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FIJI GEOPHYSICS TRAINING WORKSHOP

Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics


(11 13 MARCH, 2009)

Linda Yuen and Peter Sinclair


Pacific HYCOS Project Officer and Project Advisor

SOPAC Technical Report 690


August 2009

Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

August 2009

DISCLAIMER
This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The
views expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European
Union.

SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

August 2009

CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................................................5
2. VENUE AND DATES ..................................................................................................................................5
3. TRAINERS ..................................................................................................................................................5
4. TRAINEES...................................................................................................................................................6
5. SCOPE .....................................................................................................................................................6
5.1

FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL CONCEPTS ................................................................................................6

5.2

DESIGNING A FIELD SURVEY .................................................................................................................9

5.3

FIELD PROCEDURES AND QUALITY CONTROL .......................................................................................10

5.4

WEATHER CONDITIONS TO NOTE .......................................................................................................10

6. NUKULAU SURVEY 12/03/09 ..................................................................................................................10


6.1

SUPERSTING ANALYSIS .....................................................................................................................11

6.2

EM-34 DATA .....................................................................................................................................11


6.2.1 At 20m spacing .......................................................................................................................12
6.2.2 At 10m spacing .......................................................................................................................12

6.3 BOREHOLE SALINITY PROFILING ..............................................................................................................13


7. DATA INTERPRETATION ........................................................................................................................14
8. COMPARISON WITH PREVIOUS INVESTIGATION ...............................................................................14
9. REFERENCES ..........................................................................................................................................15
10.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT............................................................................................................................15
ANNEXES
1 WORKSHOP SCHEDULE ...................................................................................................................16
2 SITE MAPS ..........................................................................................................................................16
3 WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS.............................................................................................................17
4 SPECIFICATIONS OF EQUIPMENT...................................................................................................20
EM-34 GROUND CONDUCTIVITY METER ........................................................................................20
SUPERSTING EARTH RESISTIVITY & IP IMAGING SYSTEM ..........................................................21
5 POWERPOINT PRESENTATION........................................................................................................23

SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

August 2009

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
EU-WF

European Union Water Facility

AGI

Advanced Geoscience Inc. (USA)

CSC

Commonwealth Science Council

EES

Earth and Environmental Science Division (USP)

GPS

Global Positioning System

HYCOS

Pacific Hydrological Cycle Observing System

LCD

Liquid crystal display

MNREM

Ministry of Natural Resources, Environment and Meteorology (Samoa)

MRD

Mineral Resources Department (Fiji)

SOPAC

Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission

USP

University of the South Pacific

SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

1.

August 2009

INTRODUCTION
In early 2009, SOPAC, through the support of the European Union Water Facility (EU-WF)
funded Pacific Hydrological Cycle Observing System or Pacific HYCOS Project, purchased earth
resistivity equipment SuperSting from Advanced Geosciences Inc (AGI) and the associated
EarthImager software to assist countries with ongoing assessment of groundwater resources.
A 3-day geo-resistivity training workshop was held at SOPAC from 11 13 March, 2009
to introduce participants to groundwater geophysical investigation techniques and equipment, in
particular the SuperSting system.
A geophysicist from AGI, USA was engaged to conduct the training. Case studies were also
provided to exemplify the application of equipment in different environments. Part of the training
included a full-day field trip out to Nukulau Island, a sand cay located just offshore from Laucala
Bay, Suva.
Due to the island's accessibility, it is often used as a training site for hydrogeological studies by
agencies such as SOPAC, Fiji's Mineral Resources Department (MRD) and the University of the
South Pacific (USP). The main equipment demonstrated included the SuperSting R1/IP Single
Channel Memory Earth Resistivity Meter and the EM-34 Ground Conductivity Meter.
The SuperSting system is able to provide accurate imaging of the resistivity or electrical
properties of earth materials providing insight into water table depths as well as water quality,
being used widely in groundwater exploration. Data collected from the field practical were
analysed using the EarthImager 2D and 3D software.
Twelve trainees from Samoas Water Resources and Meteorology Divisions, Fijis MRD, USPs
Earth and Environmental Science Division (EES) as well as SOPAC staff participated.
The Samoan trainees were invited to participate in order enhance their skills in engagement of
suitable techniques and equipment needs under Samoas current drilling and groundwater
monitoring programme. This specialised equipment will assist the Pacific HYCOS Project and its
member countries in carrying out groundwater investigation surveys.

2.

VENUE AND DATES


The 3-day workshop was held in Suva, Fiji from 11 13 March, 2009. The theory component was
given at the SOPAC Conference Room while the practical session involved a day trip out to
Nukulau Island, a sand cay located just offshore from Laucala Bay, Suva. The workshop
schedule can be found in Annex 1.
Nukulau Island is classified as a sand cay and is about 0.5 km long and 0.2 km wide (Maps can
be found under Annex 2). The island's proximity and accessibility has made it a preferred site for
hydrogeological studies undertaken by various agencies including SOPAC, Fiji Mineral
Resources Department and the University of the South Pacific. The first hydrogeological study on
Nukulau was undertaken in 1984 by the Commonwealth Science Council (CSC) Workshop on
Water resources of Small Islands (Prasad, 1985).

3.

TRAINERS
The supplier (AGI, USA) of the SuperSting system provided, as part of the purchase of the
equipment, the services of Dr Brad Carr, a geophysicist, to conduct a 3-day training workshop on
the background and operation of the equipment.
SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

4.

August 2009

TRAINEES
Invitations were sent out locally to Fijis Mineral Resources Department, the University of the
South Pacific and other SOPAC technical programmes. A special invitation was also extended to
Samoas Water Resources and Meteorology Divisions (both within the Ministry of Natural
Resources, Environment and Meteorology (MNREM)) as it was seen as a timely opportunity for
both agencies to benefit from this training with skills that could be acquired and applied to
Samoas drilling and groundwater monitoring programme. Three participants from Samoa, two
from MRD, one from USP and six from SOPAC made up the twelve participants that attended the
training. A list of participants is included as Annex 3.

5.

SCOPE
The main purpose of the training was to introduce participants to the general background of
resistivity and the functions and operation of the SuperSting System.
The trainer first provided presentations on basic concepts and principles in geo-resistivity and the
advantages of using resistivity for groundwater investigation studies over other geophysical
methods. The presentations also covered the design; preparation and planning for field surveys
such as the use of different electrode array under different ground conditions and quality control
in the field, as well as maintenance of the equipment.
A brief overview of the SuperSting System was given including the principles behind how it works
and what functions are available. Prior to the field trip, the functions of the associated AGI
EarthImager 1D, 2D, and 3D software were demonstrated using simulated data as part of the
theory session.
Included in the purchase of the SuperSting system, AGI will be providing online resources and
support available through the AGI website (www.agiusa.com). Access to this is restricted to
licensed users, however, can be made available upon request to Pacific HYCOS Project at
SOPAC.
During the field exercise on Nukulau Island, the EM-34 Ground Conductivity Meter, in addition to
the SuperSting System was demonstrated. Participants were taken through basic field techniques
and good practices in setting up, operating and packing up both systems. Specifications for both
sets of equipment are provided under Annex 4.
While on the island, 2 boreholes were located and basic measurements such as water level and
conductivity were conducted on one of them.
On the final day of the training, demonstration data collected using both sets of equipment were
analysed using the EarthImager 1D, 2D and 3D softwares as well as Microsoft Excel.
This section provides a brief review on the components covered during the 3-day training.

