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Answer Key for Study Guide for Memmlers

Structure and Function of the Human Body, 10th Edition

Chapter 1
Organization of the Human
Body
Addressing the Learning
Outcomes
Exercise 1-1
1. the study of body structure.
2. the study of body function.

Exercise 1-2
1. molecule
2. cell
3. tissue
4. organ
5. organ system
6. body

Exercise 1-3
1. nervous system
2. cardiovascular system
3. digestive system
4. integumentary system
5. urinary system
6. skeletal system
7. respiratory system
8. lymphatic system

Exercise 1-4
1. metabolism
2. anabolism
3. catabolism
4. ATP

Exercise 1-9
1. frontal (coronal) plane
2. sagittal plane
3. transverse (horizontal) plane

Exercise 1-10

Making the Connections

1. dorsal cavity
2. cranial cavity
3. spinal cavity (canal)
4. ventral cavity
5. abdominopelvic cavity
6. thoracic cavity
7. diaphragm
8. abdominal cavity
9. pelvic cavity

Exercise 1-11
1. right hypochondriac region
2. epigastric region
3. left hypochondriac region
4. right lumbar region
5. umbilical region
6. left lumbar region
7. right iliac (inguinal) region
8. hypogastric region
9. left iliac (inguinal) region

Exercise 1-12
1. right upper quadrant
2. left upper quadrant
3. right lower quadrant
4. left lower quadrant

Common Name

Anatomic
Adjective
Femoral

Inner elbow

Antecubital

Exercise 1-6

Groin

Inguinal

1. EC
2. IC
3. EC

Arm

Brachial

Forearm

Antebrachial

Armpit

Axillary

Exercise 1-7

Ankle

Tarsal

Shoulder blade

Scapular

Shoulder

Acromial

Exercise 1-8
1. anterior
2. distal
3. lateral
4. proximal
5. posterior

dorsal cavity
ventral cavity
cranial cavity
abdominal cavity
diaphragm
pelvic cavity
hypochondriac region
iliac region
umbilical region
hypogastric region
lumbar region

Testing Your Knowledge


Building Understanding
I. Multiple Choice
1. a: O11
2. c: O9
3. d: O4
4. a: O6
5. c: O5
6. b: O10
7. c: O1
8. a: O8

GROUP A: General Terminology

Thigh

1. superior
2. inferior
3. anterior
4. posterior
5. proximal
6. distal
7. medial
8. lateral

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

II. Completion Exercise

Exercise 1-13

Exercise 1-5
1. homeostasis
2. negative feedback
3. activates
4. corrects
5. shuts off

4. same; homeostasis
5. dis-; dissect
6. cata-; catabolism
7. ana-; anabolism
8. study of; radiology

Exercise 1-14
a. left upper quadrant
b. antecubital
c. abdominopelvic or abdominal
d. left lumbar or umbilical
e. inferiorly

Exercise 1-15
1. cutting, incision of; anatomy
2. stand, stoppage, constancy; homeostasis
3. physi/o; physiology

1. forward
2. intracellular fluid
3. ATP
4. negative feedback
5. metabolism
6. adenosine triphosphate
Learning Outcomes 4, 5, 6, 7

GROUP B: Body Cavities, Directional


Terms, and Planes of Division
1. proximal
2. lateral
3. quadrant
4. cranial cavity
5. sagittal plane
6. abdominal cavity
7. epigastric region
8. mediastinum
9. abdominopelvic cavity
Learning Outcomes 7, 8, 9, 10

GROUP C: Body Regions


1. gluteal
2. carpal
3. popliteal
4. iliac
5. antebrachial
Learning Outcome 11

205

206

Answer Key

Understanding Concepts
I. True/False
1. T: O4
2. T: O11
3. F: inferior. O7
4. F: medial. O7, O10
5. F: right upper quadrant: O10

II. Practical Applications

GROUP A: Directional Terms


1. superior
2. lateral
3. proximal
4. distal
5. superior
6. posterior
7. medial
Learning Outcome 7

GROUP B: Body Cavities & Body Regions


1. left hypochondriac region
2. scapular
3. right hypochondriac region
4. pelvic cavity
5. epigastric region
6. lumbar
7. umbilical region
Learning Outcomes 10, 11

GROUP C: Body Systems


1. nervous system
2. skeletal system
3. muscular system
4. endocrine system
5. cardiovascular system
6. digestive system
6. integumentary system
8. reproductive system
9. urinary system
Learning Outcome 3

III. Short Answer


1. Both catabolism and anabolism concern
chemical reactions (metabolism). The
difference is that catabolism is the breakdown of complex substances into simple
ones, whereas anabolism is the opposite.
Learning Outcome 4
2. Homeostasis is the maintenance of a
constant internal environment. Negative
feedback maintains homeostasis by keeping systems (for instance, body temperature) running within a limited range. The
system responds to a change in a parameter by inducing an opposing change.
Learning Outcomes 5, 6
3. Specialized terms are needed to provide
researchers and practitioners from all
cultures with a common language. For
instance, surgeons need to know where
to find a tumor. Describing its location as
in the hypogastric region, superior to the
bladder is much more specific than stating in the lower abdomen, and describing a laceration as in the cervical region,
lateral to the 3rd vertebrae is much more
specific than on the side of the neck.
Learning Outcomes 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

Conceptual Thinking
1. A 40-year-old man was brought into
the ER suffering from multiple wounds.
One laceration was in the scapular
region, just superior to a mole. The second was in his sural region, lateral to a
scar from a previous injury. Finally, he
had multiple small cuts extending from
the hypogastric region to the left iliac
region.
Learning Outcomes 9, 10,11
2. a. low blood pressure
b. it increased its rate of contraction (the
heart rate)
c. cardiovascular system
d. oxygen administration, IV saline
administration
Learning Outcomes 5, 6, 12
3. a. Mr. S. has a defect in the chemical
hemoglobin. The chemical gives his
blood cells an abnormal shape. His
abnormal blood cells cause his blood
(tissue) to flow abnormally through
the blood vessels (organ), which form
part of the cardiovascular system. This
abnormality causes him pain throughout his body.
b. organ
Learning Outcome 2

Chapter 2
Chemistry, Matter, and Life

4. M
5. B
6. C

Exercise 2-5
1. solvent
2. solute
3. suspension
4. aqueous
5. colloid
6. mixture

Exercise 2-6
A

Exercise 2-7
1. acid
2. base or alkali
3. alkali or base
4. hydroxide
5. salt
5. pH scale
7. low
8. high
9. buffer

Exercise 2-8
C, D, F, G

Exercise 2-9
1. amino acid
2. protein
3. steroid
4. phospholipid
5. carbohydrate
6. carbon
7. monosaccharide

Addressing the Learning


Outcomes

Exercise 2-10: Carbohydrates


(text Fig. 2-8)

Exercise 2-1

1. monosaccharide
2. disaccharide
3. polysaccharide
4. glucose
5. sucrose
6. glycogen

1. proton
2. atom
3. neutron
4. element
5. nucleus
6. electron

Exercise 2-2: Parts of the


Atom, Molecule of Water
(text Figs. 2-1 and 2-5)
1. proton
2. neutron
3. electron
4. first energy level
5. second energy level

Exercise 2-3
1. anions
2. nonpolar covalent
3. electrolytes
4. cations
5. ionic
6. polar covalent

Exercise 2-4
1. B
2. M
3. C

Exercise 2-11: Lipids


(text Fig. 2-9)
1. glycerol
2. fatty acids
3. triglyceride
4. cholesterol

Exercise 2-12: Proteins


(text Fig. 2-10)
1. amino group
2. acid group
3. amino acid
4. coiled
5. pleated
6. folded

Exercise 2-13: Enzyme


Action (text Fig. 2-11)
1. substrate 1 (or substrate 2)
2. substrate 2 (or substrate 1)
3. enzyme
4. product

Answer Key

Exercise 2-14

Building Blocks

Purpose of finished
product or Example

Finished Product

3 fatty acids + glycerol

Triglyceride (simple fat)

Purpose: Insulation, protection,


energy storage

2 monosaccharides

Disaccharide

Example: sucrose

1 monosaccharide

Monosaccharide

Example: glucose

Many monosaccharides

Polysaccharide

Examples: starch, glycogen

Amino acids

Protein

Purpose: enzyme, structural component

One nucleotide containing three


phosphorus

ATP

Purpose: high-energy compound

Many nucleotides

DNA or RNA

Purpose: transmission of genetic


traits, protein synthesis

Exercise 2-15
1. N
2. A
3. N
4. N
5. A
6. A

Exercise 2-16
1. Decreased
2. Low blood pressure
3. Increased
4. Sodium

Exercise 2-17
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

phobia; hydrophobic
phil; hydrophilic
sugar, glucose, sweet; glycogen
heter/o-; heterogeneous
water; hydrophobic
same; homogeneous
poly-; polysaccharide
suffix used in naming enzymes;
lipase
9. sugar; monosaccharide
10. co-; covalent

Making the Connections


1. carbon
2. proteins
3. amino acids
4. enzymes
5. triglyceride
6. glycerol
7. fatty acids
8. monosaccharides
9. glucose

Testing Your Knowledge


Building Understanding
I. Multiple Choice
1. b: O9
2. d: O2
3. b: O3

4. a: O2
5. c: O14
6. b: O12
7. b: O3
8. c: O6
9. a: O12

II. Completion Exercise


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

carbon: O12
valence: O3
universal solvent: O7
molecules; O5
radioactive; O11
colloid: O6
electrolytes or salts: O4
buffer: O10
chemistry: O1
enzymes: O13

Understanding Concepts
I. True/False
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

F: compound. O5
F: 12. O2
T: O2
F: hydrophilic. O7
F: 18. O3
F: suspension; O6
F: neutral: O9
F: nonpolar covalent bonds: O3
T: O12
F: phosphate group. O14

II. Practical Applications


1. triglycerides: O12
2. acids; O8
3. lower; O9
4. monosaccharide: O12
5. water: O7
6. amino acids: O12
7. x-rays: O11
8. electrolytes: O4

III. Short Essays


1. Proteins are composed of linear sequences of amino acids joined by peptide

bonds. These chains of amino acids can


be wound into a helix or folded into a
pleated sheet.
Learning Outcome 12
2. A solute is the substance that dissolves,
while the solvent is the substance
in which the solute dissolves. Salt
(NaCl) is the solute, water is the
solvent.
Learning Outcome 6
3. The shape of an enzyme is important
because it allows the enzyme to bind
its specific substrate.
Learning Outcome 13
4. Similarities: both are mixtures; both
contain particles that are not
dissolved.
Differences: The particles remain evenly
distributed in a colloid, but will settle out
in a suspension.
Learning Outcome 6

Conceptual Thinking
1 a. 20
b. 7
c. 17
d. 10
Learning Outcomes 2, 11
2. Possible answer: There are 20 different building blocks (amino acids) that
can be used to form protein chains,
but only glucose is used to form carbohydrate chains. An almost infinite
number of different proteins can be
constructed. (Since there are 20 different amino acids, even a short chain of
three amino acids has 320 different possibilities.)
Learning Outcome 12
3. a. C, E
b. M, C
c. M, C
d. M

207

208

Answer Key

Chapter 3
Cells and Their Functions
Addressing the Learning
Outcomes
Exercise 3-1
1. micrometer
2. scanning electron microscope
3. compound light microscope
4. transmission electron microscope

Exercise 3-2: Structure


of the Plasma Membrane
(text Fig. 3-3)
1. carbohydrate
2. protein channel
3. phospholipid
4. proteins
5. cholesterol
6. lipid bilayer
7. extracellular fluid
8. cytoplasm

Exercise 3-3: Membrane Proteins


(Table 3-2)
1. channel
2. transporter
3. receptor
4. enzyme
5. linker
6. cell identity marker

Exercise 3-4: Typical Animal Cell


Showing the Main Organelles
(text Fig. 3-2)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

nucleus
nuclear membrane
nucleolus
rough endoplasmic reticulum
ribosomes
plasma membrane
cytosol
mitochondrion
secretory vesicle
Golgi apparatus
microvilli
lysosome or peroxisome
centriole
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
peroxisome or lysosome

Exercise 3-5
1. nucleolus
2. ribosome
3. Golgi apparatus
4. vesicle
5. mitochondrion
6. lysosome
7. nucleus

Exercise 3-6
1. active transport
2. filtration
3. facilitated diffusion
4. osmosis
5. diffusion

6. endocytosis
7. exocytosis
8. pinocytosis

Exercise 3-7: Osmosis


(text Fig. 3-10)
1. isotonic
2. hypotonic
3. hypertonic

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

diffusion
osmosis
bulk transport
endocytosis
exocytosis
phagocytosis
pinocytosis

Testing Your Knowledge

Exercise 3-8: Basic Structure of a


DNA Molecule (text Fig. 3-15)

Building Understanding

1. nucleotide
2. phosphate unit
3. sugar unit
4. nitrogen base
5. thymine
6. guanine

1. b: O3
2. c: O10
3. b: O5
4. c: O10
5. c: O5
6. b: O2
7. b: O1
8. c: O6

Exercise 3-9
1. transcription
2. nucleotide
3. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
4. transfer RNA (tRNA)
5. messenger RNA (mRNA)
6. translation

Exercise 3-10: Stages of Mitosis


(text Fig. 3-18)
1. prophase
2. anaphase
3. interphase
4. telophase
5. metaphase

Exercise 3-11
1. mitosis
2. telophase
3. prophase
4. metaphase
5. interphase
6. anaphase

Exercise 3-12
1. mitosis
2. mitochondria
3. ATP
4. active transport
5. membrane potential
6. entered

Exercise 3-13
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

to eat, ingest; phagocytosis


pino; pinocytosis
body; chromosome
loosening, dissolving, separating;
lysosome
cyt/o; cytology
hyper-; hypertonic
blood; hemolysis
iso-; isotonic
deficient, below, beneath; hypotonic
end/o-; endoplasmic

Making the Connections


1. active transport
2. transporter
3. passive transport
4. facilitated diffusion

I. Multiple Choice

II. Completion Exercise


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

sodium (Na+): O2
phospholipids: O2
nucleolus: O3
C: O7
U: O8
transcription: O8
transfer RNA (tRNA): O8
interphase: O10
4: O10
facilitated diffusion: O4, O5
pinocytosis: O5
aquaporins: O4
phagocytosis: O5

Understanding Concepts
I. True/False
1. T: O7
2. F, hypotonic: O6
3. F, facilitated diffusion: O4
4. T: O3
5. F, filtration: O4
6. T: O10

II. Practical Applications


1. ribosomes: O3
2. isotonic: O6
3. stains: O1
4. filtration: O4
5. diffusion: O4
6. light microscope or compound light
microscope: O1
7. mitosis: O10
8. chromosomes: O10
9. G: O7

III. Short Essays


1. Both active transport and facilitated
diffusion use transporters. However,
active transport moves substances against
their concentration gradients and uses
ATP, whereas facilitated diffusion moves
substances down their concentration gradients and does not use ATP.
Learning Outcomes 4, 5
2. The isotonic solution. If the solution is
more concentrated than your blood cells

Answer Key

(hypertonic), the cells will lose water and


shrink. On the other hand, if the solution is less concentrated than your blood
cells, the cells will swell and possibly
burst (lyse).
Learning Outcome 6
3. Prophase: chromosomes condense,
nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear, centrioles migrate and spindles
appear.
Metaphase: chromosomes line up across
the cells equator
Anaphase: centromeres joining the
duplicated chromosomes divide, and the
chromosomes separate to opposite ends
of the cell.
Telophase: membrane appears around
each chromosome group, forming two
new nuclei.
Learning Outcome 10

Conceptual Thinking
1. Answers may vary. A possible answer is:
The cell can be compared to a walled city:
City walls (plasma membrane) restrict
traffic in and out. Town office (nucleus)
contains blueprints for all city buildings.
Waste disposal plants (lysosomes,
peroxisomes) deal with waste. Factories
(ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi
apparatus) produce necessary materials
for city function. Vehicles (vesicles) move
substances within the city. Power plants
(mitochondria) generate energy.
Learning Outcomes 2, 3
2. Answers may vary. A possible answer is:
a. DNA is a long chain of letterslike
the alphabet in a list of instructions.
These instructions are first copied
into a modified set of instructions
called messenger RNA. These
modified instructions are then used
by tiny structures called ribosomes
to assemble a protein. Proteins are
important because some are enzymes
that catalyze chemical reactions, such
as digestion, some make up body
substances, and some determine
physical traits like hair color and eye
color.
b. Once a protein is made, it has to be
packaged and exported from the cell.
A structure called the Golgi apparatus
puts the protein in a membranebound bubble called a vesicle. The
vesicle is then moved to the cell
boundary (called the plasma membrane), where it dumps its contents
out of the cell.
Learning Outcomes 7, 8, 9
3. a. Glucose will move into the cell by
simple diffusion.
b. Calcium will move out of the cell by
facilitated diffusion.
c. (i) hypertonic (ii) water will flow out
(iii) the cell will shrink.
Learning Outcomes 4, 5, 6

