCE

American Society of Civil Engineers

ASCII

American standard code for information interchange

ASD

Alarm and ShutDown

ASHRAE

American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Airconditioning

Engineers

ASME

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASNT

American Society for Non-destructive Testing

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

AVO

Amplitude Cersus Offset

AVR

Automatic Voltage Regulator

AWS

American Welding Society

AZ

Azimuth

b/d

barrels per day

BA

Breathing Apparatus

bbls

barrels

bdf

below drilling floor (m bdf, ft bdf)

BEAMA

British Electrical Allied Manufacturers Association

BFD

Basis For Design

BGC

British Gas Corporation

BHC/BCSL

Borehole Compensated Sonic Log

2
2

BHFP

Bottom-Hole Flowing Pressure

BHP

Bottom-Hole Pressure

BHT

Bottom-Hole Temperature

bmsl

below mean sea level

BMT

Basement

boe

barrels of oil equivalent

BOP

Blow Out Preventor

BOPD

barrels of oil per day

BPM

Barrels Per Minute

BS&W

Bottom Sediment/settlings and Water

BS(I)

British Standards (Institute)

Btu

British thermal unit

BU

Build-Up

BV

Bulk Volume

CAA

Civil Aviation Authority

CAD

Computer Aided Design

CAE

Computer Aided Engineering

CAL

Caliper Log

CALM

Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring

CALS

Computer aided Acquisition and Logistics Support

CAM

Computer Aided Manufacturing

CASE

Computer Aided Software Engineering

CBEMA

Computer Business Equipment Manufacturers' Association

CBL

Cement Bond Log

CBP

Country Business Plan

CCD

Charged Coupled Drive

CCIR

International Radio Consultive Committee

CCITT

International Telegraph & Telephone Consultive Committee

CCR

Central Control Room

CDA

Compound Document Architecture

CDM

Continuous Dipmeter

CE

Completely Eroded

CEB-FIP

Comité Euro-International de Béton

CEC

Cation Exchange Capacity

CEE

International committee on rules for approved electrical equipment

CEN

Comité Européen de Normalisation

CENELEC

Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique

CENELEC

European committee for electrotechnical standards

CF

Completely Faulted Out

CFP

Computing Focal Point

CGM

Computer Graphics Metafile

CGR

Condensate/Gas Ratio

CHP

Casing Head Pressure

CIBHP

Closed-In Bottom-Hole Pressure

CICIND

Comité International de Cheminées Industrielles

CIIP

Condensate Initially In Place

CIM

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

CIRIA

Construction Industry Research and Information Association

CISC

Complex Instruction Set Computer

CITHP

Closed In Tubing Head Pressure

3
3

CMM

Corrosion Management Manual

CMT

Carcinogens, Mutagens and Teratogens

CNL

Compensated Neutron Log

CNS

Central North Sea

CO2

Carbon Dioxide

COC

Continuously Oil Contaminated

CONCUS

Computer program to calculate critical coning/cusping rates

CPI

Corregated Plate Interceptor

CPU

Central Processing Unit

CSA

Canadian Standards Association

CSR

Company Site Representative

CT

Corporation Tax

D

Darcy

d

day

dB

decibel

DBA

Database Administrator

DBMS

Data Base Management System

DC

Direct Current

DCC

Diving Compression Compartment

DCE

Distributed Computing Environment

DCQ

Daily Contract Quality

Deg.