5.1

Fundamental Electrical Concepts


- Resistance is a characteristic of a certain path of an electrical current and should not be
confused with resistivity.
- Resistivity is a measure of how difficult it is to make an electrical current flow through of a
certain material.
- Conductivity is a measure of how easy it is to make an electrical current flow through of a
certain material.
SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

August 2009

Electrical Units and Relationships:


Resistance follows Ohms Law and is calculated with the equation: R = V/I
Conductivity is the reciprocal of resistivity ie. = 1/
Resistance is measured in Ohm ()
Resistivity is measured is Ohmmeter (m)
Conductivity is measured in mho/m
Resistivity of soil and rock is affected by:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Moisture content.
Dissolved electrolytes.
Porosity.
Temperature of pore water.
Resistivity of minerals.

Types of arrays that can be used to measure resistivity:


A

Wenner current and potential electrodes are


placed at equal distances from each other. Poor
lateral resolution but strong signal.

a = 2a

V
I

Schlumberger half the distance between the 2


potential electrodes must be at least 5 times
greater than the distance between the 2 current
electrodes.

s2 a2

4 V

a =
a
I

Dipole-dipole best resolution but poor signal to


noise ratio. The best way to ensure an acceptable
signal to noise ratio is to maintain n <= 8. This
array is excellent for multi-channel instruments.

a = n(n + 1)(n + 2)a

V
I

SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

a = 2n(n + 1)a

August 2009

Pole-dipole, AB > (5*AM) for less than 5% error.


Stronger signal than that of dipole-dipole, good
resolution, but difficult handling of the infinity
electrode in the field. The inverted resistivity
image may be asymmetric.

V
I

Pole-pole, AB > (20*AM) and MN > (20*AM) for


less than 5% error. Very strong signal, good
resolution, but difficult handling of two infinity
electrodes. A large MN may pick up plenty of
cultural, SP and telluric noise. Suitable for 3D
arrays.

a = 2n

V
I

Types of Electrical Resistivity & IP Surveys


1D Resistivity/ IP Sounding or Vertical Electrical
Sounding (VES)
1D assumes that the earth is layered. Arrays
commonly used include Schumberger and Wenner.

2D Resistivity/ IP Imaging
Data is collected along a straight line along the
surface of the ground and it is assumed that any
material on the 2D section has an infinite length in
the direction perpendicular to the section and that
any cross section parallel to it would look the same.

SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

August 2009

3D Resistivity/ IP Imaging
Data is collected on the ground surface in a
rectangular grid or in 3 or more boreholes lying on
different planes. It is possible to combine the 2
layouts. Also possible to combine several parallel
2D data sets to form a 3D one.

Time for a survey

5.2

Designing a field survey


1) Depth penetration is typically 15 20% of the total spread length (Schlumberger, dipole dipole). Therefore if requested depth of investigation is 40 m, estimate spread length to
40/0.15 = 267 m (Schlumberger and dipole-dipole).
2) Next decide electrode spacing. As a rule of thumb you can not see any objects smaller than
half the electrode spacing.
3) Select electrode array type.
4) Prepare and load command files.
5) Electrode preparation, instrument care metal stakes should only be 3 to 4 cm above ground,
cable should be coiled and uncoiled carefully to avoid tangling.

SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

Demonstration of stake layout

5.3

Proper handling of cables

Field procedures and quality control

5.4

August 2009

Avoid having metallic objects in the immediate vicinity of the survey layout as this could
cause interference with the signals. Take note of fixed metallic objects such as fences etc
as they would show up on the image as anomalies.
Contact resistance test.
Default instrument settings for a reasonably good data recording under most field situations.
Two measurements for each reading with deviation calculated.
The measurement automatically discarded if the deviation is above a preset threshold
value.
If the deviation is above an operator pre-set value, the instrument will repeat and try again.
Number of repeats is programmable.
Fast download to a lap-top computer with filter for bad data.
Quick check of field data, using the EarthImager for inversion in the field.
After completion of survey, follow the cable to remove stakes first and then remove the
cable after.

Weather Conditions to Note


a) Rain rain will not damage the equipment and electrodes, however, they cannot be
submerged in water. Rain percolated into the ground will create noise in the results and
therefore survey should be conducted at least a day or so after any heavy rain.
b) Blazing sun the liquid crystal display (LCD) panel may darken in the sun; however, there
is an LCD contrast key on the keyboard that can compensate this.
c) Thunderstorms surveys should not be conducted during thunderstorms and if already in
the middle of a survey, it should be interrupted and equipment removed from the field.

6.

NUKULAU SURVEY 12/03/09


SuperSting resistivity survey was setup across the island as indicated in Map 2 of Annex 3. A3 m
spacing was used between the electrodes and 56 electrodes were placed, which provided a cross
section of the island.
A dipole-dipole array type was used which was hoped to provide good resolution. On hindsight, it
was thought that a Schlumberger array would have been more useful in this situation.
The installation of the survey line commenced at 9:40 am and the survey was commenced at
10:45 am. The survey ran for approximately 3 hours, during which time monitoring bores were
located and EM34 equipment demonstrated.

Station
00
24
36
42
56

Latitude
S 180 10 23.5
S 180 10 25.8
S 180 10 26.3
S 180 10 26.9
S 180 10 28.3

SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

Longitude
E 1780 30 53.4
E 1780 30 54.3
E 1780 30 54.8
E 1780 30 55.4
E 1780 30 55.5

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Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

6.1

August 2009

SuperSting Analysis
The screenshots below show the raw data file and image in EarthImager 2D. Note that the
EarthImager software packages (1D, 2D and 3D) are protected and therefore need a USB
hardware key (dongle) to allow it to run.
The results from the survey using the EarthImager 2D are displayed with:

Measured apparent resistivity pseudosection;


calculated apparent resistivity psuedosection;
inverted resistivity section.

Raw data file viewed in plan text format.

The third image shows the results after inversion.

6.2

EM-34 Data
The tables and respective graphs, generated with MS Excel, below show results of the
demonstration using the EM-34.

SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

11

Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

August 2009

6.2.1 At 20 m spacing
Spacing

20 m

RX
station

Reading
distance
10
30
50
70
90
110
130
150

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140

Readings
Horizontal
Vertical dipole
dipole mS/ m mS/ m
95.2
97.3
71.1
66.7
66.4
60.6
59.8
57.8
60.5
66.7
68.1
45.7
65.4
48.8
53.2
62.2

Start

14:08

Location
Latitude
S180 10" 23.9'

Longitude
E1780 30" 53.7'

14:24

EM 34- 20m spacing

120

Conductivity (mS/m)

100

80

60

40

20

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

Distance (m)
Horizontal dipole mS/m

Vertical dipole mS/m

6.2.2 At 10 m spacing
Spacing

10 m

RX
station

Reading
distance

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

5
15
25
35
45
55
65
75
85
95

Readings
Horizontal
Vertical dipole
dipole mS/m
mS/m
47.8
81.3
29.9
8.5
29.1
40.8
26.5
36.4
26.8
37.7
27.4
36.1
25.6
36.9
22.6
33.3
21.9
28.9
24.1
32.7

SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

Start

14:38

Location
Latitude
S180 10" 23.9'

Longitude
E1780 30" 53.7'

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Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190

105
115
125
135
145
155
165
175
185
195

August 2009

29.9
35.6
35.5
27.1
20.5
18
19.1
27.6
63.9
132.3

35.9
36.4
37.6
30.6
24.9
23.9
25.4
41.2
62.2
0.5

15:03

180 10" 29.5'

1780 30" 55.6'

EM 34 - 10m spacing
140

Conductivity (mS/m)

120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

Distance (m)
Horizontal dipole mS/m

6.3

Vertical dipole mS/m

Borehole Salinity Profiling


Two monitoring boreholes were located on the island. The GPS locations were taken for both of
them and basic water quality parameters such as water level, temperature and conductivity were
conducted on one of them (Nuk_2 or BH87/13).

Borehole

Latitude

Longitude

Nuk_1 (BH87/15)
Nuk_2 (BH87/13)

S 180 10 23.9
S 180 10 25.6

E 1780 30 54.7
E 1780 30 54.9

Salinity profile for Salinity for Nuk_2 (BH87/13)


Depth to Water (m)
Total Depth (m)
EC (uS/ cm)
Temp (C)

2.01
21.59
3206
27.0

Depth (m)

EC (uS/ cm)

SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

Temp (C)
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Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00

7.

August 2009

12.9
15.4
15.1
15.1
15.4
15.1
14.6
15.1
15.1
15.1
15.1
15.3
15.1
15.6
15.7
15.7
15.2
15.4
15.3

26.7
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6

DATA INTERPRETATION
The data and analyses from the resistivity survey, borehole salinity profiling and the EM-34 were
reviewed.
Resistivity data obtained using the dipole-dipole array did not clearly reveal any freshwater lens.
Neither was this apparent from the results of both the EM-34 survey and the salinity profiling of
Nuk_2 (BH87/13). It is interpreted that the freshwater lens at the time of the survey was very thin
and that there is likely to have been a great deal of mixing of fresh and seawater as indicated in
the salinity profile of the borehole. In hindsight, it was considered by the trainer that a
Schlumberger array may have been a better choice. Unfortunately, this array was not run on the
day due to time constraints.
An anomaly was identified in the resistivity profile in the area below Electrode 42, some 126 m
along the survey line and indicated to be at a depth of approximately 10 m. This also correlated
with an anomaly picked up during the EM-34 survey at approximately the same location. The
anomaly has slightly higher resistivity and it is unclear what this represents, however it could
possibly relate to an artificial feature such as a concrete foundation or structure.
It is thought that re-running the survey towards the centre of the island where the lens may be
thicker or not as well mixed, and using a Schlumberger array, might improve the definition. It
would also be interesting to undertake the same survey line with different array types, including
the Schlumberger, to determine which arrays will be of more benefit in this situation.

8.

COMPARISON WITH PREVIOUS INVESTIGATION


One of the first geophysical studies on Nukulau was conducted in 1984 for the Commonwealth
Science Council (CSC) Workshop on Water Resources of Small Islands. A report summarising
the findings were written by V. Prasad (1985) where the study identified 3 layers/ zones the
surface layer, a high resistivity zone and the saline zone at the deepest. It was also interpreted
that the freshwater zone was masked by the highly resistive second layer. The result from that
investigation is included here as comparison to the outcome of the demonstration surveys
conducted during this training.
SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

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Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

August 2009

Methods
-

Offset-Wenner
Schlumberger

Equipment
-

ABEM Terrameter SAS 300

Resistivity (ohm-m)

Thickness (m)

Description

150 300

0.2 0.5

Superficial layer, shallow rooted


vegetation, decaying organic
matter.

500 1200

1.0 2.0

Dry, washed,
material.

40 50

5 10

Freshwater zone.

Base layer

Saline zone.

unconsolidated

(Table from Prasad, 1985)

9.

REFERENCES
1. Booth, S. K., 1989, Note BP47/6: Notes to accompany the fieldtrip to Nukulau on 29th June
1989, Fiji Mineral Resources Department.
2. Carr, B. J., 2009, Presentation: Resistivity and induced polarization, Advanced Geosciences,
Inc.
3. Gale, I. N. & Booth, S. K., 1993, MRD Hydrogeological Report 2: Hydrogeology of Fiji, Fiji
Mineral Resources Department.
4. Prasad, V., 1985, Preliminary Report on Geophysical Work on Nukulau Island, Fiji Mineral
Resources Department.
5. SOPAC, 2005, Final report on groundwater investigations: Makuluva Island, SE Viti Levu 12th
19th April 2005.

10.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
SOPAC would like to acknowledge the University of the South Pacifics School of Islands and
Oceans for making a boat available to transport participants to and from the demonstration site.
We would also like to thank the Mineral Resources Department for arranging with the Department
of Lands for permission to access to Nukulau Island for the day.

SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

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Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

ANNEX 1

August 2009

WORKSHOP SCHEDULE
FIJI GEO-RESISTIVITY TRAINING PROGRAMME (11 to 13 March 2009)

DAY 1 WEDNESDAY 11/03/09


Objective: Introduction to equipment and process and preparation for Nukulau field demonstration.
0800 1300
Resistivity Imaging (theory and practice) with case studies.
LUNCH
Discussion on use of equipment & software for field data collection, equipment
transportation & maintenance.
1400 1700
DAY 2 THURSDAY 12/03/09
DAY TRIP TO NUKULAU ISLAND

0800 1700

0800 1300

1400 1700

ANNEX 2

Bus departs SOPAC by 0800 to USP jetty and return by 1700. Please be at SOPAC
by 0745 and if going straight to USP, be at the jetty by 0800 (Packed lunches,
bottled water and refreshments will be brought along).
DAY 3 FRIDAY 13/03/09
Objective Analysis of Nukulau demonstration data.
Discussion and processing of data with the EarthImager software.
LUNCH
General discussions (methodology, equipment, acquisition, survey planning, etc.)
and question/ answer period.

SITE MAPS

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Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

August 2009

Map 1 Location of Nukulau Island from the USP jetty.

Map 2 Location of the SuperSting array (yellow line) for the geo-resistivity study and location of the 2 boreholes
(green markers).
ANNEX 3
WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS

SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

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Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

NAME
TRAINER
BRAD CARR

PHONE
PHONE: +1 (512) 3353338 x1023
FAX: +1 (512) 2589958

August 2009

ADDRESS

E-MAIL

ADVANCED GEOSCIENCES,
INC.
2121 GEOSCIENCE DR.
AUSTIN, TX 78726 USA.