Chapter 4
Tissues, Glands, and
Membranes
Addressing the Learning
Outcomes
Exercise 4-1: Three
Types of Epithelium
(text Fig. 4-1)
1. simple squamous
2. simple cuboidal
3. simple columnar
4. stratified squamous

Exercise 4-2: Muscle Tissue


(text Fig. 4-6)
1. skeletal muscle
2. cardiac muscle
3. smooth muscle

Exercise 4-3: Nervous Tissue


(text Fig. 4-7)
1. white matter
2. gray matter
3. bundles of neuron fibers
4. nucleus
5. cell body
6. neuron fibers
7. neuron
8. nerve (cross-section)
9. brain tissue

Exercise 4-4
1. tissue
2. squamous
3. stratified
4. columnar
5. cuboidal
6. simple

Exercise 4-5
1. voluntary muscle
2. bone
3. myocardium
4. epithelial tissue
5. smooth muscle
6. neuron
7. connective tissue

Exercise 4-6
1. EN
2. EX
3. EX
4. EN
5. B
6. EX

Exercise 4-7: Connective Tissue


(text Figs. 4-4 and 4-5)
1. blood
2. areolar (loose) connective tissue
3. adipose tissue
4. fibrous connective tissue
5. cartilage
6. bone

Exercise 4-8
1. tendon
2. capsule
3. fibrocartilage
4. collagen
5. chondrocyte
6. hyaline cartilage

Exercise 4-9
1. serous membrane
2. cutaneous membrane
3. mucous membrane
4. visceral layer
5. parietal layer
6. mesothelium
7. serous pericardium

Exercise 4-10
1. superficial fascia
2. synovial membrane
3. deep fascia
4. periosteum
5. perichondrium
6. epithelial membrane
7. connective tissue membrane

Exercise 4-11
1. cystic fibrosis
2. simple cuboidal
3. pseudostratified columnar
4. epidermis
5. stratified squamous

Exercise 4-12
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

chondr/o; chondrocyte
epi-; epithelial
bone, bone tissue; osteocyte
cardi/o; myocardium
bone, bone tissue; osseous
immature cell, early stage of cell;
osteoblast or fibroblast
around; periosteum
my/o; myocardium
pseud/o-; pseudostratified
tissue; histology
nerve, nervous system; neuron

Making the Connections


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

epithelium
connective tissue
muscle tissue
cell shape
squamous
square
columnar
simple
stratified
bood
generalized
areolar
dense
elastic
structural
cartilage
cardiac muscle
smooth muscle
neuron
neuroglia

209

210

Answer Key

1. d: O3
2. b: O1
3. b: O1
4. c: O1
5. b: O1
6. a: O3
7. b: O3
8. b: O5
9. a: O5

the skin as well as serous and mucous


membranes. Examples of connective tissue
membranes are synovial membranes, the
meninges, fascia, and the pericardium.
Learning Outcomes 4, 5
2. The cells in epithelial and muscle tissue
are tightly packed together, so there is
minimal, if any, extracellular matrix. The
cells of connective tissue are rarely in
contact with each other, because they are
separated by large amounts of matrix. The
matrix can be liquid, soft, fibrous, or hard.
Learning Outcomes 1, 3

3. dermis
4. stratum corneum
5. integument
6. dermal papillae
7. stratum basale
8. subcutaneous layer

II. Completion Exercise

Conceptual Thinking

1. sudoriferous
2. eccrine
3. ceruminous
4. sebaceous
5. wax
6. apocrine
7. meibomian
8. vernix caseosa

Testing Your Knowledge


Building Understanding
I. Multiple Choice

1. mucus: O4
2. osteoblasts: O1
3. hyaline cartilage: O3
4. synovial membrane: O5
5. histology: O1
6. peritoneum: O4
7. mucosa: O4
8. simple squamous epithelium: O1
9. cilia: O1

Understanding Concepts
I. True/False
1. T: O3
2. T: O5
3. F: endocrine: O2
4. F: visceral: O4
5. F: regular dense connective tissue; O3

II. Practical Applications


1. deep fascia
2. synovial membrane
3. adipose tissue
4. loose connective tissue
5. periosteum
6. elastic cartilage
7. peritoneum
8. fibroblasts
Learning Outcomes 3, 4, 5

III. Short Essays


1. Both epithelial and connective tissue
membranes contain connective tissue. Only
epithelial tissue membranes contain epithelial tissuethey may also contain smooth
muscle. Epithelial membranes include

1. Connective tissue is defined as a tissue


containing cells separated by some sort of
matrix. In bone, the cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes) are separated by a matrix containing
calcium and phosphate. In blood, the cells
(red and white blood cells, platelets) are
separated by a liquid matrix (plasma).
Learning Outcome 3
2. a. connective
b. epithelial
c. epithelial
Learning Outcome 1
3. a. hyaline cartilage; structural connective
tissue
b. synovial membrane; connective tissue
membrane
c. adipose tissue; loose connective tissue
d. regular dense connective tissue; generalized connective tissue
e. regular dense connective tissue; generalized connective tissue
Learning Outcomes 3, 5

Chapter 5
The Integumentary System

Exercise 5-2
1. elastic fibers
2. adipose tissue
3. nerves
4. blood vessels

Exercise 5-3

Exercise 5-4: The Skin


(text Fig. 5-1)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Addressing the Learning


Outcomes

16.

Exercise 5-1

17.

epidermis
dermis
subcutaneous layer
adipose (fat) cells
stratum corneum
stratum basale (growing
layer)
dermal papilla
nerve ending
nerve
touch receptor (Meissner
corpuscle)
pressure receptor (Pacinian
corpuscle)
arrector pili muscle
hair follicle
hair
sudoriferous (sweat)
gland
pore (opening of sweat
gland)
sebaceous (oil) gland.

1. melanocyte
2. keratin

Exercise 5-5: The Nail (text Fig. 5-5)


Number

Structure

Description

Nail plate

The hard portion of the nail

Nail bed

Epithelial tissue underlying the nail plate

Lunula

The pale proximal end of the nail plate overlying the growth region

Cuticle

An extension of the stratum corneum sealing the space between the nail plate and the skin

Nail root

The proximal portion of the nail bed

Growth region (nail matrix)

The region of the nail root where new cells are produced

Answer Key

Exercise 5-6
1. protection against infection and protection of deeper skin layers
2. keratin in epidermis, sebum
3. blood vessels, sweat glands
4. collection of sensory information

Exercise 5-7
1. hemoglobin
2. carotene
3. melanin

Exercise 5-8
1. epidermis
2. blood clot
3. inflammatory response
4. capillaries
5. collagen
6. fibroblasts
7. cicatrix

Exercise 5-9
1. under, below; subcutaneous
2. melan/o; melanin
3. pil/o; arrector pili
4. skin; dermis
5. corne/o; corneum
6. separation from, derivation from; apocrine

Making the Connections


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

integumentary system
dermis
strata
stratum basale
melanocytes
stratum corneum
keratin
dermal papillae
sweat glands
sebaceous glands
follicles

Testing Your Knowledge


Building Understanding
I. Multiple Choice
1. c: O1
2. b: O3
3. b: O4
4. c: O3
5. b: O3
6. b: O3

II. Completion Exercise


1. stratum corneum: O1
2. dermal papillae: O1
3. melanin: O5
4. fibroblasts: O5
5. superficial fascia: O2
6. eccrine (sweat) glands: O3
7. keratin: O3

Understanding Concepts
I. True/False
1. F: stratum corneum: O3
2. T: O4

3. F: vitamin D: O4
4. F: sebaceous glands: O3
5. F: root (or hair root): O3
6. F: stratum basale or stratum
germinativum: O1

II. Practical Applications


1. stratum corneum
2. subcutaneous layer or
hypodermis
3. melanin
4. ceruminous glands
5. apocrine glands
6. fibroblasts
7. cicatrix
8. sebaceous glands
Learning Outcomes 1-3, 5

III. Short Essays


1. Eccrine sweat (sudoriferous) glands
produce a watery secretion. Apocrine
sweat glands produce an organic
secretion that is thicker, containing
cellular material as well as fluid.
Learning Outcome 3
2. Heat loss is controlled at the surface
of the skin. When our body needs to
eliminate more heat, blood vessels
serving the skin dilate. More blood
circulates through the skin, releasing
its heat to the environment. Increased
blood flow also gives the skin a reddish
coloration. If we need to eliminate more
heat, then the sweat glands of the skin
secrete sweat. Heat is lost as the sweat
evaporates from the surface of the skin.
When our body needs to stay warm,
the blood vessels to the skin constrict.
Less blood flows to the skin surface to
conserve heat.
Learning Outcome 4

Chapter 6
The Skeleton: Bones and
Joints
Addressing the Learning
Outcomes
Exercise 6-1
1. to serve as a firm framework
2. to protect delicate structures
3. to enable movement by serving as levers
4. to store calcium
5. to produce blood cells

Exercise 6-2: Structure


of a Long Bone (text Fig. 6-2)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

proximal epiphysis
diaphysis
distal epiphysis
cartilage
epiphyseal line (growth line)
spongy bone (containing bone marrow)
endosteum
compact bone
medullary (marrow) cavity
yellow marrow
periosteum
artery and vein

Exercise 6-3
1. S
2. S
3. C
4. S
5. C

Exercise 6-4
1. R
2. Y
3. R
4. Y

Conceptual Thinking

Exercise 6-5

1. Epithelial tissue is primarily found in


the epidermis. Some epithelial tissue
(the hair follicles and glands) is also
found in the dermis. Connective tissue
is found in the dermis (especially elastic
connective tissue) and the hypodermis
(adipose tissue). Liquid connective tissue
(blood) is also found in the dermis and
subcutaneous layer. Nervous tissue is
found primarily in the dermis. Muscle
tissue is found in the dermis (the arrector
pili muscle).
Learning Outcomes 1, 2
2. a. paler skin, increased cold sensitivity
b. gray hair, decreased ability to tan
c. decreased hair replacement, thinning
hair
d. thin, less elastic (parchment) skin
e. decreased sweat production, decreased
heat tolerance
Learning Outcomes 1 -5

1. diaphysis
2. periosteum
3. epiphysis
4. spongy bone
5. endosteum
6. medullary cavity
7. central canal

Exercise 6-6
1. osteoclast
2. osteocyte
3. osteoblast

Exercise 6-7
1. F
2. T
3. T
4. F
5. T

Exercise 6-8
1. meatus
2. sinus

211

212

Answer Key

3. head
4. condyle
5. crest
6. fossa
7. foramen

Exercise 6-9: The Skull


(text Fig. 6-5A)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

conchae
vomer
perpendicular plate of ethmoid
nasal septum
coronal suture
squamous suture
lambdoid suture
lacrimal
mastoid process
hyoid
ligaments
styloid process
palatine
foramen magnum
frontal sinuses
sella turcica

Exercise 6-10: The Skull: Sagittal


Section (text Fig. 6-6)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

palatine
mandible
maxilla
inferior concha
middle concha
superior concha
frontal sinus
sphenoid sinus
frontal
parietal
temporal
occipital
foramen magnum

Exercise 6-11: Bones of the


Thorax, Anterior View
(text Fig. 6-11)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

clavicular notch
manubrium
sternal angle
body
xiphoid process
sternum
intercostal space
costal cartilage
true ribs
false ribs
floating ribs

Exercise 6-12: Vertebral


Column, Left Lateral View
(text Fig. 6-8)
1. atlas (1st cervical)
2. axis (2nd cervical)
3. transverse process
4. intervertebral disk
5. body of vertebra
6. spinous process
7. intervertebral foramen
(for spinal nerve)

Exercise 6-13: The Vertebral


Column and Vertebrae (text Fig.
6-9)
1. cervical vertebra
2. thoracic vertebra
3. lumbar vertebra
4. spinous process
5. vertebral foramen
6. transverse process
7. transverse foramen
8. body (centrum)

Exercise 6-14
1. mandible
2. maxilla
3. hyoid bone
4. occipital bone
5. frontal bone
6. nasal bone
7. parietal bone
8. zygomatic bone

Exercise 6-15
1. manubrium
2. xiphoid process
3. costal
4. fontanel
5. floating ribs
6. clavicular notch
7. true ribs

Exercise 6-16
1. thoracic curve
2. thoracic region
3. cervical curve
4. lumbar curve
5. coccyx
6. lumbar region
7. cervical region

Exercise 6-17: The Skeleton


(text Fig. 6-1)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

clavicle
scapula
humerus
ribs
radius
carpals
ulna
metacarpals
phalanges
femur
patella
fibula
tibia
tarsals
phalanges
metatarsals
calcaneus
sacrum
pelvis
ilium (of pelvis)
vertebral column
sternum
mandible
facial bones
cranium

Exercise 6-18: The Shoulder


Girdle (text Fig. 6-12)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

clavicle
acromion
coracoid process
humerus
scapula
glenoid cavity
infraspinous fossa
supraspinous fossa
spine
vertebral border

Exercise 6-19: Bones of the Upper


Extremity (text Fig. 6-13)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

humerus
head
medial epicondyle
lateral epicondyle
trochlea
olecranon fossa
distal radioulnar joint
radius
styloid process of radius
head of radius
ulna
head of ulna
styloid process of ulna
olecranon
trochlear (semilunar) notch
radial notch

Exercise 6-20: Pelvic Bones


(text Fig. 6-17)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

sacrum
ischial spine
pubic symphysis
pubic arch
iliac crest
anterior superior iliac spine
acetabulum
obturator foramen
ischial tuberosity
coccyx

Exercise 6-21: Bones of the


Lower Extremity
(text Fig. 6-19)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

femur
head
neck
greater trochanter
lesser trochanter
linea aspera
lateral condyle
medial condyle
patellar surface
medial epicondyle
tibia
anterior crest
medial condyle
articular surface
lateral condyle
medial malleolus
fibula
head of fibula
lateral malleolus

Answer Key

20. proximal tibiofibular joint


21. distal tibiofibular joint

Exercise 6-29: Types of


Synovial Joints (text Table 6-3)

Exercise 6-22

1. gliding joint
2. hinge joint
3. pivot joint
4. condyloid joint
5. saddle joint
6. ball-and-socket joint

1. clavicle
2. metacarpal bones
3. ulna
4. olecranon
5. phalanges
6. radius
7. scapula

Exercise 6-23
1. acetabulum
2. ischium
3. fibula
4. ilium
5. patella
6. calcaneus
7. greater trochanter

Exercise 6-24
1. male, female
2. female, male
3. female, male
4. male, female

Exercise 6-25
1. articulation
2. amphiarthrosis
3. diarthrosis
4. synarthrosis
5. fibrous joint
6. cartilaginous joint
7. synovial joint

Exercise 6-26:
The Knee Joint (text Fig. 6-22)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

femur
articular cartilage
meniscus
joint cavity
tibia
patellar ligament
synovial membrane
quadriceps tendon
patella
prepatellar bursa
fat pad
infrapatellar bursae

Exercise 6-27: Movements at


Synovial Joints (text Fig. 6-23)
1. flexion/extension
2. pronation/supination
3. abduction/adduction
4. circumduction
5. rotation
6. dorsiflexion/plantar flexion
7. inversion/eversion

Exercise 6-28
1. extension
2. abduction
3. rotation
4. flexion
5. adduction
6. supination
7. plantar flexion

Exercise 6-30
1. calcium
2. protein
3. intervertebral discs
4. intercostal cartilages
5. collagen

Exercise 6-31
a. 4
b. 1
c. 5
d. 2
e. 3

Exercise 6-32
1. wall: parietal
2. break: osteoclast
3. cost/o: intercostal
4. on both sides, around, double:
amphiarthrosis
5. joint, articulation: synarthrosis
6. ab-: abduction
7. circum-: circumduction
8. ad-: adduction
9. through, between: diaphysis

Making the Connections


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

skeleton
axial
appendicular
osteocytes
compact bone
central canal
osteons
spongy bone
diaphysis
epiphyses
medullary cavity
yellow marrow

Testing Your Knowledge


Building Understanding
I. Multiple Choice
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

c: O4
c: O10
a: O6
b: O7
d: O9
a: O9
c: O9
d: O7
d: O7
c: O11

II. Completion Exercise


1. atlas: O7
2. sphenoid bone: O7
3. ethmoid bone: O7

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

calcium: O2
femur: O9
bursae: O10
synovial joints or diarthroses: O10
circumduction: O12
dorsiflexion: O12
cartilage: O5
compact bone: O3

Understanding Concepts
I. True/False
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

T: O2
T: O7
F: adduction: O11
F: olecranon; O9
T: O11
F: five: O7
T: O4
F: Freely moveable: O10
T: O3
F: tibia: O9

II. Practical Applications


1. ulna
2. trochlea
3. hinge joint
4. carpal bones
5. acetabulum
6. ischium
7. osteoblasts
Learning Outcomes 4, 7, 11