Degree

DEn

Department of Energy

DEN

Drilling Equipment Newsletter

DEP

(Shell) Design and Engineering Practice

DEP

Design and Engineering Practices

DFE

Derrick Floor Elevation

DIL

Dual Induction Log

DIN

Deutsches Institut für Normung

DIS

Drop-In Sub

DLL/DLT

Dual Laterolog

DNV

Det Norske Veritas

DOM

Degree Of Oil Maturity

DOP

Drop-Off Point

DOS

Disk Operating System

DS

Drilling Supervisor

DST

Drillstem Test

DSV

Drilling Supervisor

DWT

Deadweight Tonnage

E&P

Exploration & Production

EA

Environmental Assessment

EAIP

Environmental Assessment Implementation Plan

EAU

Committee for waterfront structures

EBU

End of Build-Up

EC

European Commission

EC

Electrical Council

ECC

Emergency Co-ordination Centre

ECMA

European Computer Manufacturers' Association

EDI

Electronic Data Interchange format

4
4

EDIFACT

UN sponsored group developing international EDI standards

EDO

End of Drop-Off

EGC

Equivalent Gas Column

EHC

Equivalent Hydrocarbon Column

Ei,ei

Exponential integral

EIA

Environmental Impact Assessment

EJMA

Expansion Joints Manufacturers Association

EL

Electrical Log

ELCB

Earth Leak Circuit Breaker

ELCB

Exposed Location Circuit Breaker

ELSBM

Exposed Location Single Buoy Mooring

EMD

Electric Motor Division

EMP

Environmental Management Plan

EOC

Equivalent Oil Column

EOF

Entirely Oil Free

EOR

Enhanced Oil Recovery

EOSR

Extra Oil/Steam Ratio

EP

Earning Power

EPGEO

EP Geological well data file

EPICS

EP Information Computing System

EPIRB

Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon

EPIRUS

EP Interactive Retrieval and Updating System

EPOIS

E&P Operations Indicator System

EPS

Early Production System

ERA

Electrical Research Association

ERW

Electric Resistance Welding

ES

Electrical Survey

ESD

Emergency Shutdown

ESI

Environmental Sensitivity Index

ESPRIT

European Strategic Program for Research in Information Technology

ESS

Electronic Spreadsheet

EU

Euronorm standards

F

Formation resistivity factor

F(P)SU

Floating (Production) Storage Unit

FAR

Fatal Accident Rate

FBG

Formation Breakdown Gradient

FBHP

Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure

FBHT

Flowing Bottom-Hole Temperature

FCQ

Fixed Contract Quantity

FCS

Flow Control Shaker

FCV

Flow Control Valve

FDC

(compensated) Formation Density Log

FENSEC

Fence diagram plot program

FGIIP

Free Gas Initially In Place

FIL

Fracture Identification Log

FIP

Fédération Internationale de la Préconstrainte

FIREPRAN

Fire Probability and Risk Analysis

FIT

Formation Interval Test(Er)

FIT/FST

Formation Intake/Strength Test

FLAGS

Far-north Liquids and Associated Gas System

5
5

FLKO

Free Liquid Knock-Out

FLT

Fault

FMECA

Failure Mode, Effects and Cause Analysis

FPR

Field Plateau Rate

FPS

Floating Production System

FPSO

Floating Production Storage and Offloading

FRC

Fast Rescue Craft

FTHP

Flowing Tubing Head Pressure

FTHT

Flowing Tubing Head Temperature

FTP

File Transfer Protocol

f w

watercut

FWHP

Flowing Well Head Pressure

FWL

Free Water Level

G

gas specific gravity (air = 1,0)

GDT

Gas Down To

GE

Gaseous Extinghuishing

GFPT

Gas Field Planning Tool

GGC

Gross Gas Column

GIIP

Gas Initially In Place

GLR

Gas/Liquid Ratio

GNT

Gamma Neutron Tool

GOC

Gas/Oil Contact

GOR

Gas Oil Ratio

GR

Gamma Ray log

GRE

Glass Re-inforced Epoxy

GRV

Gross Rock Volume

GST

Gamma ray spectroscopy log

GU

Group (rock-stratigraphic) Unit

GUT

Gas Up To

GWC

Gas/Water Contact

H

gross thickness

h

hour

H2S

Hydrogen Sulfide

HA

Health Assessment

HAC

Hazardous Area Classification

HAZAN

Hazard Analysis

HAZOP

Hazard & Operability

HCDT

Hydrocarbons Down To

HCIIP

Hydrocarbons Initially In Place

HCPV

Hydrocarbon Filled Pore Volume

HDP

Hydrocarbon Distribution Plot

HDT

High-Resolution Dipmeter Tool

HEI

Heat Exchanger Institute

HEL

Higher Explosive Limit

HFW

High Frequency Welding

HI

Hydrogen Index (in water)