Brad@agiusa.com

WATER RESOURCES
DIVISION
MINISTRY OF NATURAL
RESOURCES AND
ENVIRONMENT,
DEVELOPMENT BANK OF
SAMOA BUILDING,
SAVALALO, APIA, SAMOA.

amataga.penaia@mnre.gov
.ws

WATER RESOURCES
DIVISION
MINISTRY OF NATURAL
RESOURCES AND
ENVIRONMENT,
DEVELOPMENT BANK OF
SAMOA BUILDING,
SAVALALO, APIA, SAMOA.

lameko.simanu@mnre.gov.
ws

GEOLOGY SECTION,
METEOROLOGY DIVISION
MINISTRY OF NATURAL
RESOURCES AND
ENVIRONMENT,
PO BOX 3020
APIA
SAMOA

Lameko.Talia@mnre.gov.w
s

TRAINEES
MNRE SAMOA

AMATAGA
PENAIA

LAMEKO
ASORA

LAMEKO
TALIA

PHONE: +685 23800


FAX: +685 23176

PHONE: +685 23800


FAX:

PHONE: +685 23732/


20856/ 20996
FAX: +685 20857

MRD FIJI
PHONE: +679
3381611
FAX: +679 3370039

GROUNDWATER UNIT
MINERAL RESOURCE
DEPARTMENT, MEAD ROAD,
SUVA, FIJI

jonati@mrd.gov.fj

JONATI
RAILALA

PHONE: +679
3381611 x458
FAX: +679 3370039

GROUNDWATER UNIT
MINERAL RESOURCE
DEPARTMENT, MEAD ROAD,
SUVA, FIJI

tadulalajnr@mrd.gov.fj

MALAKAI
TADULALA

DIVISION OF EARTH AND


ENVIRONMENTAL
SCIENCES, SCHOOL OF
ISLANDS AND OCEAN,
FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY, UNIVERSITY
OF THE SOUTH PACIFIC,

ram_pr@usp.ac.fj

USP

PARSHU
RAM

PHONE: +679
3232697
FAX:

SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

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Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

August 2009

PRIVATE MAIL BAG, USP


LAUCALA CAMPUS, SUVA
FIJI
SOPAC
PHONE: +679
3381377
FAX: +679 3370040

OCEAN AND ISLANDS


PROGRAMME,
SOPAC
MEAD ROAD, SUVA

akuila@sopac.org

AKUILA
TAWAKE

PHONE: +679
3381377
FAX: +679 3370040

OCEAN AND ISLANDS


PROGRAMME,
SOPAC
MEAD ROAD, SUVA

avitesh@sopac.org

AVITESH
RAM

MALELI
TURAGABEC
I

PHONE: +679
3381377
FAX: +679 3370040

OCEAN AND ISLANDS


PROGRAMME,
SOPAC
MEAD ROAD, SUVA

maleli@sopac.org

PHONE: +679
3381377
FAX: +679 3370040

OCEAN AND ISLANDS


PROGRAMME,
SOPAC
MEAD ROAD, SUVA

robert@sopac.org

ROBERT
SMITH

PETER
SINCLAIR

PHONE: +679
3381377
FAX: +679 3370040

COMMUNITY LIFELINES
PROGRAMME, SOPAC,
MEAD ROAD, SUVA

peter@sopac.org

PHONE: +679
3381377
FAX: +679 3370040

COMMUNITY LIFELINES
PROGRAMME, SOPAC,
MEAD ROAD, SUVA

linda@sopac.org

LINDA YUEN

SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

19

Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

ANNEX 4

August 2009

SPECIFICATIONS OF EQUIPMENT

EM-34 GROUND CONDUCTIVITY METER

Main components of the EM-34 system

EM 34-3 Ground Conductivity Meter (Variable depth of exploration, to 60 m)

Accessories
-

Real-time (RT) modification for digital output signal (includes cable and DAT software)
DAS70-CX Data Acquisition System (Allegro CX field computer with 2X input connections,
including battery charger and cables)
IX1D v3 Inversion software for FEM data
Custom watertight shipping case

Manufacturer: Geonics Ltd, Canada.


Website: http://www.geonics.com/html/em34-3.html
Approximate cost of system: USD 40,000.00

SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

20

Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

August 2009

SUPERSTING EARTH RESISTIVITY & IP IMAGING SYSTEM

SuperSting setup in the field

Cable layout in the field


-

SuperSting R1/IP+56 memory earth resistivity/ IP meter w/ 56 electrode switch box built-in,
comprising items.
o SuperSting R1/IP+56 instrument console.
o Power supply for office use.

SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

21

Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
-

August 2009

AC power cable.
Cable for communication SuperSting/ Windows based computer.
Cable for loading firmware into the SuperSting.
Resistance test box.
Main battery cable, with boost battery take-out.
Booster battery cable.
Jumper cable, 2 meter, used to connect the Swift cable to the SuperSting or to connect
the test box to the SuperSting.
Kit of fuses.
Allen wrench 9/64.
SuperSting Administrator utility software.
SuperSting Instruction manual.
USB-Serial adapter Keyspan USA-19HS.

Passive electrical resistivity imaging cable with 14 take-outs at 6.25 m spacing and 3.5 mleadin and tail. Total of 56 electrodes (land cable only).
18 inch Stainless steel stake with stainless steel spring.
Heavy duty carrying case for shipping the SuperSting, protects the SuperSting during
transportation.
Carry harness for the SuperSting, protects the instrument against dirt and scratches during
measurement.
Field box for shipping Passive Electrode cables.
Field box for electrodes stakes.
AGI 2D & 3D EarthImager software, resistivity inversion, with one hardware key for USB
port dongle.
3-day Training on-site by AGI personnel.

Manufacturer: Advanced Geoscience, Inc (AGI), USA


Website: http://www.agiusa.com/supersting-r1.shtml
Approximate cost of system: USD 47,000.00
Additional equipment that may be required for use in the field

Hammer(s) for driving electrode pegs.


Bush knife for site clearing.
2 X deep cycle marine batteries (and battery charger for extended surveys).
Note book and or field sheets for recording survey details.
GPS for location of surveys.
Laptop computer for processing of data in the field.
Small tool kit, including pliers, multi meters, screw drivers, electrical tape.
Water container to improve contact resistance of electrodes.
2 X 100 m measuring tapes.
Compass.
Site plan and background information on ground conditions including geology,
groundwater studies, borehole locations and construction, previous geophysical surveys.
Personal safety equipment including, hat, sunscreen, rain gear, water, gloves, sunglasses
etc.

SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

22

Pacific HYCOS Project


Earth Resistivity and Electromagnetics, Nukulau, Fiji

ANNEX 5

August 2009

POWERPOINT PRESENTATION

SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 690 Yuen & Sinclair

23

Resistivity & Induced Polarization

Resistivity &
Induced Polarization

Outline:
6 Introduction
6 Advanced Geosciences, Inc.
6 Typical Applications for DC Resistivity
6 Typical Applications for Induced Polarization

Brad Carr, Ph.D.