III. Short Essays


1. The fontanels enable the skull to compress and change shape during the birth
process and allow for rapid brain growth
during infancy.
Learning Outcome 7
2. The primary curves of the spine are in
the thoracic and sacral regions. These
are concave curves present at birth. The
secondary curves are in the cervical and
lumbar regions. These are convex curves
that appear after birth. These curves add
strength and resilience to the spine and
help in balance and movement.
Learning Outcome 8
3. True ribs are individually attached to the
sternum by means of the costal cartilages.
False ribs do not attach individually to
the sternum. They either attach to the
cartilage of the rib above or, in the case of
the floating ribs, do not have any anterior
attachment.
Learning Outcome 7
4. The elbow joint consists of the distal
humerus and the proximal radius and
ulna. The ulnar olecranon articulates
with the humerus olecranon fossa. The
humerus trochlea articulates with the
ulnas trochlear notch. The radial head
articulates with the radial notch of the
ulna.
Learning Outcome 9

Conceptual Thinking
1. A. diarthrosis
B . hinge joint

213

214

Answer Key

C. synovial joint
D. femur, tibia
E . flexion, extension
Learning Outcomes 9, 10, 11
2. a. Thigh extension (hyperextension),
thigh flexion
b. head rotation
c. elbow flexion, elbow extension
Learning Outcome 11
3. frontal, zygomatic, sphenoid, ethmoid,
palatine, and lacrimal bones, and the
maxillae
Learning Outcome 7

Chapter 7

4. synaptic cleft
5. motor unit
6. troponin
7. sarcoplasmic reticulum
8. sarcomere

Exercise 7-6
1. acetylcholine
2. ATP
3. calcium
4. ATP
5. calcium
6. acetylcholine
7. creatine phosphate
8. glycogen
9. myoglobin

Exercise 7-7

The Muscular System


Addressing the Learning
Outcomes
Exercise 7-1
1. tendon
2. fascicle
3. perimysium
4. skeletal muscle
5. smooth muscle
6. cardiac muscle
7. epimysium
8. endomysium

Exercise 7-2: Structure


of a Skeletal Muscle
(text Fig. 7-1).
1. muscle fiber (cell)
2. muscle fascicle
3. endomysium
4. perimysium
5. epimysium
6. body of muscle
7. blood vessels
8. tendon
9. bone

Exercise 7-3
(order of answers may vary)
1. movement of the skeleton
2. maintenance of posture
3. generation of heat

Exercise 7-4: Neuromuscular


Junction (text Fig. 7-2).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

axon of motor neuron


axon branches
muscle fiber
muscle fiber nucleus
synaptic cleft
synaptic vesicle
mitochondrion
neurotransmitter (acetylcholine)
motor end plate
receptor

Exercise 7-5
1. actin
2. myosin
3. motor end plate

a. 1
b. 7
c. 6
d. 2
e. 8
f. 3
g. 5
h. 9
i. 4

Exercise 7-8
A, D

Exercise 7-9
1. T
2. F
3. F
4. T
5. F

Exercise 7-10
1. synergist
2. insertion
3. origin
4. agonist
5. antagonist
6. isotonic
7. isometric

Exercise 7-11: Muscle attachment


to bones (text Fig. 7-6).
1. biceps brachii
2. insertion
3. origins
4. tendons
5. radius
6. ulna
7. scapula
8. humerus

Exercise 7-12
1. 1st
2. 3rd
3. 2nd

Exercise 7-13
1. shape
2. number of heads, location
3. direction of fibers, location
4. action, location
5. shape, size

Exercise 7-14: Superficial Muscles:


Anterior View (text Fig. 8-8).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

temporalis
orbicularis oculi
orbicularis oris
masseter
sternocleidomastoid
trapezius
deltoid
pectoralis major
serratus anterior
intercostals
external oblique
internal oblique
rectus abdominis
abdominal aponeurosis
biceps brachii
brachioradialis
flexor carpi
extensor carpi
adductors of thigh
sartorius
quadriceps femoris
gastrocnemius
soleus
fibularis longus
tibialis anterior

Exercise 7-15: Superficial Muscles:


posterior view (text Fig. 7-9).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

sternocleidomastoid
trapezius
deltoid
teres minor
teres major
latissimus dorsi
triceps brachii
gluteus maximus
biceps femoris
semitendinosus
semimembranosus
gastrocnemius
fibularis longus
lumbodorsal fascia
iliotibial tract
olecranon
Achilles tendon
gluteus medius
epicranial aponeurosis
hamstring group
vastus lateralis

Exercise 7-16: Muscles of the


Head (text Fig. 7-10).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

frontalis
orbicularis oculi
nasalis
zygomaticus minor
zygomaticus major
orbicularis oris
depressor labii inferioris
mentalis
depressor anguli oris
buccinator
digastricus
masseter
trapezius

Answer Key

14. sternocleidomastoid
15. temporalis
16. epicranial aponeurosis

Exercise 7-17: Muscles


of the thigh: anterior view
(text Fig. 7-15A).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

iliopsoas
sartorius
iliotibial tract
quadriceps femoris
rectus femoris
vastus lateralis
vastus medialis
patella
adductor longus
gracilis
adductor magnus

Exercise 7-18
1. deltoid

2. rotator cuff
3. orbicularis oculi
4. buccinator
5. masseter
6. sternocleidomastoid
7. brachialis
8. trapezius

Exercise 7-19
1. latissimus dorsi
2. levator ani
3. biceps brachii
4. triceps brachii
5. serratus anterior
6. erector spinae
7. intercostals

Exercise 7-20
1. rectus femoris
2. gluteus maximus
3. gluteus medius

4. rectus abdominus
5. adductor longus
6. gracilis
7. iliopsoas

Exercise 7-21
1. sartorius
2. gastrocnemius
3. tibialis anterior
4. flexor digitorum group
5. fibularis longus
6. soleus
7. quadriceps femoris

Exercise 7-22
Answer could include:
1. loss of muscle cells results in smaller
muscles
2. loss of muscle power in extensors results
in kyphosis

Exercise 7-23
Movement (e.g., flexion)
Bend arm at the elbow

Flexion

Muscle(s) involved
Biceps brachii; brachialis

Straighten arm at the elbow

Extension

Triceps brachii

Stand on tiptoe

Plantar flexion

Gastrocnemius; soleus

Straighten leg at knee

Extension

Quadriceps femoris

Exercise 7-24
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

my/o: myoglobin
arm: biceps brachii
ton/o; isotonic
work: synergist
measure; isometric
quadr/i: quadriceps
-lysis; glycolysis
sarc/o: sarcomere
vessel: vasodilation
same; isometric

Making the Connections


1. is a storage site for
2. binds to and displaces
3. actin
4. myosin
5. ATP
6. glycogen
7. is required for the aerobic metabolism of
8. myoglobin

7. a: O5
8. b: O8

II. Completion Exercise


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

tonus or muscle tone: O2


myoglobin: O4
origin: O8
eccentric: O7
Achilles tendon: O11
perineum: O11
antagonist: O8
diaphragm: O11
trapezius: O11
pectoralis major: O11
tibialis anterior: O11

Understanding Concepts
I. True/False

GROUP B
1. extensor digitorum muscles
2. gluteus maximus
3. mitochondria
4. hypertrophy
Learning Outcome

III. Short Essays


1. a. Glycogen is the storage form of
glucose, which is used to
generate ATP.
b. Calcium binds the troponin/tropomyosin complex to enable crossbridge formation, whereas oxygen is necessary
for ATP production via fatty acid or
glucose oxidation.
c. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter
that transmits the signal between the
motor neuron and the muscle cell,
whereas ATP provides the energy for
muscle contraction.
Learning Outcomes 3, 4
2. masseter and temporal muscles
Learning Outcome 11

Building Understanding

1. F: extends: O11
2. T: O5
3. T: O7
4. T: O8
5. F: acetylcholine: O3
6. F: sarcomere: O3
7. F: glycogen: O4
8. T: O3

I. Multiple Choice

II. Practical Applications

Conceptual Thinking

1. c: O1
2. a: O9
3. b: O11
4. b: O11
5. d: O1
6. b: O3

GROUP A

1. Lactic acid is no longer thought to be a


major cause of muscle fatigue. Fatigue
in beginning exercisers usually reflects
decreased activation of skeletal muscles
by the central nervous system. In
more experienced exercisers, glycogen

Testing Your Knowledge

1. erector spinae
2. buccinator
3. flexor carpi muscles
4. quadriceps femoris
Learning Outcome 11

215

216

Answer Key

depletion, inadequate oxygen supply,


or phosphate accumulation can be
responsible.
Learning Outcome 5
2. Endurance (aerobic) exercise has enormous health benefits. It strengthens
the heart muscle, improves blood pressure and cholesterol profiles, reduces
body fat, and improves psychological
well-being. At the level of the muscle,
it results in an increase in (1) the
number of capillaries in the muscle tissue, (2) the number of mitochondria,
and (3) compounds used to generate
energy (glycogen, creatine phosphate,
myoglobin).
Learning Outcome 6
3. A. plantar flexion
B . gastrocnemius
C. soleus
D. tibialis anterior
E . second
F. The fulcrum is the ball of the foot,
and the resistance is the weight of the
body focused at the ankle. The resistance is located between the fulcrum
and the effort.
Learning Outcomes 9, 10, 12

Exercise 8-4
1. axon
2. dendrite
3. neurilemma
4. node
5. white matter
6. gray matter

Exercise 8-5

The Nervous System: The


Spinal Cord and Spinal
Nerves
Addressing the Learning
Outcomes
Exercise 8-1: Anatomic Divisions
of the Nervous System
(text Fig. 8-1)
1. brain
2. spinal cord
3. central nervous system
4. cranial nerves
5. spinal nerves
6. peripheral nervous system

Exercise 8-2
1. autonomic nervous system
2. somatic nervous system
3. sympathetic nervous system
4. parasympathetic nervous system
5. central nervous system
6. peripheral nervous system

Exercise 8-13
1. C
2. D
3. B
4. A
5. E

1. neuron
2. nerve
3. tract
4. sensory neurons
5. motor neurons
6. endoneurium
7. epineurium

Exercise 8-14

Exercise 8-6

Exercise 8-15: Spinal Cord


(text Fig. 8-11B)

(order of answers may vary)


1. protect nervous tissue
2. support nervous tissue and bind it to
other structures
3. help repair cells
4. remove pathogens and impurities
5. regulate fluid composition in
neural tissue

Exercise 8-7
See Figure 8-7.

Exercise 8-8

Chapter 8

9. receptor
10. dendrite

1. repolarization
2. Na+
3. depolarization
4. action potential
5. K+

Exercise 8-9
1. C
2. A
3. D
4. B

Exercise 8-10: Formation of a


Myelin Sheath (text Fig. 8-4)
1. axon
2. axon membrane
3. nucleus
4. cytoplasm
5. Schwann cell
6. Schwann cell membrane
7. neurilemma
8. node
9. myelin sheath

Exercise 8-11
1. F
2. T
3. T

Exercise 8-3: The Motor Neuron


(text Fig. 8-2)

Exercise 8-12: A Synapse (text


Fig. 8-10)

1. dendrites
2. cell body
3. nucleus
4. axon covered with myelin sheath
5. node
6. axon branch
7. myelin
8. muscle

1. axon
2. end bulb of axon
3. mitochondria
4. vesicles (containing neurotransmitter)
5. presynaptic membrane
6. neurotransmitter (molecules)
7. synaptic cleft
8. postsynaptic membrane

(order of answers may vary; answers may


include any other neurotransmitter discussed in class)
1. epinephrine (adrenaline)
2. norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
3. acetylcholine

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

dorsal root ganglion


dorsal root of spinal nerve
central canal
posterior median sulcus
dorsal horn
gray commissure
ventral horn
white matter
anterior median fissure
ventral root of spinal nerve
spinal nerve

Exercise 8-16: Spinal Cord and


Spinal Nerves (text Fig. 8-11A)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

cervical plexus
brachial plexus
lumbosacral plexus
radial nerve
median nerve
ulnar nerve
intercostal nerves
phrenic nerve
femoral nerve
sciatic nerve
cauda equina

Exercise 8-17: Reflex Arc


(text Fig. 8-13)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

receptor
sensory (afferent) neuron
interneuron
motor (efferent) neuron
effector (biceps brachii muscle)
dorsal root
dorsal root ganglion
cell body
spinal nerve
ventral root
dorsal horn
ventral horn

Exercise 8-18
1. simple reflex
2. somatic reflexes
3. autonomic reflexes
4. patellar reflex

Exercise 8-19
1. S
2. P

Answer Key

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

S
P
S
P
P
S
S
S

Exercise 8-20
1. adrenergic receptor
2. nicotinic receptor
3. muscarinic receptor

Exercise 8-21
1. multiple sclerosis
2. myelin
3. white matter
4. ascending
5. sensory
6. dorsal
7. motor (or efferent)
8. descending
9. ventral

Exercise 8-22
1. lemma: neurilemma
2. again, back: repolarization
3. body: somatic
4. neur/i: neurilemma
5. de-: depolarization
6. self: autonomic
7. after: postsynaptic

Making the Connections


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

central nervous system


spinal cord
brain
cranial nerves
spinal nerves
interlace to form
controlling the head and the neck is the
brachial plexus
lumbosacral plexus
autonomic nervous system
(or autonomic division)
11. glands, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle
12. skeletal muscles

Testing Your Knowledge


Building Understanding

9. central canal: O8
10. sodium (Na+): O5
11. gray commissure: O8

Understanding Concepts
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

F: ventral: O10
F: dendrite: O2
T: O3
T: O13
T: O9
F: cholinergic: O13
F: peripheral: O1
F: receptors: O7
F: presynaptic: O7
T: O11

II. Practical Applications


1. lumbosacral plexus
2. sensory or afferent nerves
3. patellar tendon
4. sensory (or afferent) neuron
5. ascending tract
6. quadriceps femoris
Learning Outcomes 911

III. Short Essays


1. The neuron membrane is initially in
the resting state, in which sodium ions
are more concentrated outside the
neuron and potassium ions are more
concentrated inside the neuron and the
membrane has an electrical difference
(is polarized). Depolarization occurs
when sodium channels are opened in the
neuron membrane, permitting sodium
to enter the neuron. Repolarization
occurs when potassium channels open,
permitting potassium to leave the neuron.
Following repolarization, the membrane
returns to the resting state.
Learning Outcome 5
2. Neuroglia are the support cells of the
nervous system. They do not transmit
electrical impulses, but they serve to
protect nervous tissue. They support and
bind this tissue, aid in repair, remove
pathogens and impurities, and regulate
the fluids around and between cells. They
also serve as neuronal stem cells.
Learning Outcome 4

I. Multiple Choice

Conceptual Thinking

1. a: O9
2. d: O8
3. b: O10
4. a: O8
5. c: O7
6. b: O1
7. c: O10

1. Sodium channels permit sodium to enter


the neuron during an action potential. If
sodium channels do not open, there will
not be an action potential. Action potentials are used to conduct nerve impulses.
Ms. J cannot feel her lips because the
toxin is blocking the transmission of sensory nerve impulses from her lips to her
brain.
Learning Outcome 5
2. Reuptake of a neurotransmitter terminates its effects. If dopamine uptake is
blocked by cocaine, the actions of dopamine will be prolonged, and feelings of
pleasure will be prolonged.
Learning Outcome 7

II. Completion Exercise


1. dendrites: O2
2. gray matter: O8
3. myelin: O2
4. sympathetic nervous system: O12
5. synaptic cleft: O7
6. lumbosacral plexus: O9
7. central nervous system: O1
8. acetylcholine: O14

Chapter 9
The Nervous System: The
Brain and Cranial Nerves
Addressing the Learning
Outcomes
Exercise 9-1: Brain, Sagittal
Section (text Fig. 9-1)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

cerebrum
diencephalon
brain stem
cerebellum
thalamus
hypothalamus
pituitary gland
midbrain
pons
medulla oblongata
spinal cord
corpus callosum

Exercise 9-2
1. hemisphere
2. cerebellum
3. lobe
4. diencephalon
5. brain stem
6. cerebrum

Exercise 9-3: Meninges and


Related Parts (text Fig. 9-2)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

skin
periosteum
skull
meninges
dura mater
dural (venous) sinus
arachnoid
arachnoid villus
pia mater
brain tissue
gray matter
white matter

Exercise 9-4: Flow of


Cerebrospinal Fluid (text Fig. 9-3)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

midbrain
cerebellum
spinal cord
choroid plexus
third ventricle
cerebral aqueduct
fourth ventricle
central canal of cord
subarachnoid space
straight sinus
arachnoid villus
superior sagittal sinus

Exercise 9-5: Ventricles of the


Brain (text Fig. 9-4)
1. third ventricle
2. interventricular foramen
3. lateral ventricle
4. anterior horn
5. lateral horn

217

218

Answer Key

6. posterior horn
7. cerebral aqueduct
8. fourth ventricle

Exercise 9-6
1. arachnoid
2. dural sinus
3. pia mater
4. subarachnoid space
5. choroid plexus
6. arachnoid villi
7. dura mater