HLO

Helicopter Landing Officer

HMSO

Her Majesty's Stationary Office

HP

High Pressure

6
6

HRA

Health Risk Assessment

HRAL

Human Resources London

HRT

Hydrostatic Reference Tool

HSEMS

Health, Safety and Environment Management System

HSL

Horner straight line

HTRI

Heat Transfer Research Incorporation

HUD

Hold Up Depth

HUET

Helicopter Underwater Escape Training

HUT

Hydrocarbons Up To

HV

High Voltage

HVAC

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

HWC

Hydrocarbon/Water Contact

Hz

Herz

I

resistivity index

IADC

International Association of Drilling Contractors

IAGC

International Association of Geophysical Contractors

IATA

International Air Travel Association

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organisation

ICE

Institute of Civil Engineers

ICEPE

Integrated Computing Environment for Petroleum Engineering

ID

Inside Diameter

IEC

International Electrical Committee

IEE

Institute of Electrical Engineers

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IES

Induction Electrical Survey

IGC

INDUSTRIAL GASES COMmittee

IGES

Initial Graphics Exchange Specifications

IHVE

Institute of Heating and Ventilation Engineers

II

Injectivity Index

IIT

Information, Instruction and Training

IIW/IIS

International Institute of Welding

IL

Induction Log

ILOGMAN

Interactive Log Manipulation system

IMCO

Intergovernmental Maritime Consultation Organisation

IMDG

International Marine Dangerous Goods

IME

Institute of Makers of Explosives

IME

Institute of Mechanical Engineers

IMF

Incremental Master File

IMO

International Maritime Organisation

IMS

Information Management System

IOP

Integrated Operations Plan

IOS

International Oceanographic Society

IP

Institute of Petroleum

IP

Isopach (stratigraphic thickness)

IPR

Inflow Performance Relationship

IR

Infra Red

IS

Isochore (vertical thickness)

ISA

Instrument Society of America

ISC

Integrated Services Co-ordinator

ISF

Induction Spherically Focused log

7
7

ISGOTT

International Safety Guide for the Operation of Tanks and Terminals

ISO

International Standardization Organization

ITHP

Injection Tubing Head Pressure

ITU

International Telecommunication Union

IUCN

International Union for Conservation of Nature

IUPAC

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

JIS

Japanese Standards Institute

JSA

Job Safety Analysis

JVA

Joint Venture Agreement

KOP

Kick-Off Point

KR

K-series Regulator

L

Laminar clay coefficient

LAN

Local Area Network

LAT

Lowest Astronomical Tide

Lb

pound (weight)

LC

Locked Closed

LDT

Litho Density Log

LEL

Lower Explosive Limit

LEV

Local Exhaust Ventilation

LGR

Liquid/Gas Ratio

LL

Laterolog

LLD

Laterolog deep

LLS

Laterolog shallow

LN

Long Normal electrical log

LNG

Liquefied Natural Gas

LO

Locked Open

LOC

Locked Open/Closed

LOGIC

petrophysical evaluation package

LP

Low Pressure

LPG

Liquefied Petroleum Gas

LPS

Least Principal Stress

LTI

Lost Time Incident

LTI

Lost-Time Injury

LTIF

Lost Time Incident Frequency

LTS

low temperature separator

Ly

layer

m

cementation factor

M

quantity used in M-N plot

MA

Medical Advisor

MAC

Maximum Allowable Concentration

Mag

Magnitude

MARPOL

Marine Pollution

MB

member (rock-stratigraphic unit)