6 Basic Electrical Concepts & Theory


6 Resistivity definitions
6 Conditions that affect resistivity in soil or rock
6 Typical ranges of resistivities for common materials
6 Common Surface Electrical Array types
6 Induced Polarization

12700 Volente Road


Austin, Texas 78726, USA
Phone: +1 512-335-3338, Fax: +1 512-258-8377
E-mail: sales@agiusa.com
Web site: http://www.agiusa.com

Copyright by Advanced Geosciences, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form
without written permission of Advanced Geosciences, Inc.

Resistivity & Induced Polarization

Resistivity & Induced Polarization

Outline, cont.:

Advanced Geosciences, Inc.

6 AGI Resistivity/IP Equipment and Survey Practices

6 Leading Developer & Manufacturer of Earth Resistivity// Induced

6 Types of Resistivity/IP Surveys


6 1D, 2D, 3D & 4D
6 Key Survey Design Considerations
6 Time lapse Data Inversion
6 SuperSting R8/IP, cable types, electrode stakes, software
6 Setting up for a field survey and field practices

Polarization (IP) equipment and software since 1989.

6 Primary instruments are:


6 SuperSting R8/IP, SuperSting R1/IP, or MiniSting for surface,
underwater or borehole data acquisition,
6 SuperSting R8 Marine for towed marine data acquisition,
6 SuperSting Remote for Time lapse Resistivity, IP or Self-Potential (SP)
data monitoring

6Case Histories

6 Primary software are the EarthImager series (1D, 2D, 3D) with add-in
modules for large Land or Marine datasets and Time lapse (4D) applications
6 Offices in Austin, Texas and Madrid, Spain
3

Resistivity & Induced Polarization

Resistivity & Induced Polarization

Why is Resistivity or Induced Polarization Imaging useful?


and what can the color/values really represent?

Photos and data courtesy of Triad Engineering, Inc.

Resistivity & Induced Polarization

Resistivity & Induced Polarization

Typical Applications for DC Resistivity:


6 Cavity and sinkhole detection
6 Geotechnical site characterization
6 Groundwater exploration
6 Lithologic mapping
6 Mineral exploration
6 Archaeological site investigation
6 Detection of free products of contaminant plumes.
6 Time lapse monitoring of remediation process such as steam
injection, air sparging, injection of various oxidants such as
hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4)
6 Time lapse monitoring of subsurface processes such as
groundwater recharge, infiltration, saltwater intrusion, tunneling,
and dam leakage

Resistivity & Induced Polarization

Resistivity of a certain material is a measure of how difficult it


is to make an electrical current flow through it.
Conductivity of a certain material is a measure of how easy it is
to make an electrical current flow through it.

Resistivity and conductivity are


physical properties of matter

Converting conductivity to resistivity:

ohms

Conductivity is the reciprocal of resistivity

Resistance is a characteristic of a certain path of an electrical


current and should not be confused with resistivity.

Resistivity & Induced Polarization

Electrical Units & Relationships:


V
Ohms law R =
I

Fundamental Electrical Concepts:

1442 S/cm = 0.1442 S/m

= 1/0.1442 = 6.9 meter

-Unit for resistance is Ohm


-Unit for resistivity is Ohmmeter
-Unit for conductivity is mho/m
1 Siemen (S) =1 mho

Practically conductivity is expressed as


millimhos/m = mS/m
9

Resistivity & Induced Polarization

10

Resistivity & Induced Polarization


Typical Ranges of Resistivities for common materials:

Resistivity of soil and rock is affected by:


1)
2)
3)
4)

Moisture (water) content, a dominant factor


Dissolved electrolytes
Porosity
Temperature of pore water (resistivity
decreases with increasing temperature)
5) Resistivity of minerals

11

Rock/material type: Resistivity range (m):


Igneous
100 1,000,000
Limestone
100 10,000
Sandstone
100 10,000
Sand (both dry & wet sand) 1 10,000
Gravel
100 10,000
Clay (including wet clay)
1 100
Alluvium
1 1,000
Soil
1 10
Drill mud, hydraul-EZ
4.5
Fresh water
10 100
Salt water
0.1 1
Copper (native)
0.0000002

12

Resistivity & Induced Polarization

Resistivity & Induced Polarization


Apparent resistivity
Apparent resistivity is a weighted average of the resistivities
under the four electrodes. If the ground is homogenous, the
apparent resistivity equals the true resistivity

When injecting a current from a point pole into a homogeneous


ground, the current flow outward in all directions forming equipotential surfaces. The equipotential surfaces form half spheres
in a homogeneous ground.

General formula for calculating


apparent resistivity
13

a =

2V
1

i
1 1 1 1

+
r1 r2 r3 r4

14

Resistivity & Induced Polarization

Resistivity & Induced Polarization

Wenner, highest signal to noise ratio,


a = 2 a

excellent vertical resolution but poor later


resolution, unable to take advantage of multichannels (only a single channel is used.

V
I

Schlumberger, AB/2 is 5 times more than


MN. It is similar to Wenner array. Unable to
take advantage of multi-channels (only a single
channel is used). Inverse Schlumberger may
use up to four channels.

s a

4 V
I
a


a =

Dipole-dipole, best resolution but poor

15

Resistivity & Induced Polarization


a = 2n(n + 1) a

V
I

16

Array type & electrode separation control image resolution//depth

Pole-dipole, AB > (5*AM) for less than


5% error. Stronger signal than that of
dipole-dipole, good resolution, but difficult
handling of the infinity electrode in the
field. The inverted resistivity image may
be asymmetric.

V
I

a = 2n

a = n (n + 1)(n + 2 )a

signal to noise ratio. The best way to ensure


an acceptable signal to noise ratio is to
maintain n <= 8. This array is excellent for
multi-channel instruments.

V
I

Pole-pole, AB > (20*AM) and


MN > (20*AM) for less than 5% error.
Very strong signal, good resolution, but
difficult handling of two infinity
electrodes. A large MN may pick up plenty
of cultural, SP and telluric noise.
17

18

19

20

The dam is leaking under the embankment in the karstic


limestone.

Resistivity survey at the


Amistad Dam

One of more than 15 concrete plugged holes, where water leaked out of the
dam.

The survey was performed


along the embankment on the
bottom of the almost dry dam

21

22

Conclusion:
Use the dipole-dipole array when the
highest resolution is required
Use the Schlumberger array in
case of electrically noisy conditions
which is often the case under low
resistive conditions such as
landfills and environmental sites
Use the Wenner array as a last
resort, or if you are mapping
basically horizontal layers

23

The profiles above are recorded with


three different arrays, keeping the
electrodes in the exact same position
24

Resistivity & Induced Polarization

Resistivity & Induced Polarization

Induced Polarization:

Typical Applications for Induced Polarization:

6 The induced polarization method makes use of the capacitive


action of the subsurface to locate zones where clay and
conductive minerals are disseminated within their host rocks.

6 Mineral exploration
6 Clay delineation
6 NAPL mapping (either LNAPL or DNAPL)
6 Landfill detection
6 Miscellaneous site characterization with metallic rich sediments
or groundwater.