Exercise 9-7
1. lateral sulcus
2. basal ganglia
3. internal capsule
4. gyrus
5. cortex
6. corpus callosum
7. dopamine

Exercise 9-8: Functional


Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
(text Fig. 9-6)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

written speech area


primary motor area
central sulcus
primary sensory area
motor speech (Broca) area
auditory association area
auditory receiving area
speech comprehension
(Wernicke) area
9. visual receiving area
10. visual association area

Exercise 9-9
1. occipital
2. temporal
3. parietal
4. frontal

Exercise 9-10
1. pons
2. midbrain
3. medulla oblongata
4. thalamus
5. limbic system
6. vasomotor center
7. hypothalamus

5. IV: trochlear nerve


6. V: trigeminal nerve
7. VI: abducens nerve
8. VII: facial nerve
9. VIII: vestibulocochlear (acoustic) nerve
10. IX: glossopharyngeal nerve
11. X: vagus nerve
12. XI: accessory nerve
13. XII: hypoglossal nerve

Exercise 9-14
1. accessory nerve
2. trochlear nerve
3. optic nerve
4. trigeminal nerve
5. vagus nerve
6. facial nerve
7. vestibulocochlear nerve

Exercise 9-15
1. b
2. a
3. c

Exercise 9-16
1. tom/o: tomography
2. membrane: choroid
3. gloss/o: hypoglossal
4. brain: diencephalon
5. brain: cerebrospinal
6. contra-: contralateral
7. later/o: contralateral
8. circle: gyrus

Making the Connections


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

cerebellum
cerebrum
brainstem
diencephalon
frontal lobe
primary motor area
temporal lobe
occipital lobe
parietal lobe
primary sensory area
pons
midbrain
medulla oblongata

Testing Your Knowledge


Building Understanding

Exercise 9-11

I. Multiple Choice

1. helps coordinate voluntary muscles to


ensure smooth movements
2. helps maintain balance
3. helps maintain muscle tone

1. b: O4
2. b: O2
3. d: O5
4. c: O3
5. a: O10
6. b: O1
7. a: O6

Exercise 9-12
1. PET
2. EEG
3. CT
4. MRI

Exercise 9-13: Cranial Nerves


(text Fig. 9-11)
1. I: olfactory bulb
2. I: olfactory tract
3. II: optic nerve
4. III: oculomotor nerve

II. Completion Exercise


1. fourth ventricle: O3
2. ventricles: 03
3. auditory association area: O5
4. hypothalamus: O6
5. vasomotor center: O6
6. electroencephalograph: O9
7. horns: O3
8. brain stem: O7, O10

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

meninges: O2
cerebrospinal fluid: O3
12: O10
limbic system: O6
vermis: O8

Understanding Concepts
I. True/False
1. F: arachnoid: O2
2. F: third ventricle: O3
3. F: frontal lobe: O5
4. T: O4
5. T: O6
6. T: O4
7. F: VIII: O10
8. F: glossopharyngeal nerve: O10

II. Practical Applications


1. frontal lobe
2. cerebrum
3. primary motor area
4. VII
5. computed tomography
6. hemisphere
7. Broca area
Learning Outcomes 4, 5, 9, 10

III. Short Essays


1. The brain and spinal cord are covered
with three layers of protective tissue, together known as the meninges.
Cerebrospinal fluid circulates in and
around the tissues of the CNS as a support and cushion. It also carries nutrients
to the cells and removes waste. The
bones of the axial skeleton also protect
this delicate tissue. The bones of the cranium protect the brain, and the vertebral
column protects the spinal cord.
2. The thalamus and hypothalamus are
the main areas of the diencephalon. The
thalamus is a receiving area for almost
all sensory impulses coming to the brain.
It sorts these impulses and directs them
to the proper area of the cerebral cortex.
The hypothalamus is important in maintaining homeostasis. It has centers that
control body temperature, water balance,
sleep, appetite, and some emotions. Both
the pituitary gland and the autonomic
nervous system are under the control of
the hypothalamus as well.
3. I: olfactory nerve, smell impulses from
the nose. II: optic nerve, visual impulses
from the eye. VIII: vestibulocochlear
nerve, auditory and vestibular (equilibrium) impulses from the inner ear.

Conceptual Thinking
1. CSF is synthesized in the choroid plexus
in each ventricle. CSF travels from the
lateral (first and second) ventricles to
the third ventricle by means of foramina,
and from the third ventricle to the fourth
ventricle via the cerebral aqueduct. CSF
flows from the fourth ventricle into the
central canal of the spinal cord and into
the arachnoid space surrounding the
brain. Finally, CSF returns to the blood

Answer Key

from the arachnoid space via the arachnoid villi in the dural sinuses.
Learning Outcome 3

Chapter 10
The Sensory System
Addressing the Learning
Outcomes
Exercise 10-1
1. homeostasis
2. sensory receptor
3. sensory neuron
4. central nervous system

Exercise 10-2
1. G
2. S
3. S
4. G
5. G
6. S

Exercise 10-8: Extrinsic Muscles


of the Eye (text Fig. 10-6)
1. superior oblique
2. inferior oblique
3. superior rectus
4. inferior rectus
5. lateral rectus

Exercise 10-9
1. ciliary muscle
2. aqueous humor
3. choroid
4. pupil
5. vitreous humor
6. pupil
7. conjunctiva

Exercise 10-10: Nerves of the Eye


(text Fig. 10-10)

Exercise 10-3
Sensory adaptation is a process by
which some sensory receptors become
less sensitive when they are continually
stimulated.

Exercise 10-4: The Lacrimal


Apparatus (text Fig. 10-2)
1. lacrimal gland
2. ducts of lacrimal gland
3. superior canal
4. inferior canal
5. lacrimal sac
6. nasolacrimal duct
7. opening of duct (in nose)

Exercise 10-5: The Eye


(text Fig. 10-3)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

3. optic disk
4. retina
5. rod
6. rhodopsin
7. fovea centralis

conjunctival sac
retinal artery and vein
sclera
cornea
choroid
retina
fovea centralis
optic nerve
optic disk (blind spot)
ciliary muscle
suspensory ligaments
lens
iris
aqueous humor
vitreous body
pupil

Exercise 10-6
(order of answers may vary)
1. cornea
2. aqueous humor
3. lens
4. vitreous humor

Exercise 10-7
1. cone
2. cornea

1. oculomotor
2. ophthalmic
3. optic
4. trigeminal
5. mandibular
6. maxillary

Exercise 10-11: The Ear


(text Fig. 10-11)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

outer ear
middle ear (ossicles)
inner ear
pinna
external auditory canal
tympanic membrane
malleus
incus
stapes
semicircular canals
cochlea
vestibule
Eustachian (auditory) tube
pharynx

Exercise 10-12: The Inner Ear


(text Fig. 10-12)
1. bony labyrinth
2. membranous labyrinth
3. semicircular canals
4. vestibule
5. cochlea
6. vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
7. vestibular nerve
8. cochlear nerve

Exercise 10-13: Cochlea and Spiral


Organ (text Fig. 10-13)
1. vestibulocochlear (VIII) nerve
2. semicircular canals
3. oval window
4. vestibular duct
5. cochlear duct
6. tympanic duct
7. round window

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

perilymph
endolymph
spiral organ
hair cells
tectorial membrane
nerve fibers

Exercise 10-14
1. endolymph
2. malleus
3. pinna
4. eustachian (auditory) tube
5. perilymph
6. spiral organ
7. bony labyrinth
8. cochlear duct

Exercise 10-15
1. hair cells
2. otoliths
3. semicircular canal
4. crista
5. vestibule
6. macula

Exercise 10-16
a. The sense of smell is olfaction and the
sense of taste is gustation.
b. Substances to be smelled and tasted must
always be dissolved in the fluid surrounding the receptor cell.
c. We have hundreds of different types of
odor receptors but less than ten types of
taste receptors.
d. Organic compounds activate bitter receptors and hydrogen ions activate sour
receptors.

Exercise 10-17
1. cochlear nerve
2. optic nerve
3. ophthalmic nerve
4. oculomotor nerve
5. proprioception
6. kinesthesia
7. free nerve endings
8. equilibrium

Exercise 10-18
a. the lens becomes opaque, a disorder
known as cataract, obstructing the passage of light through the lens.
b. the receptor cells of the retina become
damaged, a disorder called macular
degeneration.

Exercise 10-19
1. movement: kinesthesia
2. lith: otoliths
3. ear: otology
4 eye: opthalmologist
5. tympan/o: tympanic membrane
6. lute/o: macula lutea
7. self: proprioception
8. sensation: kinesthesia

Making the Connections


1. cornea
2. is part of the eye tunic called the
3. conjunctiva

219

220

Answer Key

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

aqueous humor
refraction
lens
vitreous body
retina
contains photoreceptors that function
in dim light called
10. cones
11. fovea centralis
12. macula lutea

Testing Your Knowledge


Building Understanding
I. Multiple Choice
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

a: O2
a: O2
a: O6
c: O4
b: O10
b: O5
a: O11
d: O162
c: O5
c: O12

II. Completion Exercise


1. cornea: O5
2. ceruminous glands: 10
3. proprioceptors: O2
4. semicircular canals: O12
5. hair cells: O11 and O12
6. photoreceptors: O2
7. dark adaptation: O3, O7

8. retina: O5
9. ciliary muscles: O6

3. cochlea
Learning Outcomes 10, 11

Understanding Concepts

III. Short Essays

I. True/False
1. F: Intrinsic: O8
2. F: cupula: O12
3. F: stapes: O10
4. T: O11
5. F: cones: O7
6. T: O5
7. F: optic nerve: O9
8. T: O6
9. T: O2

1. A receptor may be the free dendrite of


a sensory neuron, such as the receptors
for pain. It may be a modified ending
(end-organ) of a sensory neuron, such
as receptors for touch and temperature.
It may be a special cell associated with
an afferent neuron, such as the rods and
cones of the retina.
Learning Outcome 2
2. See the Table below.

II. Practical Applications

Conceptual Thinking

GROUP A

1. Some sensory receptors, including tactile


and pressure receptors, undergo sensory
adaptation. That is, sensory receptors
exposed to a continuous stimulus adjust
themselves so that the sensation becomes
less acute.
Learning Outcome 3
2. Visual receptors (the retinas) help to
write ones name in a straight line.
Tactile receptors help feel the pen
or pencil, which is necessary for successful control. Equilibrium receptors
(vestibule especially) are necessary for
maintaining an upright stance in the
chair.
Learning Outcome 2
Learning Outcomes 11, 12

1. tympanic membrane
2. ossicles
3. Eustacian (auditory) tube
4. equilibrium
5. vestibule
6. endolymph
Learning Outcomes 10, 12

GROUP B
1. cornea
2. iris
3. conjunctiva
Learning Outcomes 4, 5

GROUP C
1. cerumen
2. VIII cranial nerve, or vestibulocochlear
nerve

Short Essay #2
Sensory Organ Name
Macula

Membrane Embedding the Cilia


Otolith membrane

Stimulus Sensed by the Sensory


Organ
Gravity and linear acceleration

Spiral organ

Tectorial membrane

Sound waves

Crista

Cupula

Rotational acceleration

Chapter 11
The Endocrine System: Glands
and Hormones
Addressing the Learning
Outcomes
Exercise 11-1
1. N
2. E
3. E
4. N

Exercise 11-2
1. protein within plasma membrane or cytoplasm to which the hormone attaches

2. a specific tissue acted on by a hormone


3. a chemical messenger that has specific
regulatory effects on certain cells or organs.

Exercise 11-5: The Endocrine


Glands (text Fig. 11-2)

1. A
2. L
3. L
4. A
5. L

1. pineal
2. pituitary
3. thyroid
4. parathyroids
5. adrenals
6. pancreatic islets
7. ovaries
8. testes

Exercise 11-4

Exercise 11-6

a. In negative feedback, the hormone (or


the result of its action) inhibits further
hormone secretion.
b. i, ii, iii

1. parathyroid
2. thyroid
3. pineal
4. pancreas
5. adrenal

Exercise 11-3

Answer Key

Exercise 11-7/Exercise 11-13


Hormone

Gland

Effects

Medical Uses

ADH (antidiuretic
hormone)

hypothalamus/
posterior pituitary

promotes water reab- N/A


sorption in kidney
tubules and constriction of blood vessels

cortisol

adrenal cortex

increases blood glucose concentration


in response to stress

treat inflammation

oxytocin

hypothalamus/
posterior pituitary

uterine contraction,
milk ejection

induce labor

growth hormone

anterior pituitary

promotes growth of
all body tissues

treat children with


growth hormone deficiency; improve bone
mass in the elderly

parathyroid
hormone

parathyroid glands

increases calcium
level in blood

N/A

insulin

pancreas

reduces blood
treat diabetes melglucose concentralitus
tions by promoting
glucose uptake into
cells and glucose
storage; promotes fat
and protein synthesis

thyroid hormones:
thyroxine (T4) and
triiodothyronine
(T3)

thyroid gland

increase metabolic
treat hypothyroidism
rate, influencing both
physical and mental
activities; required
for normal growth

aldosterone

adrenal cortex

promotes salt (and


thus water) retention and potassium
excretion

N/A

glucagon

pancreas

stimulates glucose release from


the liver, thereby
increasing blood
glucose levels

N/A

melatonin

pineal gland

regulates mood,
sexual development,
and daily cycles in
response to environmental light

N/A

Exercise 11-8

Exercise 11-9

1. prolactin
2. epinephrine
3. ACTH
4. estrogen
5. aldosterone
6. follicle-stimulating
hormone
7. antidiuretic hormone

1. parathyroid hormone
2. insulin
3. glucagon
4. cortisol
5. testosterone

Exercise 11-10: The Pituitary Gland


(text Fig. 11-3)
1. hypothalamus

2. infundibulum
3. portal system
4. posterior pituitary
5. anterior pituitary

Exercise 11-11
1. P
2. P
3. A

221

222

Answer Key

Exercise 11-12
Hormone

Site of Synthesis

Effects

atrial natriuretic peptide

atria of heart

increases sodium loss by kidneys; lowers blood pressure

thymosin

thymus

assists in white blood cell maturation

erythropoietin

kidney

stimulates erythrocyte production

Exercise 11-13
See Exercise 11-7.

Exercise 11-14

8. d: O10
9. a: O4
10. a: O8

4. The anterior lobe of the pituitary is


controlled by releasing hormones from
the hypothalamus delivered through a
portal system. It secretes growth hormone, TSH, ACTH, prolactin, and the
gonadotropic hormones FSH and LH.
The posterior lobe releases ADH and
oxytocin. These are made in the hypothalamus, stored in the posterior lobe,
and released by nerve impulses from the
hypothalamus.
Learning Outcome 7

Possible answer: Cortisol raises the blood


concentration of glucose. This action would
increase the metabolic fuel available for
working muscles. It also inhibits inflammation. Since inflammation can interfere with
tissue function (such as joint mobility) and
causes pain, decreased inflammation could
enhance physical performance in the short
term.