MC

Micro Caliper

MCC

Main Control Cubicle

MDP

Minimum Drilling Platform

MDS

Multiplexed Data Set

8
8

MEDEVAC

Medical Evacuation

MER

Maximum Efficiency Rate

MESC

Materials Equipment Specification Code

MEST

Micro Electrical Scanning Tool

MFE

Multi-Flow Evaluator

MHF

Message Handling Facility

MHS

Message Handling Service

MJR

Maintenance Job Routine

ML

Micro Log

MLL

Micro Laterolog

MMMF

Man Made Mineral Fibres

MOD

Money-Of-the-Day

MODU

Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit

mol.wt.

molecular weight

MOPO

Manual Of Permitted Operations

Motif

graphical user interface specification

MPI

Magnetic Particle Inspection

MPS

Maximum Principal Stress

MRO

Medical Review Officer

MRP

Maintenance Reference Plan

MRPW

Monthly Report Of Producing Wells

MRT

Module Retrieval Tool

MSDS

Materials Safety Data Sheets

MSDS

Materials Supplies Definition Sheets

MSFL

Micro Spherically Focused Log

MSL

Mean Sea Level

MSS

Manufacturers Standards Society

mSv

milli Sievert

MTC

Medical Treatment Case

MW

Molecular Weight

N

quantity used in M-N plot

n

saturation exponent

N/G

net to gross sand ratio

NACE

National Association of Corrosion Engineers

NBS

National Bureau for Standards

NC

Not Correlated

ND

Not Deposited

NDB

Non Directional Beacons

NDE

Non-Destructive Examination

NDT

Non Destructive Testing

NEMA

National Electric Manufacturers Association

NEPA

National Electric Power Authority

NL

Neutron Log

NF

Normal Faulting

NFPA

National Fire Protection Association

NGC

Net Gas Carbonate

NGL

Natural Gas Liquid

NGS

Net Gas Sand(s)

NGT

Natural Gamma ray log

NHS

Net Hydrocarbon Sand(s)

9
9

NIHL

Noise Induced Hearing Loss

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology

NL

Not Logged

NMD

Norwegian Maritime Directorate

NNL

No Net Loss

NNS

Northern North Sea

NOC

Net Oil Carbonate

NOGAT

Northern Offshore Gas Transportation

NORM

Naturally Occuring Radioactive Material

NOS

Net Oil Sand(S)

NP

Not Penetrated

NPD

Norwegian Petroleum Directorate

NR

Not Reached

NWS

Net Water Sands

OBM

Oil Based Mud

OBP

Operations Business Plan

OCIMF

Oil Companies International Marine Forum

OCMA

Oil Companies Materials Association

OD

Outside Diameter

ODA

Office Document Architecture

ODIF

Office Document Interchange Format

ODT

Oil Down To

OHA

Occupational Health Assessment

OHMG

Occupational Health Management Guide

OIIP

Oil Initially In Place

OIM

Offshore Installation Manager

OML

Oil Mining Lease

Opco

Operating company

OPEC

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

OPG

Operating Procedure Guide

OPP

Oil Prospecting Permit

ORP

Operations Reference Plan

OS

Operating System

OSC

On Scene Commander

OSCP

Operations subsurface computing portfolio

OSD

Operational Shut Down

OSF

Open Software Foundation

OSI

Open System Interconnect

OUT

Oil Up To

OVRPR

Overpressures

OWC

Oil/Water Contact

P & ID P&ID PARASOL PB PCB PCS PCT PCV

piping and Instrument Diagram Process & Instrumentation Diagram petrophysical log database Plugged Back Print Circuit Board Process Control System Production Combination Tool Pressure Control Valve