6An exploration method involving measurement of the slow


decay of voltage in the ground following the cessation of an
excitation current pulse (time domain method) or low-frequency
(below 100Hz) variations of earth impedance (frequency-domain
method).

25

26

27

28

Resistivity & Induced Polarization


Causes of Subsurface Induced Polarization:
6 Membrane polarization
6 Anerobic NAPL degradation (interaction with clays)
6 Aerobic NAPL degradation (interaction with microbes)

IP for abandoned mine shafts

Induced Polarization
IP current transmission: ON+, OFF, ON-, OFF
Time cycles: 1 s, 2 s, 4 s and 8 s

Type of measurement:
Time domain chargeability measured in
six time slots and stored
in memory

6 A Resistivity & IP imaging survey was conducted in April. 2007 near Hibbing, MN
to help locate abandoned Taconite mine shafts under proposed highway projects.
29

Data courtesy of MNDOT

30

Resistivity & Induced Polarization

1D, 2D, 3D and 4D

Types of Electrical Resistivity & IP Surveys:

Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) in Schlumberger Array


A

1D Resistivity/IP Sounding or Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES)

0
200 Ohm-m

2D Resistivity/IP Imaging

5
8

Marine surveys in salt water or fresh water environments

10 Ohm-m
500 Ohm-m

17
Depth (m)

Borehole to borehole imaging (ERT)


3D Resistivity/IP Imaging

100 Ohm-m

1D assumption: layered earth, = (z)

Resistivity/IP or Self-Potential (SP) Monitoring


(i.e. Time-lapse surveys or 4D surveys)

Common Array Types: Schlumberger and Wenner


31

Copyright by Advanced Geosciences, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form
without written permission of Advanced Geosciences, Inc.

32

1D, 2D, 3D and 4D

1D, 2D, 3D and 4D


AGI EarthImager 1D - 1D Resistivity Data Inversion

33

6 A 2D dataset is collected with electrodes installed (1) along a


straight line on the ground surface or (2) within a vertical plane for
a mixed surface-borehole dataset.
6 2D assumption: any material on a 2D section would have an
infinite length along the (strike, y) direction normal to the section,
and any cross section parallel to the imaging section would look
exactly the same. A round object on a 2D section would be an
infinitely long cylinder. Mathematically earth resistivity distribution
is a function of (x, z), i.e.,
= (x, z). A 2D inversion program
can never invert a 3D dataset.
6 Processing of a 2D data set produces a cross section of subsurface
resistivity distribution.
6 The point source (an electrode) used in resistivity surveys produces
a 3D electric field, so a 2D modeling problem is sometimes referred
as 2D3D or 2.5D problem.

34

1D, 2D, 3D and 4D

1D, 2D, 3D and 4D


AGI EarthImager 2D
Resistivity and IP inversion software

A 2D survey can be done:


6 on the ground surface
6 cross boreholes
6 with mixed surface and borehole
electrodes
6 with underwater electrodes
6 with an electrode streamer for continuous
resistivity profiling on the water
6 on the ground surface with topography
35

36

1D, 2D, 3D and 4D

1D, 2D, 3D and 4D

2D Continuous Resistivity Profiling (CRP)


2D Underwater Resistivity Imaging: an offshore zone of freshwater discharge

Freshwater lens

beach.stg
Fine quartz sand
Limestone

Freshwater Spring?

Data courtesy of Jason Greenwood and Peter Swarzenski at the US Geological Survey in St. Petersburg, Florida.
Data courtesy of Ocean Earth Technologies, Palm Harbor, Florida.

37

1D, 2D, 3D and 4D

38

1D, 2D, 3D and 4D


A 3D dataset is collected with electrodes installed (1) on the
ground surface in a rectangular grid or (2) in three or more
boreholes which are not within the same plane. Mixed surface
and borehole electrodes which are not within the same vertical
plane are also a 3D layout.
3D inversion has no restriction on electrical resistivity
distribution in the earth. It can handle a medium with an
arbitrarily 3D resistivity distribution. = (x, y, z). However
there is one hidden assumption in 3D inversion: the earth
material is isotropic.
Processing of a 3D data set produces a volume image showing
3D subsurface resistivity distribution.

2D Resistivity Imaging with Topography

Transformed finite element mesh fits the topography.

39

1D, 2D, 3D and 4D

40

1D, 2D, 3D and 4D

AGI EarthImager 3D
Resistivity Data Inversion Software

Electrodes are laid out in a rectangular grid on the ground surface


41

42

1D, 2D, 3D and 4D

1D, 2D, 3D and 4D


A 4D application is multiple 3D surveys in a sequential order
with the same electrode layout and the same command file.
The earth resistivity is a function of spatial coordinates and
time: = (x, y, z, t).
Typical applications:
Monitoring of environmental remediation such as steam injection or
air-sparging.
Monitoring of salt water intrusion in an coastal area
Monitoring of underground tunneling activities along a border or a
building.
Monitoring leakage of underground storage tank.
Monitoring effect of ocean tides on the coastal area.
Monitoring earth dam leakage
43

1D, 2D, 3D and 4D

44

1D, 2D, 3D and 4D

4D Time Lapse Inversion in AGI EarthImager 3D Software

4D Time Lapse Monitoring


Water Infiltration Experiment at Socorro, New Mexico

6 The base data is inverted


in a standard approach.
6 One or more monitor data
sets are inverted in a
sequential order.
6 If three or more monitor
data sets exist, an AVI movie
file showing temporal
resistivity changes is created
and played at the end of time
lapse inversion.

Day 1

~
~
~
~

Day 12

Day 28

Day 51

46

Survey Design Electrode Spacing


~

Electrode spacing
Depth of investigation
Slide-along vs. roll-along
3D electrode layout

Copyright by Advanced Geosciences, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form
without written permission of Advanced Geosciences, Inc.

Day 5

Data courtesy of Department of Energys Office of Energy Research, Environmental


Science Management Program under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

45

Survey Design

Day 2

47

Electrode spacing should 2 ~ 4 times of the dimension of the


target. By default, the model block width is half of the
electrode spacing, i.e., two divisions between two electrodes.
A smaller electrode spacing leads to a higher model resolution.
The resolution is about half of the electrode spacing, but it can
be better in the region near an electrode.
For the same number of electrodes, a larger electrode spacing
would lead to a larger depth of penetration.

48

Slide-along vs Roll-along

Survey Design Depth of Investigation


~

The depth of investigation depends on the largest array span during


the survey but not the length of a survey line. Roll-along wont
increase the depth of investigation.
~ With the same number of electrode and the same electrode spacing,
the pole-pole array has the largest penetrating depth.
~ As a rule of thumb, the penetrating depth is about 15% ~ 25% of the
largest array length for any four-electrode array. An actual field
survey design should be more conservative and the object of concern
should be at 10~15% of the largest array length.
~ The max depth on the inverted resistivity section is determined by the
median depth defined by L.S. Edward (1977) and a depth factor.
~ The actual depth of penetration also depends on subsurface resistivity
distribution. A conductive overburden often decreases the penetrating
depth dramatically.
~ The depth of investigation also depends
h
on the ratio of the object depth h to its
dimension (diameter d). The maximum
ratio is around 5.0.
d

49

Slide-along vs Roll-along

Slide-along: The entire cable slides forward. Subsections B and C are sampled with the same
command file as that of Subsection A.