II. Completion Exercise

Exercise 11-15

Understanding Concepts

Conceptual Thinking

a. hunger
b. weight loss
c. lethargy
d. glucose in the urine
e. hyperglycemia

I. True/False

1. The testosterone in Mr. Js supplements


exerted negative feedback, reducing the
secretion of hormones from the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary that normally
stimulate testosterone production. Now
that hes stopped taking the supplements,
it will take a while for the hypothalamus
and anterior pituitary gland to recover
from their chronic suppression by
exogenous testosterone.
Learning Outcomes 4, 9
2. Epinephrine is used to treat asthma
attacks because it relaxes the small bronchial tubes. However, epinephrine is similar in action to norepinephrine, the neurotransmitter for the sympathetic nervous
system. It activates the flight-or-fight
response. One aspect of this response is
an increase in heart rate. Ms. K should
use her inhaler less often to reduce her
epinephrine dosage and thereby maintain
a more constant heart rate.
Learning Outcome 9

Exercise 11-16
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

acting on: somatotropin


cortic/o: adrenocorticotropin
making, forming: erythropoietin
sodium: natriuretic
andr/o: androgen
insul/o: insulin
kidney: adrenal
-sterone: testosterone
sharp: oxytocin
kidney: epinephrine

Making the Connections


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

synthesizes
posterior pituitary
oxytocin
induces milk letdown by the
increases water reabsorption by the
anterior pituitary
prolactin
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
results from excess growth of the
triiodothyronine
T3
containing 4 iodines are called
T4

Testing Your Knowledge


Building Understanding
I. Multiple Choice
1. a: O6
2. c: O3
3. d: O6
4. a: O6
5. c: O6
6. b: O6
7. a: O3

1. adrenal medulla; O6
2. portal system; O7
3. negative feedback; O4
4. adrenal cortex; O6
5. iodine; O6
6. prostaglandins; O8
7. antidiuretic hormone; O6
8. mammary gland (breast); O6

1. T: O11
2. F: glucagon: O6
3. T: O6
4. T: O3
5. T: O6
6. F: pancreas: O5
7. F: posterior: O5, O6
8. F: heart: O8

II. Practical Applications


1. insulin
2. thyroxine
3. parathyroid glands
4. epinephrine
5. oxytocin
6. ACTH
7. testes
Learning Outcomes 6, 8, 9

III. Short Essays


1. The cells that respond to a hormone have
receptors in the cell membrane or in the
cytoplasm to which the hormone can
attach. These cells make up the target tissue of the hormone.
Learning Outcome 2
2. The nervous system controls rapid
actions; the endocrine system controls
more long-term actions. The nervous
system uses electrical and chemical messengers; the endocrine system just uses
chemical messengers.
Learning Outcome 1
3. Answers could include any three of:
heart (atrial natriuretic peptide), placenta
(many pregnancy hormones, including
prostaglandins), kidney (erythropoietin),
hypothalamus of brain (releasing hormones, ADH, oxytocin), stomach (digestive hormone), small intestine (digestive
hormone)
Learning Outcome 8

Chapter 12
The Blood
Addressing the Learning
Outcomes
Exercise 12-1
1. transportation (gases, nutrients, wastes,
or hormones)
2. regulation (pH, fluid balance, heat)
3. protection (against disease, blood loss)

Exercise 12-2
B, C, E, F

Exercise 12-3
hematopoetic stem cells

Answer Key

Exercise 12-4: Composition of


Whole Blood (text Fig. 12-1)

3. type AB
4. type O

1. whole blood
2. formed elements
3. erythrocytes
4. leukocytes and platelets
5. plasma
6. water
7. proteins
8. other

Exercise 12-12

Exercise 12-5: Leukocytes


(Table 12-2)
1. neutrophil
2. eosinophil
3. basophil
4. lymphocyte
5. monocyte
6. nucleus
7. granules
8. erythrocyte
9. platelet

1. Rh factor
2. plasmapheresis
3. hemapheresis
4. autologous
5. hematocrit
6. transfusion
7. antigen
8. agglutination

Exercise 12-13
1. coagulation study
2. red cell count
3. platelet count
4. bone marrow biopsy
5. blood smear

Exercise 12-14

1. erythrocyte
2. platelet
3. albumin
4. plasma
5. leukocyte
6. complement
7. serum
8. hemoglobin

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Exercise 12-7

Exercise 12-15

1. neutrophil
2. macrophage
3. plasma cell
4. eosinophil
5. monocyte
6. pus

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Exercise 12-6

Exercise 12-8
Homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant internal environment. Hemostasis is
the maintenance of a constant blood volume, that is, the prevention of blood loss.

Exercise 12-9
1. platelet plug
2. coagulation
3. vasoconstriction
4. hemorrhage
5. thrombin
6. fibrin
7. calcium
8. serum

Exercise 12-10: Formation of a


Blood Clot (text Fig. 12-7)
1. prothrombinase
2. prothrombin
3. thrombin
4. fibrin threads
5. blood cells and plasma
6. clot

Exercise 12-11: Blood Typing


(text Fig. 12-8)
1. type A
2. type B

erythrocytes
antigens
antibodies
agglutination
type B
hemoglobin
oxygen
blood smear
capillaries
macrophages
hematocrit
anemia
red: erythrocyte
thromb/o: thrombocyte
before, in front of: prothrombinase
shape: polymorphs
leuk/o: leukocyte
gen: fibrinogen
blood: hematocrit
penia: leukopenia
blood: anemia
lysis: hemolysis

Making the Connections


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

erythrocytes
hemoglobin
platelets
hemostasis or forming a platelet plug
are cell fragments of
that are white are called
granulocytes
containing blue-staining granules are
neutrophils
in their immature form are known as
eosinophils
that do not contain granules are called
lymphocytes
that produce antibodies are called
monocytes
mature into
phagocytosis

Testing Your Knowledge


Building Understanding
I. Multiple Choice
1. b:O10

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

b:O5
a:O4
b:O7
b:O9
d: O2
b: O5
a: O8
a: O5
c: O11, 15

III. Completion Exercise


1. hematocrit: O10
2. platelets: O14
3. oxygen: O1
4. macrophages: O5
5. carbon dioxide: O1
6. erythropoietin (EPO): O3
7. red bone marrow: O3
8. phagocytosis: O5
9. iron: O3

Understanding Concepts
I. True/False
1. T: O5
2. T: O10
3. F: erythrocytes: O4
4. T: O3
5. F: type O: O8
6. F: megakaryocytes: O4
7. T: O7
8. F: serum: O7

II. Practical Applications

GROUP A
1. hemorrhage
2. O
3. O
4. Rh negative (Rh-)
5. Rh antibodies
6. sickle cell anemia
Learning Outcomes 6, 9, 10, 12

GROUP B
1. hemostasis
2. coagulation
3. cryoprecipitate
4. iron
5. hematocrit
6. oxygen
Learning Outcomes 1, 3, 6, 11

GROUP C
1. hemocytometer
2. polycythemia
3. erythropoietin (EPO)
4. anticoagulants
Learning Outcomes 3, 11

III. Short Essays


1. In blood chemistry tests, blood is tested
for the level of electrolytes, glucose, and
waste products, such as urea and creatinine. Enzymes are studied to look for
signs of tissue damage and some forms of
cancer. Lipids can be measured to evaluate the cardiovascular system. Various
hormones, vitamins, antibodies, and
drugs can also be measured.
2. 1. Prothrombinase is formed in response to
substances released from damaged tissues.

223

224

Answer Key

2. Prothrombinase converts prothrombin


(inactive) to thrombin (active). This
enzyme requires calcium to work.
3. Thrombin converts fibrinogen (soluble) into fibrin (insoluble).
4. Fibrin threads trap plasma and blood
cells to form a solid clot.
Learning Outcome 7
3. a. massive hemorrhage, internal bleeding,
operations, hemolytic disease of the
newborn
b. thrombocytopenia (platelet deficiency)
c. to replace blood volume
d. plasma protein deficiency, to treat circulatory shock
Learning Outcome 10

Conceptual Thinking
1. A dehydrated individual will have less
water, therefore less plasma. The hematocrit indicates the relative proportions
of red blood cells and plasma. If the
level of plasma is lower, the relative
proportion of red blood cells will be
elevated.
Learning Outcome 11
2. a. A and B antigens
b. No antibodies
c. A antigens
d. Yes. There will not be an agglutination reaction. The recipient does not
have any antibodies to bind to the A
antigens on the donors red blood cells.
Learning Outcome 8

Chapter 13
The Heart
Addressing the Learning
Outcomes
Exercise 13-1: Layers of the
Heart Wall and Pericardium
(text Fig. 13-2)
1. heart wall
2. serous pericardium
3. epicardium/visceral pericardium
4. myocardium
5. endocardium
6. pericardial cavity
7. parietal pericardium
8. fibrous pericardium

Exercise 13-2
1. endocardium
2. myocardium
3. epicardium
4. fibrous pericardium
5. serous pericardium
6. visceral layer

Exercise 13-3
1. apex
2. serous pericardium
3. endocardium
4. myocardium

5. fibrous pericardium
6. visceral layer
7. base
8. epicardium

Exercise 13-4: The Heart and


Great Vessels (text Fig. 13-4)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

superior vena cava


inferior vena cava
right atrium
right AV (tricuspid) valve
right ventricle
pulmonary valve
pulmonary trunk
right pulmonary artery
left pulmonary artery
right pulmonary veins
left pulmonary veins
left atrium
left AV (mitral) valve
left ventricle
aortic valve
ascending aorta
aortic arch
chordae tendineae
papillary muscles
apex
endocardium
myocardium
epicardium
interventricular septum

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

right ventricle
left atrium
sinoatrial node
internodal pathways
atrioventricular node
atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
right and left bundle branches
Purkinje fibers

Exercise 13-10
1. Purkinje fibers
2. atrioventricular node
3. sinus rhythm
4. bundle of His
5. sinoatrial node

Exercise 13-11
1. P
2. S
3. P
4. S
5. S

Exercise 13-12
1. extrasystole
2. sinus arrhythmia
3. bradycardia
4. tachycardia

Exercise 13-13
1. atrioventricular
2. semilunar
3. organic
4. functional

Exercise 13-5
1. right ventricle
2. pulmonary valve
3. left atrium
4. aortic valve
5. pulmonary circuit
6. atrioventricular valve
7. systemic circuit
8. left ventricle
9. right atrium

Exercise 13-14

Exercise 13-6

1. echocardiography
2. C-reactive protein
3. electrocardiography
4. stethoscope
5. catheterization
6. coronary angiography

1. coronary
2. aortic
3. coronary sinus
4. right

1. T
2. F
3. T
4. F
5. T
6. F
7. F

Exercise 13-15

Exercise 13-7
1. V
2. A
3. V
4. D
5. V

Exercise 13-8
1. stroke volume
2. atrial systole
3. ventricular systole
4. cardiac output
5. diastole

Exercise 13-9: The Conduction


System of the Heart (text Fig.
13-11)
1. left ventricle
2. right atrium

Exercise 13-16
Answers could include some of the following: Emergency procedures include
cardiopulmonary resuscitation to promote
circulation while the heart is inactive,
defibrillation to restart the heart, intravenous fluids and oxygen to increase blood
pressure and facilitate oxygen delivery,
and an ECG to diagnose the myocardial
infarction. Surgical and medical procedures subsequently attempted to restore
blood flow in the blocked artery. These
include tissue plasminogen activator to
break up existing clots, aspirin to prevent future clots, nitroglycerin to widen
vessels, and eventually coronary bypass
surgery to restore full circulation to the
damaged area.

Answer Key

Exercise 13-17
1. steth/o: stethoscope
2. sinus: sinoatrial
3. angi/o: angioplasty
4. heart: myocardium
5. pulmon/o: pulmonary
6. brady-: bradycardia
7. tachy-: tachycardia

Making the Connections


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

right atrium
right AV valve
right ventricle
pulmonary valve
right pulmonary artery
right lung
right pulmonary veins
left pulmonary artery
left lung
left pulmonary veins
left atrium
left AV valve
left ventricle
aortic valve
aorta
body
superior/inferior vena cava

Testing Your Knowledge

3. myocardial infarction
4. myocardium
5. coronary circulation
Learning Outcomes 1, 5, 9

GROUP B
1. stethoscope
2. semilunar valves
3. organic murmur
4. ventricles
5. aorta
Learning Outcomes 3, 10, 12

III. Short Essays


1. The nervous system affects the rate and
strength of heart contractions. The sympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous
system stimulates the heart to contract
more rapidly and more forcefully, boosting
the cardiac output. The parasympathetic
system, acting through the vagus (10th
cranial) nerve, decreases the heart rate.
Some other factors that affect the heart
rate are hormones, ions, and drugs.
Learning Outcomes 8 and 9
2. vena cavae; right atrium; right atrioventricular (tricuspid) valve; right ventricle;
pulmonary valve; pulmonary artery.
Learning Outcomes 3 and 4

Building Understanding

Conceptual Thinking

I. Multiple Choice

1. The parasympathetic nervous system


slows down the heart rate by activating the vagus nerve. Thus, atropine
will increase the heart rate, but will
not significantly affect the strength of
contraction.
Learning Outcome 8
2. His cardiac output is 7.5 L/min. This
value means that each side of his heart
is pumping 7.5 L of blood every
minute.
Learning Outcome 6

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

c: O6
b: O6
b: O7
d: O9
c: O8
b: O12
d: O5
a: O1
b: O2
d: O3

II. Completion Exercise


1. vagus nerve: O8
2. pericardium: O2
3. arrhythmia: O9
4. aortic valve: O4
5. cardiac cycle: O6
6. chordae tendineae: O3
7. tricuspid: O4
8. functional murmurs: O10
9. coronary sinus: O5

Blood Vessels and Blood


Circulation

Understanding Concepts

Exercise 14-1: Sections of Small


Blood Vessels (text Fig. 14-2)

I. True/False
1. F: sympathetic: O8
2. F: lungs: O11
3. T: O9
4. F: endocardium: O1
5. F: systemic: O3
6. F: SA node: O7
7. T: O7

II. Practical Applications

GROUP A
1. tachycardia
2. sinus rhythm

Chapter 14

Addressing the Learning


Outcomes

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

artery
arteriole
capillary
venule
vein
inner tunic (endothelium)
elastic tissue
middle tunic (smooth muscle)
outer tunic (connective tissue)
valve

Exercise 14-2
1. capillary

2. venule
3. artery
4. arteriole
5. vein

Exercise 14-3: The Cardiovascular


System (text Fig. 14-1)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

right atrium
right ventricle
left pulmonary artery (P)
left lung (P)
right lung (P)
left pulmonary vein (P)
left atrium
left ventricle
aorta (S)
head and arms (S)
superior vena cava (S)
internal organs (S)
legs (S)
inferior vena cava (S)
arteries (S)
capillaries (S)
veins (S)

Exercise 14-4: Aorta and Its


Branches (text Fig. 14-4)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

ascending aorta
aortic arch
thoracic aorta
abdominal aorta
coronary arteries
brachiocephalic artery
right subclavian artery
right common carotid artery
left common carotid artery
left subclavian artery
intercostal arteries
left gastric artery
splenic artery
hepatic artery
celiac trunk to
renal artery
superior mesenteric artery
gonadal artery
inferior mesenteric artery
common iliac artery
external iliac artery
internal iliac artery

Exercise 14-5: Principal Systemic


Arteries (text Fig. 14-5)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

aortic arch
common carotid
vertebral
brachiocephalic
subclavian
axillary
brachial
radial
ulnar
palmar arch
palmar metacarpals
digitals
intercostals
celiac
renal

225

226

Answer Key

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.

superior mesenteric
testicular
inferior mesenteric
common iliac
internal iliac
external iliac
femoral
popliteal
geniculate
anterior tibial
posterior tibial
fibular
dorsalis pedis
dorsal metatarsals

Exercise 14-6
1. phrenic arteries
2. coronary arteries
3. renal arteries
4. common iliac arteries
5. carotid arteries
6. brachial arteries
7. intercostal arteries
8. lumbar arteries

Exercise 14-7
1. celiac trunk
2. ascending aorta
3. aortic arch
4. brachiocephalic artery
5. abdominal aorta
6. hepatic artery

Exercise 14-8: Cerebral Arterial


Circle (text Fig. 14-6)
1. vertebral arteries
2. basilar artery
3. cerebral arterial circle
4. anterior communicating
5. anterior cerebral
6. middle cerebral
7. internal carotid
8. posterior communicating
9. posterior cerebral

Exercise 14-9
1. anastomosis
2. mesenteric arch
3. cerebral arterial circle
4. basilar artery
5. superficial palmar arch

Exercise 14-10
1. S
2. S
3. D
4. D
5. D

Exercise 14-11: Principal Systemic


Veins (text Fig. 14-8)
1. volar digitals
2. basilic
3. cephalic
4. median cubital
5. brachial
6. axillary
7. subclavian
8. brachiocephalic
9. superior vena cava

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

internal jugular
external jugular
intercostals
azygos
dorsal digitals
venous arch
tibial
popliteal
femoral
saphenous
external iliac
internal iliac
lumbar
testicular
renal
hepatic
inferior vena cava

Exercise 14-12: Principal Arteries


and Veins of the Head
(text Figs. 14-5B and 14-7B)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

common carotid
superior thyroid
internal carotid
external carotid
facial
labial
maxillary
superior temporal
superficial temporal
occipital
vertebral
frontal
facial
lingual
internal jugular
superficial temporal
occipital
external jugular

Exercise 14-13
1. jugular vein
2. saphenous vein
3. cephalic vein
4. femoral vein
5. lumbar vein
6. hepatic portal vein
7. gastric vein

Exercise 14-14: Cranial Venous


Sinuses (text Fig. 14-9)
1. inferior sagittal sinus
2. straight sinus
3. confluence
4. superior sagittal sinus
5. transverse sinus
6. ophthalmic vein
7. cavernous sinus
8. petrosal sinuses
9. internal jugular vein

Exercise 14-15
1. azygos vein
2. superior vena cava
3. median cubital vein
4. inferior vena cava
5. cavernous sinus
6. superior sagittal sinus
7. coronary sinus

Exercise 14-16: Hepatic Portal


Circulation (text Fig. 14-10)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

stomach
inferior mesenteric vein
spleen
splenic vein
pancreas
descending colon
small intestine
ascending colon
superior mesenteric vein
hepatic portal vein
liver
hepatic veins
inferior vena cava

Exercise 14-17
1. blood pressure
2. diffusion
3. osmotic pressure

Exercise 14-18
1. valve
2. precapillary sphincter
3. vasoconstriction
4. vasodilation
5. vasomotor center

Exercise 14-19
1. D
2. D
3. I
4. I
5. I

Exercise 14-20
1. D
2. I
3. D
4. I
5. D
6. I
7. I

Exercise 14-21
1. diastolic pressure
2. sphygmomanometer
3. systolic pressure
4. viscosity
5. stethoscope