PD

P e

PE

PEFD

PEMR

PF

PFD

PI

PI

PIC

PID

PL

PLT

PM

P mf

PMG

PMS

POB

PODT

PORT

POWC

PPE

ppm

PR

PV

PRT

PSA

PSC

PSD

psi

psia

psig

PSM

PSV

PT

PTW

PV

PVCS

PVT

PWUT

PX

QA

QI

QM

QRA

QRA

QSP

Q

Q

v

va

10
10

Positive Displacement Photo-electric absorption Photo-Electric absorption log Process and Engineering Flow Diagram Petroleum Engineering monthly report Partly Faulted Personal Floatation Device Performance Indicator Productivity Index Person In Charge Pressure control Indicator Proximity Log Production Logging Tool Preventive Maintenance mud filtrate salinity Project Management Guide Preventative Maintenance System Persons On Board Possible/Present Oil Down To Pressure Operated Reference Tool Possible/Present Oil/Water Contact Personal Protective Equipment parts per million Partly Penetrated Present Value Petroleum Revenue Tax Production Sharing Agreement Production Sharing Contract Process Shut-Down pounds per square inch pounds per square inch absolute pounds per square inch gauge Production System Model Pressure Safety Valve Production Test Permit To Work Pore Volume Present Value Cash Surplus Pressure - Volume - Temperature Possible/Present Water Up To Partly eroded and partly penetrated

Quality Assurance Quality Improvement Quality Management Quantative Risk Assessment Quantitative Risk Analysis Quality Of Safety Policy Cation exchange capacity per unit pore volume meq/cm 3 Normalised Q v

11
11

RAC

Radiation Advisory Committee

RAM

Random Access Memory

rb

reservoir barrel

RBI

Risk Based Inspection

RC

Reservoir Conditions

RCCB

Residual Curent Circuit Breaker

RCD

Residual Current Device

REP

Reservoir Evaluation Package

RF

Recovery Factor

RFT

Repeat Formation Test(er)

RIIS

Research Institute of Industrial Safety

RISC

Reduced Instruction Set Computer

R

m

mud resistivity

R

mc

mud cake resistivity

R

mf

mud filtrate resistivity

R

mfa

apparent mud filtrate resistivity

R

o

resistivity of 100% water-bearing sand

ROM

Read Only Memory

ROP

Rate Of Penetration

ROS

Residual Oil Saturation

ROV

Remotely Operated Vehicle

RP

Recommended Practice

RPA

Radiation Protection Advisor

RPE

Respiratory protective equipment

rpm

revolutions per minute

R sh

shale resistivity

RSW

riserless subsea wireline

RT

Rotary Table

R t

true formation resistivity

RTEP

Real Terms Earning Power

 

RV

Relief Valve

R

w

formation water resistivity

R

wa

apparent formation water resistivity

RWC

Restricted Work Case

R xo

flushed zone resistivity

S

overburden stress

s

second(s)

SAL

Shell Aircraft Ltd

SALM

Single Anchor Leg Mooring

SAM

System Analysis Model

SANDS

computer program listing sand top/bottom

SAR

Search And Rescue

SBHP

Static Bottom-Hole Pressure

SBM

Single Buoy Mooring

SC

Standard Conditions

SCA

Safety Critical Activity

SCADA

Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition

scf

standard cubic foot/feet

SCR

Silicon Controlled Rectifier

SCSSSV

Surface-Controlled Sub-Surface Safety Valve

12
12

SCSSV

Surface Controlled Sub-surface Safety Valve

SDS

Safety Data Sheets

SDTR

Sidetracked hole

SELV

Safety Extra Low Voltage

SFL

Spherically Focused Log

Sg

Specific gravity

SGIIP

Solution Gas Initially In Place

SGML

Standard Generalized Mark-up Language

SHC

Hydrocarbon Saturation

SHD

Slime Hole Drilling

SHDT

Stratigraphic High-resolution Dipmeter Tool

SHOC

Safe Handling Of Chemicals

SHSEC

Shell Health Safety and Environment Comittee

SI

International standards system

SIA

Social Impact Assessment

SIEP

Shell International Exploration & Production

simops

Simultaneous Operations

SIPC

Shell International Petroleum Co. (pre SIEP organisation)

SIPM

Shell Internationale Petroleum Mij. (pre SIEP organisation)

SIS

Swedish Institute of Standards

SL

Sonic Log

SLIM

Simple Low-cost Innovative Marine (production system)