Disadvantage: Zones 1 & 2 are sampled twice unnecessarily. Zones 3 and 4 are missing a large number
of data points. A slide-along survey is slow with compromised model resolution at the bottom.

Roll-along: Part of the cable (<= 25%) is rolled over. Subsections B and C are sampled
with an automatically reduced command file of Subsection A.

Advantages: No duplicate measurements, fewer missing data points. A roll-along survey is faster than a
slide-along survey and has a better model resolution at the bottom of the section.

In the roll-along mode, AGI SuperSting automatically skips the data points already sampled.

50

Slide-along vs Roll-along
3D Roll-along: move even number (2, 4, 6, ) of lines at a time.

2D Roll-along: Move one-quarter (1/4) of a cable at a time


Address Table in SuperSting
1 - 28
29 - 56

Layout out even number of


lines of cables

Address Table in SuperSting


1-7
8 - 14
15 - 21
22 - 28

3D roll along surveys can also be done along Y direction


51

Do 3D Surveys in a Right Way

Survey Design 3D Line Spacing

True 3D: Lay out many electrodes in a rectangular grid at


the same time and create a command file with cross-line
measurements.
3D Roll Along: Lay out at least four lines (4, 6, 8, ) of
electrodes and roll over an even number (2, 4, 6, ) of lines
at a time.
Quasi 3D: Collect multiple 2D data sets along parallel
survey lines. Lines_Spacing <= 2 * Electrode_Spacing.
Combine multiple 2D data sets into a single 3D data set for
3D inversion. EarthImager 3D has a utility for Combine
Parallel 2D Lines.

a
2a

52

2a

Line spacing <= 2 * Electrode spacing


53

Xianjin Yang and Mats Lagmanson, Comparison of 2D and 3D resistivity imaging methods, presented at the SAGEEP,
April 2 6, 2006, Seattle, WA

54

55

56

Resistivity & Induced Polarization


6 Injection electric current ranges from 1mA to 2A.
A current lower than 10mA often produces noisy data. A
marine survey in saltwater injects more than 1A electric current.
An resistivity imaging system is usually powered by one or two
12V batteries.

6 Measured voltages range from a few microvolt's to tens of


volts. A measured voltage less than 0.1mV is often noisy, but
marine data may be an exception due to its less noisy
environment.
6 Subsurface resistivity is a function of medium lithology,
water content/saturation, porosity, pore fluid chemistry,
temperature and so on.
57

58

Resistivity & Induced Polarization

Resistivity Imaging

Multielectrode cable with


Single vs. Multi Channel Instrument:

Time for a survey:

Single channel
instrument
SuperSting R1/IP

28 Electrodes
Array

8-channel
instrument
SuperSting R8/IP

# of
points

56 Electrodes

Time
SS R1

Time
SS R8

# of
points

Time
SS R1

Time
SS R8

84 Electrodes
# of
points

Time
SS R1

Time
SS R8

Wenner

117

18 min

18 min

495

1.3 hr

1.3 hr

1134

3.0 hr

3.0 hr

Schlumberger, inv.

171

27 min

9 min

842

2.2 hr

37 min

1068

2.8 hr

48 min

Dipole-dipole

237

37 min

7 min

762

2.0 hr

26 min

1453

3.8 hr

57 min

Pole-pole

378

59 min

9 min

1540

4.0 hr

34 min

3486

9.1 hr

1.2 hr

Calculated using 1.2 sec. measurement time and two stacks at each station
59

60

Software:

Planning of a field survey 1-2-3

EarthImager 2D

1. Depth penetration is typically 15-20% of the total


spread length. Therefore if requested depth of
investigation is 40 meter, estimate spread length to
40/0.15=267 meter
2. Next decide electrode spacing. As a rule of the thumb
you can not see any objects smaller than half the
electrode spacing.
3. Select electrode array type

EarthImager 3D

61

62

Use of different electrode arrays

a = n(n + 1)(n + 2 )a

V
I

s2 a2

4 V
a =
I
a

Use of different electrode arrays

Dipole-dipole array
Depth penetration approximately
15% of total spread length before
roll-along
Good lateral resolution
Looses signal quickly

a = 2a

Schlumberger array
Depth penetration approximately
20% of total spread length before
roll-along
Reasonably good lateral resolution
Good signal strength

Wenner array
Depth penetration approximately
30% of total spread length before
roll-along
Poor lateral resolution
Strong signal

V
I

Pole-pole array
Deepest penetration
Smeared image
Suitable for 3D surveys

a = 2n

V
I

63

64

Create a command file using the Administrator software,


then run the Survey Planner in the EarthImager software

Roll-along

Cable #1

(Layout 1)

Cable #2
Cable #2

(Layout 2)

Cable #1

Wenner depth (a-spacing)

Cable #1

65

10

15

WROLL1

20

25

30

WROLL2

35

Cable #2

(Layout 3)
40

45

50

55

WROLL3

-5

-10

66

Estimate time for a survey


How will weather conditions effect my survey?
Rain
The instrument and the electrodes are weather proof , meaning that
they can be out in the rain. However they can not be submerged
into water.

Estimate time for a survey

Heavy rain will affect your survey negatively. After a rain storm,
surface water will percolate down into the ground. When water
moves through soil, streaming potentials are created and these will
be recorded by the instrument resulting in an noisy image of
characteristic look. Therefore try to wait for a day after a heavy
rain storm.

67

Cold weather
The instrument will work well below 0C. However around 0C
the LCD screen becomes sticky and changes of display happens
slower and slower the colder it is. Around -10C the LCD will
stop working. Therefore if you are planning to work in colder
weather you will need to somehow warm the Sting. The smart
electrodes work well down to at least -20C.
Hot weather
We regularly use the SuperSting system without problem during
the hot Texas summer when temperatures approaches 40C.
Blazing sun
Some instruments have an LCD which will darken in the sun.
Our display is a special high quality type and will not darken
easy, however should that happen it can easily be compensated
69
by using the LCD contrast key on the key board.

68

Snow and ice


Snow and ice is highly resistive but does not affect the
measurement in any other way. Actually the resistivity method
works well for mapping permafrost.
Thunderstorms
Thunderstorms are dangerous both for you and the equipment.
The instrumentation contains sensitive CMOS circuitry and can
be destroyed by nearby lightning. For yourself it is not a good
idea to stand at the end of a long conductive cable during a
thunderstorm.
Thunderstorms typically move very quickly and it takes some
time to pick up the equipment, therefore it is time to interrupt the
survey and pick up the equipment when you first hear the
thunder in the distance.

70

Electrode preparation

Pick up the cable every night!