Exercise 14-22
femoral veinexternal iliac vein common iliac vein inferior vena cava
right atrium right ventricle pulmonary
artery

Exercise 14-23
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

ped/o: pedis
pressure: baroreceptor
stoma: anastomosis
liver: hepatic
surgical removal:
endarterectomy
gastr/o: gastric
brachi/o: brachiocephalic
enter/o: mesenteric
pulse: sphygmomanometer
abdomen: celiac

Answer Key

Making the Connections

III. Short Essays

1. sphygmomanometer or cardiac catheterization


2. diastolic pressure
3. the highest value is the
4. total blood volume
5. heart rate
6. stroke volume
7. peripheral resistance
8. viscosity
9. narrows during
10. vasodilation

1. An anastomosis is a communication
between two vessels. Arterial anastomoses allow blood to reach vital organs by
more than one route. Arteriovenous anastomoses connect arteries directly with
veins and bypass the capillaries.
Learning Outcome 4
2. The hepatic portal system carries blood
from the abdominal organs to the liver
to be processed. For example, nutrients
absorbed from the intestine may be
altered, stored, or released into the blood
by the liver. The vessels that contribute
to the hepatic portal system include the
veins that drain the spleen, stomach, pancreas, and intestines.
Learning Outcome 8
3. left femoral vein, left external iliac vein,
inferior vena cava, right atrium.
Learning Outcomes 6, 7
4. Answer could include: 1. The
arterial wall is thicker and more elastic.
2. Arteries carry blood away from the
heart, but veins carry blood toward the
heart. 3. The muscle layer is thicker in
arteries than in veins.
Learning Outcome 1

Testing Your Knowledge


Building Understanding
I. Multiple Choice
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

c: O3
a: O10
a: O2
d: O14
b: O10
d: O6
c: O5
b: O1
a: O13
c: O3
b: O7

II. Completion Exercise


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

liver: O9
endothelium or inner tunic: O1
hepatic portal artery: O9
saphenous vein: O6
systemic circuit: O2
venous sinus: O8
arterioles: O1
vasoconstriction: O10
anastomosis: O5
facial artery: O4, O16

Understanding Concepts
I. True/False
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

T: O5
F: increase: O13
F: increase: O10
T: O4
F: brain: O7
F: liver: O9
T: O11
F: stroke volume: O13
F: endothelium or epithelial tissue: O1
F: right: O4

Conceptual Thinking
1. Mr. Bs blood pressure will decrease due
to reduced blood volume. Activation of
the sympathetic nervous system would
increase blood pressure. Increasing his
heart rate and stroke volume would
increase cardiac output, and stimulating vascular smooth muscle contraction
would result in vasoconstriction and
increased peripheral resistance.
Learning Outcome 13
2. A. 145 mm Hg
B. 92 mm Hg
C. higher than normal.
Learning Outcomes 13, 14

Chapter 15
The Lymphatic System and
Immunity

II. Practical Applications

Addressing the Learning


Outcomes

GROUP A

Exercise 15-1

1. common carotid artery


2. basilar artery
3. anastomosis
4. mesenteric arches
Learning Outcomes 3, 4, 5

1. fluid balance. The lymphatic system


returns excess tissue fluid to the blood.
2. protection from infection. Lymphocytes
live and multiply in the lymphatic system.
3. fat absorption. Digested fats enter the
lymphatic vessels to be diluted in lymph
before they enter the circulation.

GROUP B
1. 120
2. renin
3. ascending aorta
4. brachiocephalic trunk
5. endothelium
Learning Outcomes 1, 3, 13

Exercise 15-2: Lymphatic System


in Relation to the Cardiovascular
System (text Fig. 15-1)
1. tissue fluid

2. lymphatic capillaries
3. lymph node
4. valve
5. lymphatic vessel
6. pulmonary circuit
7. pulmonary capillaries
8. systemic circuit
9. systemic capillaries

Exercise 15-3
1. BOTH
2. L
3. BOTH
4. B
5. L
6. B
7. BOTH
8. B

Exercise 15-4
1. T
2. R
3. R
4. T
5. T
6. T

Exercise 15-5: Lymphatic System


(text Fig. 15-3)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

mammary vessels
axillary nodes
right lymphatic duct
tibial vessels
popliteal nodes
femoral vessels
inguinal nodes
iliac nodes and vessels
lumbar nodes
cisterna chyli
mesenteric nodes
cubital nodes
thoracic duct
occipital nodes
cervical nodes
parotid nodes
mandibular nodes
left subclavian vein
left brachiocephalic vein
right subclavian vein
right brachiocephalic vein
superior vena cava

Exercise 15-6
1. inguinal nodes
2. axillary nodes
3. superficial
4. mesenteric nodes
5. lacteal
6. cervical nodes

Exercise 15-7
1. cisterna chyli
2. lymph
3. thoracic duct
4. chyle
5. valve
6. lymphatic capillary

227

228

Answer Key

Exercise 15-8: Lymph Node


(text Fig. 15-4)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

flow of lymph
afferent lymphatic vessel
valve
subcapsular sinus
medullary sinus
efferent lymphatic vessel
flow of lymph
capsule
trabecula
hilium
medullary cord
cortical nodule
germinal center

Exercise 15-9: Location of


Lymphoid Tissue (text Fig. 15-5)
1. adenoids
2. palatine tonsil
3. lingual tonsil
4. nodes
5. thymus
6. spleen
7. appendix
8. Peyer patches (in intestine)

Exercise 15-15
1. Antibodies prevent the pathogen from
attaching to a body cell.
2. Antibodies clump small pathogens
together so that they can be ingested by
phagocytes.
3. Antibodies bind toxins so that they cannot damage cells.
4. Antibodies coat antigens so that
phagocytes can attach to them more
easily.
5. Antibodies activate complement, which
helps destroy foreign cells and induces
inflammation.
6. Antibodies activate natural killer cells.

Exercise 15-16
1. humoral immunity
2. cellular immunity
3. IgM
4. plasma cell

Exercise 15-17
1. ACT, N
2. P, N
3. ACT, ART
4. P, ART

Exercise 15-10

Exercise 15-18

1. palatine tonsil
2. spleen
3. lingual tonsil
4. pharyngeal tonsil
5. thymus
6. hilum
7. MALT
8. Peyer patch

1. attenuation
2. toxoid
3. gamma globulin
4. immunization
5. immune serum

Exercise 15-11
1. interferon
2. natural killer (NK) cell
3. nonspecific defenses
4. specific defenses
5. neutrophil
6. complement
7. macrophage

Exercise 15-12
1. T
2. F
3. F
4. T
5. F

Exercise 15-13
1. antigen
2. plasma cell
3. Treg cell
4. Tc cell
5. antibody
6. memory cell
7. Th cell

Exercise 15-14
1. monocyte
2. lysosome
3. foreign antigen
4. MHC protein
5. T cell receptor
6. interleukin
7. dendritic cell

Exercise 15-19
1, 6, 7

Exercise 15-20
1. aden/o; adenoids
2. tongue; lingual
3. like, resembling; lymphoid

Making the Connections

10. helper T cells (or Th cells)


11. cytotoxic T cells (or Tc cells)
12. includes humoral immunity, which is
mediated by
13. plasma cells
14. antibodies
15. when complexed with antigen, can
activate

Testing Your Knowledge


Building Understanding
I. Multiple Choice
1. c: O4
2. d: O4
3. c: O4
4. b: O4
5. c: O2
6. a: O3
7. b: O5
8. b: O8
9. c: O5
10. a:O8
11. d:O5
12. d:O8
13. c: O9
14. a:O12

II. Completion Exercise


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

germinal centers: O4
chyle: O3
lymph: O1
right subclavian vein: O3
tracheobronchial nodes: O4
axillary nodes: O4
phagocytosis: O4
humoral immunity: O8
inflammation: O6
passive immunity: O12
active immunity: O12
phagocytosis: O5

Understanding Concepts
Map A
1. lymph capillaries
2. that absorb fat from the intestinal cells
are called
3. lymphatic vessels
4. from the left side and the lower right side
drain into the
5. right lymphatic duct
6. subclavian vein
7. lymph nodes
8. organ where T cells mature
9. spleen
Map B
1. nonspecific immunity (or defenses)
2. neutrophils
3. macrophages
4. includes the activity of specialized
lymphocytes called
5. includes a set of nonspecific tissue
responses called
6. histamine
7. complement
8. effective against a specific harmful
agent
9. T cells

I. True/False
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

T: O3, O4
F: fats: O1
F: blood; lymph: O4
F: mesenteric: O4
F: lymphatic capillary: O2
F: interferon: O5
F: cell-mediated: O8
T: O12
T: O5
F: antibodies: O10
F: interleukins: O8
T: O11, 12

II. Practical Applications

GROUP A
1. lymphatic capillaries
2. popliteal lymph nodes
3. inguinal lymph nodes
Learning Outcomes 2, 4

GROUP B
1. inflammatory reaction
2. histamine
3. vaccination
4. toxins

Answer Key

5. passive immunity (or artificial passive


immunity)
Learning Outcomes 6, 12, 13

III. Short Essays


1. The droplet will be collected into a
lymphatic capillary. It will pass into a
tibial vessel, through a popliteal node
to the femoral vessels, through the
iliac nodes and vessels, and through
the lumbar nodes and vessels to the
cisterna chyli of the thoracic duct. The
droplet will pass through the thoracic
duct to the left lymphatic duct, which
drains into the left subclavian vein. The
droplet will mix with blood passing
through the left brachiocephalic vein
and the superior vena cava into the
right atrium.
Learning Outcome 3
2. Macrophages participate in nonspecific
defenses by destroying pathogens by
phagocytosis. Macrophages participate
in specific body defenses by acting as
antigen-presenting cells. T cells bind
to the antigen displayed on the macrophage surface and launch a specific
immune attack against the presented
antigen.
Learning Outcomes 5, 9

Conceptual Thinking
1. The lymphatic system returns excess tissue fluid to the bloodstream in the form
of lymph. However, the pressure in lymphatic vessels is very low. Contractions
of the leg muscles help propel the lymph
up to the thoracic duct, from which it
can drain into the left subclavian vein.
Ms. Y has been sitting down for too
long. Gravity will increase the amount of
interstitial fluid in the legs, and the lack
of movement will impair the ability of
the lymphatic vessels to drain this fluid.
Ms. Y should try to move around more
often, and perhaps she should wear support hose.
Learning Outcome 3
2. Baby G will not be able to produce
T lymphocytes. Cytotoxic T cells are
responsible for cell-mediated immunity and are involved in immune
surveillance. Helper T cells secrete
many substances that activate other
immune responses, and regulatory T
cells suppress inappropriate immune
reactions. All of these functions
will therefore be adversely affected.
Although cellular and nonspecific
defenses will not be directly impaired,
the lack of helper T cells will result
in less stimulation of macrophages, B
cells, natural killer cells, and neutrophils. Thus, aside from the chemical
and physical barriers, all aspects of
immunity will be affected.
Learning Outcomes 5, 8

Chapter 16
The Respiratory System
Addressing the Learning
Outcomes
Exercise 16-1
1. pulmonary ventilation
2. external gas exchange
3. internal gas exchange
4. gas transport
5. cellular respiration

Exercise 16-2: Respiratory System


(text Fig. 16-2)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

frontal sinus
sphenoidal sinus
nasal cavity
nasopharynx
oropharynx
laryngopharynx
esophagus
epiglottis
larynx and vocal cords
trachea
right bronchus
right lung
left lung
mediastinum
left bronchus
terminal bronchiole
diaphragm

Exercise 16-3: The Larynx


(text Fig. 16-3)
1. epiglottis
2. hyoid bone
3. thyroid cartilage
4. cricoid cartilage
5. tracheal cartilage
6. trachea

Exercise 16-4
1. nares
2. conchae
3. larynx
4. epiglottis
5. bronchus
6. visceral
7. pharynx
8. bronchiole

Exercise 16-5: A Spirogram


(text Fig. 16-9)
1. inspiratory reserve volume
2. tidal volume
3. expiratory reserve volume
4. residual volume
5. vital capacity
6. functional residual capacity
7. total lung capacity

Exercise 16-6
1. surfactant
2. exhalation
3. inhalation
4. external intercostals

5. alveoli
6. tidal volume
7. compliance
8. vital capacity

Exercise 16-7
1. T
2. T
3. F
4. F
5. T
6. T

Exercise 16-8
1. alveoli
2. into
3. out of
4. body cells
5. out of
6. into
7. diffusion
8. partial pressure gradient

Exercise 16-9
1. carbon dioxide
2. bicarbonate ion
3. hemoglobin
4. oxygen
5. hydrogen ion
6. 10%
7. 75%
8. 15%

Exercise 16-10
1. medulla
2. hypercapnia
3. aortic arch
4. hydrogen ion
5. carbon dioxide
6. phrenic nerve

Exercise 16-11
1. hyper
2. hypo
3. hypo
4. hypo
5. hyper

Exercise 16-12
1. dyspnea
2. hyperpnea
3. apnea
4. orthopnea
5. hypopnea
6. tachypnea
7. hypoxemia
8. hypoxia

Exercise 16-13
1. spirometry
2. bronchi or bronchioles
3. cold (or exercise)
4. exercise (or cold)
5. corticosteroid
6. leukotrienes

Exercise 16-14
1. or/o: oropharynx
2. breathing; spirometer
3. nas/o; nasopharynx

229

230

Answer Key

4. laryng/o: laryngeal pharynx


5. breathing; hypopnea
6. capn/o; hypercapnia
7. pneumon/o; pneumonia
8. pneum/o; pneumothorax
9. straight; orthopnea

Making the Connections


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

pulmonary ventilation
inhalation
exhalation
diaphragm
phase that transfers gases between
blood and alveoli
oxygen
carbon dioxide
gas transport
oxygen
hemoglobin
carbon dioxide
carbonic anhydrase
internal gas exchange

Testing Your Knowledge


Building Understanding
I. Multiple Choice
1. b: O1
2. d: O2
3. b: O2
4. b: O5, O6
5. a: O2
6. a: O3

II. Completion Exercise


1. glottis: O2
2. hypopnea: O7
3. hypoxia: O7
4. mediastinum: O2
5. two: O2
6. partial pressure: O4
7. iron or Fe: O5
8. phrenic nerve: O3

Understanding Concepts

diaphragm and intercostal muscles


expand the thoracic cavity, drawing air
into the alveoli. They passively recoil
during exhalation because these muscles
relax, shrinking the thoracic cavity and
forcing air out. The elastic tissue of the
lungs also helps them to contract.
Learning Outcome 3
2. Gas exchange occurs through the walls
of the alveoli. The passages leading to
the alveoli do not participate in gas
exchange. These include the nasal cavities, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles.
Learning Outcome 2

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Conceptual Thinking

Exercise 17-4: Abdominopelvic


Cavity and Peritoneum (text
Fig. 17-2)

1. A. pulmonary ventilation.
B. The respiratory control center modulates the activity of the motor nerve
that controls the diaphragm and intercostal muscles (the phrenic nerve).
This nerve will cause the diaphragm
and external intercostals to contract
more strongly and more often if greater pulmonary ventilation is required
(other muscles can also be recruited).
C. The most important chemical factor
is hydrogen ions in the medullary
interstitial fluid, which act on central
chemoreceptors, but increased carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions and
decreased oxygen in peripheral blood
are secondary factors.
Learning Outcomes 1, 6
2. a. It increases the carbon dioxide content
of his blood, which increases blood
acidity.
b. It will increase.
3. a. total lung capacity
b. vital capacity
c. functional residual capacity
d. residual volume
Learning Outcome 3

I. True/False
1. T: O5, O6
2. F: oxygen: O5
3. F: simple: O2
4. T: O1
5. F: pons: O6
6. T: O8
7. F: less: O3
8. T: O3
9. F: decrease: O6

II. Practical Applications


1. pseudostratified columnar
epithelium
2. alveoli
3. cilia
4. spirometer
5. vital capacity
6. functional residual capacity
Learning Outcomes 2 and 3

III. Short Essays


1. The lungs are passive. They passively
expand during inhalation because the

Chapter 17
The Digestive System
Addressing the Learning
Outcomes
Exercise 17-1
1. digestion
2. absorption
3. elimination

Exercise 17-2: The Wall of the


Small Intestine (text Fig. 17-1)
1. mucosa
2. submucosa
3. muscularis externa
4. serosa
5. epithelium
6. lamina propria
7. smooth muscle
8. lymphoid tissue

glands
nerve
circular layer
longitudinal layer
nerve
areolar connective tissue
epithelium

Exercise 17-3
1. mucosa
2. serosa
3. submucosa
4. muscularis externa
5. squamous epithelium
6. simple columnar epithelium

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

liver
stomach
small intestine
duodenum
transverse colon
rectum
pancreas
uterus
urinary bladder
mesentery
mesocolon
greater omentum
lesser omentum
retroperitoneal space
parietal peritoneum