SMB

Submember

SMD

Statfjord Miscible Drive

SN

Short Normal electric log

SNA

System Network Architecture

SNP

Side-wall Neutron Porosity log

SNS

Southern North Sea

SOLAS

Safety Of Life At Sea

SP

Shot Point

SP

Spontaneous Potential log

SPE

Society of Petroleum Engineers

SPI

Specific Productivity Index

SPIR

Spare Parts listing and Interchangeability Record

SPM

Single Point Mooring

SPM

Strokes Per Minute

SQ

sequence

sq yd

square yard

SQL

Structured Query Language

SR

Source Rock

SRB

Sulphate Reducing Bacteria

ss

subsea (m ss, ft ss)

SSB

Single Side Band

SSC

Shell Safety Committee

SSC

Sulphide Stress Cracking

SSHC

Shell Safe Handling of Chemicals

SSPC

Steel Structures Painting Council

SSSV

Sub-Surface Safety Valve

SSV

Surface Safety Valve

ST

Stratigraphic Thickness

STAIRS

Storage And Information Retrieval System

13
13

stb stock tank barrel

STLIIP Stock Tank Liquid Initially In Place

STOIIP Stock Tank Oil Initially In Place

SWL Single Weight Lift

SWL safe working load

SWOPS Single Well Oil Production System

SWS Side-Wall Sample(s)

t

t/a

TA

TAO

TAQ

TCP

TCP/IP

TD

TDD

TDL

TDS

TDT

TEMA

TEMPSC

TFL

TH

THP

TIC

TLCS

TLP

T m

TMS Technical Management System

TOP Technical Office Protocols

TOR Terms Of Reference

TP Toolpusher

TPI Tilted Plate Interceptor

TPS Total Platform Shutdown

TRCF Total Recordable Case Frequency

TRDQ Total Reservoir Daily Quantity

TRSCSV Tubing Retrievable Surface-Controlled Safety Valve

TSA Technical Service/Support Agreement

TSO Time Sharing Option

TT Through Tubing

TVD True Vertical Depth

TVDSS True Vertical Depth Sub-Sea

tonne tonnes per annum (year) Temperature Alarm Telemetry Assisted Operations Characteristic Aquifer Time (t/t D ) Tubing Conveyed Perforating (equipment) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Total Depth Total Driller's Depth Total Logger's Depth Top Drive System Thermal Decay Time log Tubular Exchangers Manufacturers Association Totally Enclosed Motor propelled Survival Craft Through Flowline Thrust faulting Tubing Head Pressure Temperature Indicator Controller Tough Logging Condition System Tension Leg Platform mud temperature

UAA Unsafe Act Auditing

UCFRM unconformity

UGA User Group Administrator

UHF Ultra High Frequency

UKCS United Kingdom Continental Shelf

UKOOA United Kingdom Offshore Operators Association

UL Underwriters Laboratories

14
14

UMC

Underwater Manifold Centre

UPS

Uninterrupted Power Supply

UR

Ultimate Recovery

UT

Ultrasonic Testing

UV

UltraViolet

UWC

Underwater Completion

VAPS

Vehicle Accident Prevention System

VCQ

Variable Contract Quantity

VDE

Verein Deutsche Elektriker

VDI

Verein Deutsche Ingenieure

VDL

Variable Density acoustic Log

VDU

Visual Display Unit

VHF

Very High Frequency

VLORP

Venture Life Operations Reference Plan

VS

Vertical Separation

V sh

shale volume fraction

VT

Vertical Thickness

w.r.t.

with respect to

WC

Watercut

WD

Wedge-shaped layer

WDT

Water Down To

WFMO

Water Flood Movable Oil

WHP

Wellhead Pressure

WIPCOG

Well Inflow Performance program

WMP

Waste Management Plan

WO

Wedged Out

WOB

Weight On Bit

WOR

Water/Oil Ratio

WSOE

Wellsite Operations Engineer

wt

weight

WUT

Water Up To

X.400

ISO standard mail transfer protocol

X.500

ISO standards for distributed name services

X/Open

international vendor consortium producing CAE

x f

fracture half length

y(r)

year

z

vertical dimension

X/Open international vendor consortium producing CAE x f fracture half length y(r) year z vertical dimension