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MODULE 2 Learning Journal / Notes

John Dalton published an explanation of why elements and non-elements differ from
each other. He called his idea the atomic theory
J.J. Thomson (18561940), a British physicist, discovered that atoms contained
smaller particles, which other scientists later called electrons.
Ernest Rutherford (18711937) had discovered the nucleusthe dense, positively
charged centre of the atom.
Niels Bohr (18851962), a scientist from Denmark, worked with Rutherford as a
Modern day atomic theory is based on the following principles:
1. All elements are made up of tiny particles called atoms.
2. Atoms of a given element are alike.
3. Atoms of different elements are different.
4. Chemical changes take place when atoms link up with or separate from, one
5. Atoms are not created or destroyed by chemical change.

Molecules are particles made up of two or more atoms. The atoms join or bond
together in different ways to create different types of molecules.

The elements are arranged in order of their atomic number.

There are seven rows going across the periodic table. These rows are called
The columns on the periodic table are called families or groups of elements.
Organization of Periodic Table

Elements are divided into three categories:

solids at room temperature (except mercury)

silver grey (except gold and copper)

good conductors of heat and electricity
shiny metallic luster


found in all states (solids, liquids, or gasses)

different colours
without metallic luster
not malleablethey break apart when they are hammered
not ductile
sometimes smelly


are solids
are sometimes shiny and sometimes dull
may conduct electricity
are poor conductors of heat
are not ductile or malleable.

All atoms like to have full electron shells.

An atom becomes an ion by losing or gaining electrons.
Metals like to form positive ions.
A sodium atom has 1 electron in its outermost shell. It gives up its electron to
become a positive ion.
Nonmetals like to gain electrons to form negative ions.
An atom of chlorine has seven electrons in its outer shell. Chlorine likes to
gain one electron to have a full shell with eight electrons

An element is a simple substance that cannot be broken down into simpler

A compound is a pure substance made of two or more elements joined together.

Naming of Ionic Compound
Writing formula of multivalent compounds
Compounds with Polyatomic ions
Physical change refers to a substance changes its state, appearance, or shape but
remains the same substance.
Chemical change takes place on the molecular level. A chemical change produces a
new substance.
Physical Change and Chemical Change
The kinetic molecular theory states:
all matter is made up of tiny particles
each pure substance has its own kind of particles
particles are always moving
particles are attracted to each other
particles that have more energy will move faster
Change of States