Get the electrode stakes


in deep. Crossbar should
only be 3-4 cm over ground
Wet the ground around
the stake with some
water.
Some salt in the water
will improve contact to
ground

Typical deer chew

If the ground consists of sand and gravel it may be difficult to


get a good contact to the ground. Then dig a hole and fill
with a mixture of water and bentonite (or use local mud),
place the electrode stake in the mud.
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Electrode preparation

Picking up the stakes without loosing any


Pick up the stakes before you pick up the cable

At this particular station the electrode position was outcropping crystalline


rock. By using some absorbent material (diaper) soaked in salt water
the moisture was kept in place during the survey. The instrument was able
to send out 20 mAmp through this electrode

Follow the cable and picking


up the stakes is easy

Once the cable is gone it is


difficult to find the stakes

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Quality control in the field


Inverting the data using the EarthImagerTM software
Contact resistance test
Default instrument settings for a reasonably good data recording
under most field situations
Two measurements for each reading with deviation calculated
The measurement automatically discarded if the deviation is
above a preset threshold value
If the deviation is above an operator pre-set value the instrument
will repeat and try again. Number of repeats is programmable
Fast download to a lap-top computer with filter for bad data
Quick check of field data, using the EarthImager for inversion
in the field

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Resistivity & Induced Polarization

Influence of metallic objects on the survey


Influence from wrought iron fence
which is parallell to the surveyline

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Two open gates forms high resistivity


anomalies along the survey line

Case Histories
Presentation: Inverted resistivity section, "true resistivity"
Survey date: December 11, 1997
Survey site: New Delhi
Instrument: Sting/Swift, 28 electrodes at 4 meter spacing
Array:
Schlumberger
Units:
Meter and Ohmmeter

The wrought iron fence is hidden


inside the hedge

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By removing all
resistivities below 2700
Ohmmeter, the
approximate extent of
the gypsum body could
be displayed.
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Levee Study
6Conducted 2D resistivity surveys along two parallel
lines at different sections of a levee (one on crest and the
other on the toe) south of New Orleans, LA .
6 Each profile consisted of 112 electrodes along each
line at 2 m (~ 6 ft) electrode spacing. The total profile
length was ~1600 ft. Data was collected with a
SuperSting R8/IP and processed with EarthImager-2D

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PWO4-49U

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Summary

PWO4-49U

Electrical

resistivity imaging methods were


effective in delineating sand dominated
sections of the levee as well as areas where
peat underlies the levee.
Sand dominated sections are seen as breaks
in the resistive anomalies
Peat zones display a thickening of low
resistive zones at the base of the levee

PWO4-49U

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Sinkhole Investigation

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Sinkhole Investigation

6 An energy company plans to construct a power transmission


line in a karst area.
6 A utility pole should NOT be installed near or above a sinkhole
to avoid potential collapse and disturbance of endangered species.

Sinkhole edge

Sinkhole edge

Unweathered limestone
or air-filled void

Installation of a utility pole

Sinkhole investigation site in San Antonio, Texas

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Cave Detection

6 28 electrodes at 2.13m (7ft) electrode spacing


6 213 data collected with the dipole-dipole array
6 The sinkhole shows about one (1) meter ground subsidence
6 The lower ground of the sinkhole provided rooms for moisture
accumulation that resulted in a low resistivity anomaly

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Cave Detection
Known air-filled cave

A photo showing the entrance to a known cave

New cave

6 28 electrodes at 1.52m (5ft) electrode spacing


6 238 data collected with an extended dipole-dipole array
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Active Fault Study

Active Fault Study


6 Active faults are often seen in the coastal area of the
Gulf of Mexico.
6 The active fault moves a few inches per decade.
6 Conducted 2D resistivity surveys along three parallel
lines.
6 Laid out 28 electrodes along each line at 6.1m (20 ft)
electrode spacing and 22.85m (75 ft) line spacing.

Hockley
Fault
Location

Location of Hockley Fault in Houston, Texas

Road cracks caused by the active Hockley Fault

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Summary

Active Fault Study


W

Major Cracks

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Electrical

L-4

The low resistivity


at the downthrown
side is due to
increased clay and
moisture contents.

L-5

resistivity imaging methods were


effective in delineating a sinkhole, locating a
known cave and tracing an active fault.
A sinkhole is shown as a conductive
anomaly on top of a very resistive object
which may be either unweathered limestone
or an air-filled void.
A known air-filled cave produced a resistive
anomaly.
The active Hockley fault is characterized by
a resistivity contrast with conductive soils at
the downthrown side.

L-6
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Road Subsidence Investigation

Proposed Highway Realignment

6A resistivity imaging survey was performed along the inslope of an


embankment. It mapped lithology below the pavement and identified organic
deposits which caused road subsidence.
Data courtesy of MNDOT

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6A resistivity imaging survey was conducted in Nov. 2006 near Brainerd, MN


to help evaluate the subsurface adjacent to a proposed highway realignment.
The survey mapped a large zone of peat/organics below the area.
Data courtesy of MNDOT

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Site Characterization

Time Lapse Data Inversion


6 Time Lapse inversion
features can be found in both
EarthImager 2D and
EarthImager 3D
6 The Time Lapse Inversion
feature can be found from the
menu Inversion | Time Lapse
Inversion.

6 A resistivity imaging survey was conducted in Oct. 2006 near Orono, MN to


help evaluate the subsurface and find load bearing material for a land bridge.
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Data courtesy of MNDOT

SuperSting Remote Monitoring System (SSRMS) is


designed for unattended monitoring applications. The electrodes can be
installed at the surface and/or in boreholes. The SSRMS system is a
network-aware system and can send data, notification and error warning
automatically via email from the remote server to any email address.

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Water Infiltration Monitoring

Water Infiltration Monitoring

J
G

Day 1

J
E

Day 33

Day 9

-80 -40
Socorro-New Mexico Tech Vadose Zone Facility, New Mexico, USA

Data courtesy of US Department of Energys Office of Energy Research,


Environmental Science Management Program under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Xianjin Yang, 1999, Stochastic Inversion of 3D ERT Data, PhD thesis, the University of Arizona

40

80

Percent Difference
of Conductivity,

Day 68
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Day 133

Infiltration started on
3/11/1999 (Day 0)

Xianjin Yang, 1999, Stochastic Inversion of 3D ERT Data, PhD thesis, the University of Arizona

100

Monitoring of Steam Injection


Rising temperature caused soil electrical conductivity to increase.
2/18/99

2/23

3/5

3/25

Depth (m)

Minford
5

Upper Galia

10

Sunbury

15

Berea
Sandstone

20

12m
-100

-50

50

100

Thank you.

Cross-borehole
Electrical Resistivity
Tomography (ERT)

Percent Change (%) in Conductivity


Steam enhanced remediation at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant was funded by US DOE and conducted by
SteamTech Environmental Services under subcontract to Bechtel Jacobs Co LLC.

3D resistivity imaging demonstration at SAGEEP 2005, Atlanta, Georgia


LaBrecque, D.J., and Yang, X., 2001, Difference Inversion of ERT Data: a Fast Inversion Method for 3-D in Situ
Monitoring, Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics (JEEG), Vol 6, Issue 2, pp. 83-89.

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