Exercise 17-5
1. visceral peritoneum
2. parietal peritoneum
3. greater omentum
4. lesser omentum
5. mesocolon
6. lesser peritoneal cavity

Exercise 17-6: The Mouth (text


Fig. 17-4)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

central incisor
lateral incisor
cuspid (canine)
premolars
six-year molar
molars
upper lip
lower lip
gum (gingiva)
hard palate
soft palate
uvula
palatine tonsil
pharynx

Exercise 17-7: A Molar Tooth (text


Fig. 17-5)
1. crown
2. root
3. enamel
4. cementum
5. dentin

Answer Key

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

pulp
root canal
periodontal ligament
gingiva
alveolar bone

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

sigmoid colon
rectum
anal sphincter
anus
tenia coli

Exercise 17-8

Exercise 17-12

1. deciduous
2. mastication
3. deglutition
4. gingiva
5. incisors
6. dentin
7. periodontal ligament
8. enamel

1. pyloric sphincter
2. LES
3. epiglottis
4. soft palate
5. ileum
6. duodenum
7. chyme
8. rugae

Exercise 17-9: Digestive System


(text Fig. 17-3)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

mouth
pharynx
esophagus
stomach
duodenum
small intestine
cecum
appendix
large intestine (transverse colon)
sigmoid colon
rectum
anus
parotid (salivary gland)
sublingual (salivary gland)
submandibular (salivary gland)
liver
gallbladder
tongue
pancreas

Exercise 17-10: Longitudinal


Section of the Stomach
(text Fig. 17-6)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

esophagus
body
fundus
pylorus
pyloric sphincter
esophageal hiatus
duodenum
oblique (muscle layer)
circular (muscle layer)
longitudinal (muscle layer)
rugae
lesser curvature
greater curvature

Exercise 17-11: The Intestines


(text Fig. 17-7A)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

duodenum
jejunum
ileum
ileocecal valve
cecum (cut)
appendix
ascending colon
right colic (hepatic) flexure
transverse colon
left colic (splenic) flexure
descending colon

Exercise 17-13
1. rectum
2. vermiform appendix
3. ileocecal valve
4. villi
5. lacteal
6. teniae coli
7. transverse colon
8. cecum

Exercise 17-14: Accessory Organs


of Digestion (text Fig. 17-9)
1. diaphragm
2. spleen
3. liver
4. gall bladder
5. common hepatic duct
6. cystic duct
7. common bile duct
8. pancreas
9. pancreatic duct
10. duodenum

Exercise 17-15
1. pancreas
2. liver
3. gallbladder
4. parotid glands
5. sublingual glands

Exercise 17-16
1. bile
2. glycogen
3. bilirubin
4. urea
5. cystic duct
6. common bile duct
7. common hepatic duct

Exercise 17-17
1. maltase
2. sodium bicarbonate
3. nuclease
4. trypsin
5. pepsin
6. hydrolysis
7. fat
8. protein

Exercise 17-18
1. C
2. P
3. F
4. P
5. C

Exercise 17-19
Absorption is the uptake of digested nutrients into the blood.

Exercise 17-20
1. F
2. F
3. T
4. T

Exercise 17-21
1. negative
2. secretin
3. increased
4. bicarbonate
5. decreased

Exercise 17-22
1. leptin
2. gastric-inhibitory peptide
3. gastrin
4. cholecystokinin (CCK)
5. secretin

Exercise 17-23
a. F
b. T
c. F
d. T

Exercise 17-24
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

amyl/o; amylase
middle; mesocolon
enter/o; mesentery
bile, gall; cholecystokinin
bile; bilirubin
cyst/o; cystic
gastr/o; gastrointestinal
ab-; absorption
liver; hepatic
tongue; sublingual

Making the Connections


1. esophageal hiatus
2. peristalsis
3. sends a food bolus through the lower
esophageal sphincter to the
4. rugae
5. secretes a hormone that regulates
the production of gastric juice
called
6. sends chyme through the pyloric
sphincter to the
7. villi
8. GIP
9. secretes this hormone that stimulates
bicarbonate release
10. secretes a hormone that stimulates bile
release called
11. receives exocrine secretions from the
12. gallbladder
13. liver

Testing Your Knowledge


Building Understanding
I. Multiple Choice
1. c: O4
2. d: O2
3. a: O6

231

232

Answer Key

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

c: O3
b: O8
b: O12
c: O9
c: O5
c: O8
b: O5

II. Completion Exercise


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

digestion: O1
sigmoid colon: O5
rectum: O5
peristalsis: O5
colonoscope: O13
enzymes: O8
lesser omentum: O3
deglutition: O5
dentin: O4
esophageal hiatus: O5
cholecystokinin (CCK): O12
microvilli: O10
pepsin: O8

Understanding Concepts
I. True/False
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

F: 20: O4
T: O3
F: esophagus: O5
T: O8
F: pancreas: O8
F: secretin: O12
F: lacteals: O10
T: O5
F: rugae: O5
T: O7
T: O8
F: liver: O6

II. Practical Applications


1. mucosa
2. duodenum
3. pylorus
4. gastrin
5. bilirubin
6. cystic duct
Learning Outcomes 2, 5, 6, 7, 12

III. Short Essays


1. The small intestine is coiled to compress
its length within the abdomen. The
intestinal wall is formed into many small
circular folds. The mucous membrane is
formed into millions of tiny projections
called villi. Each cell in the mucosa has
even smaller projections of the plasma
membrane called microvilli.
Learning Outcome 5
2. 1. Proteins are digested in the stomach
and small intestine, whereas fats are
digested only in the small intestine.
2. The digestion of fat, but not protein,
requires the emulsifying action of
bile.
3. Proteins are digested into small
peptides and amino acids, whereas
fats (triglycerides) are digested into
glycerol and fatty acids. 4. Most
products of digested fats are absorbed
into lacteals, whereas amino acids and

peptides are absorbed directly into


blood capillaries.
Learning Outcomes 9, 10

Conceptual Thinking
1. Cholecystokinin stimulates the pancreas
to release digestive enzymes and the
gallbladder to release bile. Although
bile will still be produced by the liver,
chyme arriving in the intestine will no
longer induce the release of bile and
enzymes into the duodenum; thus, the
digestion of all nutrient types (proteins,
carbohydrates, fats, and nucleic acids)
will be significantly impaired.
Learning Outcome 12
2. No. Bile does not catalyze the chemical
breakdown of fat; instead, it emulsifies
fats to increase the ability of enzymes to
access the fat molecules.
Learning Outcomes 7, 8

Chapter 18

6. nonessential amino acids


7. essential fatty acids

Exercise 18-6
1. vitamin A
2. folate
3. calciferol
4. iodine
5. calcium
6. iron
7. zinc
8. vitamin K

Exercise 18-7
1. C
2. B
3. A

Exercise 18-8
1. saturated fats
2. trans-fatty acids
3. polysaccharides
4. monosaccharides
5. unsaturated fats

Exercise 18-9

Metabolism, Nutrition, and


Body Temperature

1. conduction
2. evaporation
3. convection
4. radiation

Addressing the Learning


Outcomes

Exercise 18-10

Exercise 18-1
1. C
2. A
3. C

Exercise 18-2
1. AN
2. AE
3. AE
4. AN
5. AN
6. AE
7. AN

1. C
2. H
3. H
4. C

Exercise 18-11
1. whole grain bread, because it has a lower
glycemic effect. That is, it results in a
lower increase in insulin than white
bread.
2. olive oil, because it contains unsaturated
fat. Unsaturated fats are healthier than
the saturated fats found in butter.
3. fruit, because it contains more vitamins,
minerals, and fiber.

Exercise 18-3

Exercise 18-12

1. all of the chemical reactions that occur


in the cell. Or: all of the bodys cellular
activities.
2. the rate at which energy is released from
nutrients.
3. the amount of energy required to maintain basic life functions.

1. separating, dissolving; glycolysis


2. glyc/o; glycogen

Exercise 18-4
1. glycogen
2. deamination
3. pyruvic acid
4. lactic acid
5. fat
6. glycerol
7. protein

Exercise 18-5
1. antioxidants
2. trace elements
3. vitamins
4. essential amino acids
5. minerals

Making the Connections


1. proteins
2. minerals
3. should obtain less than 30% of total
calories from
4. must include a variety of complex
organic substances called
5. carbohydrate
6. amino acids
7. deamination
8. produces a waste product called
9. unsaturated fatty acids
10. containing all single bonds
11. glycogen
12. is composed of monosaccharides called
13. glycolysis
14. pyruvic acid
15. can be fully metabolized to generate
large amounts of energy in the

Answer Key

Testing Your Knowledge

Conceptual Thinking

Building Understanding

1. Carbohydrates in the blood stimulate


the production of pancreatic insulin.
Insulin stimulates the conversion of
nutrients to storage forms, including
fat. Low carbohydrate intake should
keep blood sugar low, thereby reducing
insulin levels and fat deposition. In the
absence of carbohydrates, the body will
use fat and protein for fuel. Protein is
not stored as an energy source, so lowcarbohydrate diets are often associated
with the breakdown of muscle and other
protein-rich tissues.
Learning Outcomes 8, 9

I. Multiple Choice
1. a: O12
2. d: O6
3. d: O4
4. c: O12
5. b: O2
6. d: O7
7. b: O11
8. d: O10
9. a: O1

II. Completion Exercise


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Calorie: O5
basal metabolic rate: O11
muscles: O13
vitamins: O7
hypothalamus: O12
cellular respiration or nutrient
oxidation: O1
convection: O11
cytoplasm: O2
essential: O6
glucose: O2

Understanding Concepts
I. True/False
1. T: O12
2. F: unsaturated: O10
3. T: O1
4. T: O13
5. F: proteins: O4
6. F: carbon dioxide, water, and
energy: O2
7. F: fat: O5
8. F: minerals: O7
9. F: essential fatty acid: O6

II. Practical Applications


1. radiation
2. 2
3. pyruvic acid
4. lactic acid
5. convection
6. vitamin C
7. trans fatty acids (or trans fats)
8. polysaccharides
Learning Outcomes 2, 4, 9, 10, 13

III. Short Essays


1. No. Although alcohol yields energy
(7 kcal/g), it does not yield any useful
end products and can interfere with the
metabolism of nutrients.
Learning Outcome 11
2. Glucose will be converted into pyruvic
acid in the cytoplasm by the process of
glycolysis (anaerobic), which produces
2 ATPs. Pyruvic acid will be converted
to carbon dioxide and water in the mitochondria by the oxygen-requiring process
of aerobic respiration. 30 molecules of
ATP will be produced by the breakdown
of pyruvic acid, making a grand total of
32 ATPs/glucose molecule.
Learning Outcome 2

Chapter 19
The Urinary System and Body
Fluids
Addressing the Learning
Outcomes
Exercise 19-1: Male Urinary
System (text Fig. 19-1)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

abdominal aorta
renal artery
common iliac artery
common iliac vein
renal vein
inferior vena cava
diaphragm
adrenal gland
right kidney
right ureter
urinary bladder
prostate gland
urethra

Exercise 19-2: Kidney Structure


and the Renal Blood Supply (text
Fig. 19-2)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

renal artery
renal vein
renal capsule
hilum
renal cortex
renal medulla
renal pyramids
calyx
renal pelvis
ureter

Exercise 19-3
1. renal pelvis
2. urethra
3. retroperitoneal space
4. nephron
5. ureter
6. adipose capsule
7. renal medulla
8. renal cortex

Exercise 19-4
1. R
2. D

3. U, D, R, I
4. U, D, I
5. D
6. U, I

Exercise 19-5
(order of answers may vary)
1. toxin levels (kept at minimal levels)
2. water levels
3. blood pH
4. blood pressure
5. red blood cell number

Exercise 19-6: A Nephron and Its


Blood Supply (text Fig. 19-3)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

renal artery
afferent arteriole
glomerulus
efferent arteriole
peritubular capillaries
renal vein
glomerular capsule
proximal tubule
descending limb of the nephron
loop
ascending limb of the nephron
loop
distal tubule
collecting duct
calyx
renal cortex
renal medulla

Exercise 19-7
1. glomerular capsule
2. glomerulus
3. proximal tubule
4. afferent arteriole
5. renal vein
6. peritubular capillaries
7. collecting duct
8. nephron loop

Exercise 19-8: Glomerular


Filtration (text Fig. 19-5)
1. afferent arteriole
2. glomerulus
3. efferent arteriole
4. endothelium
5. glomerular capsule
6. proximal capsule
7. filtrate

Exercise 19-9: Summary of Urine


Formation (text Fig. 19-7)
1. filtration from blood into nephron
2. reabsorption from filtrate into blood
3. tubular secretion from blood into
filtrate
4. urine concentration; reabsorption of
water; controlled by ADH
5. afferent arteriole
6. efferent arteriole
7. peritubular capillaries
8. blood with reabsorbed substances
9. glomerular capsule
10. filtrate
11. urine (excreted)
12. ADH

233

234

Answer Key

Exercise 19-10

Exercise 19-18

1. A
2. F
3. C
4. D
5. B
6. C
7. E

1. blood plasma
2. water
3. hypothalamus
4. interstitial
5. body fluid concentration
6. body fluid volume
7. intracellular

Exercise 19-11: The Juxtaglomerular


(JG) Apparatus (text Fig. 19-6)

Exercise 19-19

1. afferent arteriole
2. glomerulus
3. efferent arteriole
4. glomerular capsule
5. proximal tubule
6. nephron loop
7. distal tubule
8. juxtaglomerular (JG) apparatus

Exercise 19-12
1. renin
2. aldosterone
3. tubular reabsorption
4. filtration
5. juxtaglomerular apparatus
6. EPO
7. tubular secretion
8. antidiuretic hormone

Exercise 19-13: The Male Urinary


Bladder (text Fig. 19-9)
1. ureter
2. openings of ureters
3. rugae
4. smooth muscle
5. trigone
6. internal urethral sphincter
7. prostate
8. urethra
9. external urethral sphincter

Exercise 19-14
1. F
2. T
3. T
4. T
5. F

Exercise 19-15
3,4,6

Exercise 19-16: Main Fluid


Compartments (text Fig. 19-10)
1. extracellular fluid
2. blood plasma and lymph
3. interstitial fluid
4. intracellular fluid

Exercise 19-17: Daily Gain and


Loss of Water (text Fig. 19-11)
1. metabolism
2. food
3. drink
4. feces
5. lungs
6. skin
7. urine

1. cation
2. anion
3. chloride
4. potassium
5. electrolyte
6. calcium
7. sodium

Exercise 19-20
1. antidiuretic hormone
2. atrial natriuretic peptide
3. aldosterone
4. parathyroid hormone

13. reabsorption
14. secretion
15. urine concentration

MAP B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Exercise 19-21

intracellular fluid
extracellular fluid
blood plasma
is also present in the eye humors, the
cerebrospinal fluid, and other
found in lacteals and lymphatic vessels is
between cells is called
gained by the body are considered the
output
over a given period must match
food and drink (or diet)
of approximately 200 ml results from
byproducts of
kidneys (or renal system)
lungs (or respiratory system)
includes fluids lost by evaporation
from the
includes fluids in feces that had been
secreted into the

1. buffer
2. hydrogen ion
3. kidney
4. lung

Testing Your Knowledge

Exercise 19-22

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

1. prostate
2. micturition
3. external urethral
4. urethra
5. ureters
6. hydroureter
7. hydronephrosis
8. cystoscope
9. resectoscope

Exercise 19-23
1. noct/i; nocturia
2. beyond, outside of: extracellular,
extraperitoneal
3. poly-; polydipsia
4. partial, half; semipermeable
5. kidney; nephron
6. intra-; intracellular
7. retro-; retroperitoneal
8. juxta-; juxtaglomerular apparatus
9. kidney; renal
10. osmosis; osmoreceptors

Making the Connections


MAP A
1. nephrons
2. are associated with
3. receiving blood from the renal arteries
are the
4. glomerulus
5. efferent arterioles
6. deliver blood directly into the
7. urinary system
8. glomerular capsule
9. proximal tubule
10. nephron loop
11. distal tubule
12. filtration

Building Understanding
I. Multiple Choice
c: O1
b: O5
c: O7
d: O8
a: O3
c: O6
c: O10
b: O9
b: O1
d: O16
c: O16
d: O15
c: O17
a: O11

II. Completion Exercise


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

anion: O15
osmoreceptors: O13
sodium: O15
rugae: O1
afferent arteriole: O4
hypothalamus: O14
collecting duct: O5
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP): O16
filtration: O6
glomerulus: O4, O5
peritubular capillaries: O4

Understanding Concepts
I. True/False
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

F: antidiuretic hormone: O7
T: O6
F: alkaline: O17
T: O10
T: O7
F: external: O9
F: trigone: O1
F: urinary or excretory: O2
T: O10
F: kidneys: O13

Answer Key

II. Practical Applications

GROUP A
1. anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
2. isotonic
3. 7.357.45
4. buffer
Learning Outcomes 16, 17, 18

GROUP B
1. juxtaglomerular (JG) apparatus
2. angiotensin
3. nephrons
4. interstitial
5. erythropoietin
Learning Outcomes 5, 8, 12, 13

III. Short Essays


1. Both filtration and secretion move
substances from the blood to the filtrate. Filtration occurs because of the
hydrostatic pressure of blood, whereas
secretion occurs because substances are
moved by active transporters. Filtration
occurs between the glomerulus and
the Bowman capsule, whereas active
transport occurs between the nephron
and the pertibular capillaries. Filtration is
relatively nonspecific, moving water and
small dissolved substances (not large proteins or cells). Secretion is very specific,
moving particular chemicals and ions.
Learning Outcome 6
2. Breath holding will increase the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood.
The actions of carbonic anhydrase will
result in the production of bicarbnate and
hydrogen ions. The hydrogen ions will
increase the blood acidity. The kidney
can counteract this increase by excreting
more hydrogen ions in the urine.
Learning Outcome 17

Conceptual Thinking
1. Yes. Antidiuretic hormone stimulates
water reabsorption in the collecting duct
independent of salt reabsorption. Water
will leave the nephron due to the osmotic
gradient created by the nephron loop.
Learning Outcomes 6 and 7
2. The penicillin that is filtered into the glomerular capsule will not be reabsorbed.
The penicillin remaining in the peritubular capillaries will be secreted into
the nephron. The filtered and secreted
penicillin molecules will subsequently be
excreted in the urine.
Learning Outcome 6
3. A. Ms. Js body fluids will be reduced in
volume and increased in osmolarity
(concentration).
B. Her hypothalamic osmoreceptors will
be activated, which in turn will activate Ms. Js hypothalamic thirst center.
Her hypothalamus also will respond to
the increased osmolarity by synthesizing more antidiuretic hormone, which
is secreted by the posterior pituitary
gland. This hormone will also stimu-

late thirst and will increase water


reabsorption by the kidney.
C. Ms. J will be very thirsty and will
excrete small amounts of very concentrated urine.
Learning Outcomes 14, 16
4. a. This compound will not alter blood
pressure because parathyroid hormone alters calcium and phosphate
handling. These ions are not very
important in the regulation of water
retention and blood volume.
b. This compound would reduce blood
pressure. Without normal aldosterone
action, the kidney will retain less
sodium and thus less water. Reduced
blood volume and blood pressure
would result.
c. This compound would decrease blood
pressure. ANP reduces sodium retention and water retention, and would
thus reduce blood volume.
Learning Outcome 16

Chapter 20

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

head of epididymis
body of epididymis
ductus (vas) deferens
testis
lobule
septum
capsule

Exercise 20-4
1. sustentacular cell
2. interstitial cell
3. spermatozoon
4. ovum
5. ovarian follicle

Exercise 20-5: Cross-Section of


the Penis (text Fig. 20-5)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

skin
subcutaneous tissue
connective tissue
corpus spongiosum
corpora cavernosa
urethra
central artery
dorsal artery
dorsal veins
dorsal nerve

Exercise 20-6

The Male and Female


Reproductive Systems
Addressing the Learning
Outcomes
Exercise 20-1
1. T
2. F

Exercise 20-2: Male Reproductive


System (text Fig. 20-1A)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

kidney
ureter
urinary bladder
rectum
anus
peritoneal cavity
scrotum
testis
epididymis
ductus (vas) deferens
ampulla of ductus deferens
seminal vesicle
ejaculatory duct
prostate
bulbourethral (Cowper) gland
urethra
corpus spongiosum (penis)
corpus cavernosum (penis)
glans penis
prepuce

Exercise 20-3: Structure of the


Testis (text Fig. 20-1B)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

spermatic cord
artery
vein
nerve
seminiferous tubule

1. nourish the spermatozoa


2. transport the spermatozoa
3. neutralize the acidity of the male
urethra and the female reproductive tract
4. lubricate the female reproductive tract
during sexual intercourse
5. prevent infection

Exercise 20-7: Diagram of a


Human Spermatozoon
(text Fig. 20-4)
1. head
2. neck
3. midpiece
4. tail (flagellum)
5. acrosome
6. nucleus
7. mitochondria

Exercise 20-8
1. follicle-stimulating hormone;
luteinizing hormone
2. testosterone
3. luteinizing hormone
4. luteinizing hormone
5. testosterone; follicle-stimulating hormone
6. testosterone
7. follicle-stimulating hormone

Exercise 20-9: Female


Reproductive System
(text Fig. 20-6)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

broad ligament
ovarian ligament
ovary
maturing follicle
ruptured ovarian follicle
ovum
corpus luteum
fimbriae

235

236

Answer Key

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

uterine tube
fundus of uterus
corpus of uterus
cervical canal
cervix
vagina
rugae
Greater vestibular (Bartholin) gland

Exercise 20-10: Female


Reproductive System (Sagittal
Section) (text Fig. 20-9)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

peritoneal cavity
cul-de-sac
urinary bladder
urethra
rectum
anus
sacrum
pubic symphysis
ovary
uterine tube
uterus
round ligament
uterosacral ligament
cervix
posterior fornix
vagina
clitoris
labium minus
labium majus

Exercise 20-11: External Parts


of the Female Reproductive
System (text Fig. 20-10)
1. mons pubis
2. labium majus
3. labium minus
4. clitoris
5. vaginal orifice
6. urethral orifice
7. hymen
8. obstetrical perineum
9. anus

Exercise 20-12
1. seminal vesicle
2. prostate gland
3. epididymis
4. uterine tube
5. fimbriae
6. greater vestibular gland
7. ejaculatory duct
8. bulbourethral gland

Exercise 20-13
1. vestibule
2. fornix
3. endometrium
4. fundus
5. hymen
6. cervix
7. myometrium

Exercise 20-14: The Menstrual


Cycle (text Fig. 20-11)
1. FSH
2. LH
3. estrogen

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

progesterone
follicular phase
luteal phase
menstrual phase
proliferative phase
ovulation
secretory phase

9. results in the conversion of the follicle


into the
10. progesterone
11. stimulates the activity of the

Testing Your Knowledge


Building Understanding
I. Multiple Choice

Exercise 20-15
1. progesterone
2. estrogen
3. ovulation
4. follicle-stimulating hormone
5. corpus luteum
6. menstruation

Exercise 20-16
(answers could include the following)
1. the vaginal mucosa becomes thinner,
dryer, and more sensitive
2. hot flashes
3. insomnia
4. anxiety
5. atrophy of the uterine tubes, uterus,
vagina, and vulva

Exercise 20-17
1. birth control patch
2. IUD
3. diaphragm
4. condom
5. birth control ring
6. tubal ligation

Exercise 20-18
1. A hysterectomy removes the entire uterus,
but a myomectomy only removes myomas.
2. Hysterectoscopy examines the interior of
the uterus; the probe is inserted into the
uterine cavity via the vagina. Laparoscopy
examines the abdominal cavity (for
instance, the exterior of the uterus). The
probe is inserted into the abdominal cavity via an incision.
3. Myoma and fibroid are synonyms; they
both refer to a benign tumor of the uterine myometrium.

Exercise 20-19
1. acro-; acrosome
2. to carry: deferens
3. ov/o, ov/i; ovum
4. uterus; myometrium
5. semen, seed: seminiferous tubules
6. testis; testosterone
7. ovary: ovarian follicle
8. rectum: rectouterine pouch

Making the Connections


1. LH
2. stimulates the development of one or
more
3. estrogen
4. inhibits the release of
5. endometrium
6. is lost during
7. surge triggers
8. induces the formation and activity of the

1. b: O7
2. a: O6
3. d: O2
4. b: O2
5. a: O2
6. b: O7
7. d: O6
8. a: O6
9. c: O3

II. Completion Exercise


1. acrosome: O4
2. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH):
O5, O7
3. meiosis: O1
4. scrotum: O2
5. testosterone: O5
6. perineum: O2, O6
7. luteinizing hormone (LH): O7
8. urethra: O2
9. prostate gland: O2
10. circumcision: O2

Understanding Concepts
I. True/False
1. F: 2-5 mL: O3
2. T: O2
3. T: O6
4. F: meiosis: O1
5. F: perineum: O6
6. F: luteal phase: O7
7. F: estrogen: O7
8. T: O5

II. Practical Applications

GROUP A
1. myometrium
2. endometrium
3. cervix
4. fibroids
5. hysteroscope
6. hysterectomy
Learning Outcomes 7, 10

GROUP B
1. spermatozoa
2. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
3. interstitial cells
4. vasectomy
Learning Outcomes 4, 5, 9

III. Short Essays


1. In the ovary, the follicle is growing and
secreting increasing amounts of estrogen under the influence of FSH. In the
uterus, the endometrium is thickening
under the influence of estrogen.
Learning Outcome 8
2. Both spermatozoa and ova are produced by meiosis, but meiosis results in
four spermatozoa but only one mature

Answer Key

ovum. The ovum is larger and contains


more organelles than the spermatozoa.
Spermatozoa synthesis occurs throughout
life: ova synthesis does not.
Learning Outcomes 1, 2, 5, 7

Conceptual Thinking
1. The synthetic testosterone is inhibiting the
production of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary by a negative feedback loop.
These pituitary hormones are necessary for
maintenance of testicular size and function.
Learning Outcome 5
2. Both male and female gonads are regulated by the same anterior pituitary hormonesfollicle-stimulating hormone
(FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). In
both males and females, FSH affects the
development of the gametes. In males,
FSH acts on sustenacular cells, which
promote sperm development. In females,
FSH stimulates the development of the
ovarian follicle, which contains the ovum.
FSH plays a critical role in hormone
production in females, but not in males,
since the follicle produces estrogen.
Learning Outcomes 5, 8

Chapter 21
Development and Heredity
Addressing the Learning
Outcomes
Exercise 21-1
1. zygote
2. fetus
3. gestation
4. implantation
5. embryo
6. morula

Exercise 21-2
1. relaxin
2. human placental lactogen
3. human chorionic gonadotropin
4. placenta
5. chorionic villi
6. venous sinuses
7. chorion

Exercise 21-3: Fetal Circulation


(text Fig. 21-2)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

endometrium
capillaries
maternal blood vessels
venous sinuses
myometrium
descending aorta
umbilical arteries
umbilical cord
umbilical vein
liver
portal vein
ductus venosus
inferior vena cava
heart

15.
16.
17.
18.

foramen ovale
ductus arteriosus
left pulmonary artery
aortic arch

Exercise 21-4: Midsagittal Section of


a Pregnant Uterus (text Fig. 21-5)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

rectum
anus
urinary bladder
urethra
pubic symphysis
wall of uterus
placenta
umbilical cord
amniotic sac
amniotic fluid
fetus
cervix
vagina
perineum

Exercise 21-5
1. amniotic sac
2. ductus arteriosus
3. foramen ovale
4. vernix caseosa
5. ultrasonography
6. ductus venosus
7. umbilical vein
8. umbilical artery

Exercise 21-6
1. cortisol
2. oxytocin
3. prostaglandin
4. second stage
5. third stage
6. fourth stage
7. first stage
8. positive feedback

Exercise 21-7
1. P
2. O
3. O
4. P
5. O

Exercise 21-8: Section of the


Breast (text Fig. 21-9)
1. pectoralis major
2. adipose tissue
3. lobe of gland tissue
4. duct of lobe
5. lactiferous duct
6. areola
7. papilla

Exercise 21-9
(answers could include the following)
1. Breast milk is always sterile
2. Breast milk and colostrum contain
maternal antibodies
3. Breast milk contains the ideal concentration of nutrients and salt for human
babies.
4. Nursing brings emotional and psychological benefits to mother and child.

Exercise 21-10
1. F
2. T
3. T
4. T
5. F
6. T

Exercise 21-11
1. allele
2. recessive
3. homozygous
4. autosome
5. heterozygous
6. dominant

Exercise 21-12
1. G
2. P
3. P
4. G
5. P
6. G

Exercise 21-13
A

Exercise 21-14
1. F
2. T
3. F
4. T
5. T
6. T
7. F

Exercise 21-15
1. F
2. M

Exercise 21-16
1. S
2. S
3. A
4. A
5. S

Exercise 21-17
(answers may include the following)
1. environment
2. other genes
3. gender

Exercise 21-18
The Punnett square should resemble that
of Figure 21-11 (but with different letters).
The probability of a carrier is 50%.

Exercise 21-19
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

zyg/o; zygote
labor: oxytocin
chrom/o; chromosome
body; human chorionic somatomammotropin
to show; phenotype
aut/o-; autosomes
ox/y; oxytocin
heter/o; heterozygous
same; homozygous
membrane, chorion; human chorionic
gonadotropin

237

238

Answer Key

Making the Connections


MAP A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

nourishes the
is derived from an implanted
fetus
becomes a baby following
is partially initiated by
oxytocin
may require the inhibition of maternal
progesterone by
produces a hormone that relaxes joints
called
along with the embryo, secretes
corpus luteum
progesterone
endometrium (or uterine lining)
human placental lactogen
breasts
prepares these organs for lactation

MAP B
1. on autosomal chromosomes are found
in
2. determine the
3. helps determine the traits a person has,
or the
4. chromosomes
5. sex chromosomes
6. autosomes
7. contain genes determining
8. that always express their effects are
called
9. that only express their effect in a
homozygous pair are called
10. of genes with identical alleles are called
11. heterozygous
12. individuals for recessive traits are
called

Testing Your Knowledge


Building Understanding
I. Multiple Choice
1. d: O4
2. a: O3
3. c: O8
4. d: O12
5. b: O11
6. c: O2
7. b: O4
8. a: O1
9. c: O14

II. Completion Exercise


1. episiotomy: O4
2. limb buds: O4
3. lactation: O5
4. third stage: O4

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

identical twins: O4
uterine tube: O1
amniotic fluid: O2
X chromosome: O12
44: O11
meiosis: O11
25%: O8

Understanding Concepts
I. True/False
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

T: O4
F: second: O4
T: O4
T: O2
F: cortisol: O4
F: chorion: O2
T: O13
T: O12
F: heterozygous: O10
F: homozygous: O8

II. Practical Applications

GROUP A
1. human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
2. 4 weeks
3. ultrasonography
4. colostrum
Learning Outcomes 2, 4, 5

GROUP B
1. recessive
2. carriers
3. heterozygous
4. female
Learning Outcomes 8, 10, 12

III. Short Essays


1. Both hormones are produced by the
placenta and are thus present only in
pregnant women. The hormone hCG
is also produced in embryonic cells
prior to the formation of the placenta,
but hPL is not. hCG is similar in
structure to luteinizing hormone and
stimulates progesterone production by
the corpus luteum. The hormone hPL,
conversely, helps prepare the breasts for
lactation and modifies maternal metabolism to increase nutrient availability to
the fetus.
Learning Outcome 2
2. Lactation is the secretion of milk from
the mammary glands. Prolactin (PRL),
from the anterior pituitary, stimulates
cells in the mammary glands to produce milk. Oxytocin, synthesized in the
hypothalamus and secreted from the
posterior pituitary, stimulates the ejection,
or letdown, of milk in response to suckling. Progesterone and human placental

lactogen, secreted by the placenta, help


prepare the breasts for milk secretion.
Learning Outcome 5
3. Some traits that vary over a range of
values are skin and hair color, eye color,
height, and weight. These traits are
determined by more than one pair of
genes. Different gene combinations will
produce a range of appearances. This
form of heredity is described as multifactorial inheritance. These traits may also
be partially determined by factors such
as other genes, the environment, and
hormones.
Learning Outcome 14

Conceptual Thinking
1. The blood cell will leave the placenta
through the umbilical vein and travel
through the ductus venosus to the inferior
vena cava. It will enter the right atrium
and pass through the foramen ovale to
the left atrium and ventricle. The left
ventricle will pump the cell into the aorta.
The blood cell will pass through the fetal
tissues. Eventually, it will pass into
an umbilical artery to return to the
placental capillaries, where exchanges
will take place between the fetal and
maternal blood.
Learning Outcomes 2 and 3
2. Identical twins share the same genotype, or genetic makeup, because they
result from division of a single zygote.
However, genotype is not the only factor
that determines an individuals observable
traits and characteristics (the phenotype).
Prenatal and postnatal environment also
plays an important role. For instance,
the prenatal environment could differ
between twins if one twin received a
larger blood supply.
Learning Outcome 9
3. a. The heart pumps more blood, in order
to supply the fetus with the blood it
needs to bring nutrients and carry away
wastes.
b. The rate and the depth of breathing
increase in order to meet the increased
metabolic needs of the fetus.
c. Kidney activity increases to excrete the
nitrogenous wastes produced by the
fetus.
d. Bladder size decreases. This change is
necessitated by fetal growth.
e. Digestive efficiency increases, supplying more nutrients for fetal growth and
subsequent milk production.
Learning Outcome 4