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2. Explain the principles of effective communication or guidelines to overcome barriers to Communication.

All types of barriers may not arise in all organisations. Organisational barriers arise due to wrong organizational structure. Language barrier arises in organisation where people are of different educational background and hailed from different regions. However, the following are some of the measures towards overcoming barriers to communication.

1. Orientation

All the employees in the organisation should be given orientation. They should be provided with all necessary information relating to the objectives, policies, procedures, organisational

structure etc, This avoids conflicts, communication gap and misunderstanding.

2. Suitable Language:

Using proper and appropriate language and tone definitely minimises linguistic barriers to communication. Communication is rejected for a simple reason that it is not understandable.

Use of technical terms should be avoided and the message should be direct, simple and in meaningful language. Different people perceive the message differently. The manager must use common language to avoid semantic distortions.

3. Good Listening

Empathetic listening or improving good listening habits by the receiver should be cultivated.

The recipient or receiver of communication has equal responsibility to understand in the same sense as meant by the communicator. If the message is without empathetic listening. response and reaction are not possible. Effective two-way communication is possible with good listening.

4. Use of Grapevine

Strategic use of informal communication or grapevine is permitted. In the communication network grapevine has equal important place is an essential part of an organisation's communication. The manager can- not ignore grapevine as it exists in spite of a number of limitations. In a number of occasions information should be transmitted only through grapevine. Therefore, strategic use of informal organization will go a long way in improving

effective communication.

Communication through actions and deeds is the principle of effective communication. A message is one to be acted upon. Otherwise, it tends to distort the current and also the subsequent messages from the manager. Actions and deeds often speak louder than words. A meaning to message is achieved only when it is acted upon it accordingly. Action and words must go together. The acts of superior should not differ from what he says.

6. Clarity

As pointed out earlier effective communication is vital to successful management, every communication should have the skills to have clarity of message. The greater task is on the part of the sender of the message to achieve clarity. The message must be as clear as possible in the mind of the sender what he wants to communicate. Effective communication is possible only if the message is clearly formulated in the mind. The subject matter should be encoded in 1he direct and simple language. The purpose of communication is to make the recipient to understand the message, this is possible with clarity of communication.

7. Knowing the Receiver

The importance of understanding the receiver and needs of the receiver cannot be overlooked.

The message content is to meet the needs of the receiver. The information should be of value to the receiver in the present needs as well as in the long run. Sender of the message is to have full knowledge about the receiver, his capabilities, background, level of intelligence, social climate, receptiveness, temperament and attitudes etc.

8. Inter-Personal Relationship

Developing proper inter-personal relations is more helpful in over coming barriers to communication. In the organisation there must be good relations between different people. Lack of co-operative activity among the people may result in non-accomplishing the dignity, individuality of the subordinates and always be kind and sympathetic tothem.

3. Explain the common barriers of Communication.

The word barriers means hindrances or hurdles or difficulties or problems. Barriers. with reference to communication implies hurdles or problems on the way which adversely affect the transmission of information from the sender to the receiver. The way is not smooth and clear. There are many problems on the way leading to misunderstanding or non-reaching the message to the receiver. Sometimes barriers tend to distort the message and create frictions

among the organizational members and also adversely affect morale of the employees as well as are injurious to team-work. Some other reasons may be responsible for complete breakdown in communica1ion. A large number of organisational problems are the causes for faulty communication. It is necessary to understand communication barriers so that workable steps can be taken to remove them for effective communication.

1. Organizational Barriers These barriers arise when duties and lines of authority are not clearly defined. They arise on account of distance communication, more layers of communication, lack of instructions, heavy communication load etc. The various types of organisational barriers are as follows:

a) Policy: Broad objectives and policies of the organisation are laid down by the top

management. They are broad guidelines for everyone in the organization to follow. They change behaviour of the receiver. Policy is generally in writing. If the policy is not supporting the flow of communication, vertically and horizontally, it acts as hurdle in the smooth flow of communication.

b) Rules and Regulations: Formal communication should follow the path to flow the

communication. Organizational rules and regulations sometimes work as obstacles for transmitting message. They prescribe rigidly in the message to be communicated as well as "the channel to be followed and through which alone the communication must move. The

rules are so rigid and formal that they restrict the free flow of communication and result in delay in decision-making process and action.

c) Status and Position: In a tall network and flat network there are many officially

designated positions in the organization structure. It, by its nature, creates a number of status

levels. In two way communication status and position block the flow of communication particularly in upward flow. The reasons are non-listening attitude of the superior, non- answering and interpreting as well as withholding information etc. The superior-subordinate relationship and interaction is not smooth always. Thus status and position relationship also act as a powerful barrier.

d) Complex organization: Complexity in organization structure is also equally a serious

problem in the smooth flow of communication. Complexity in organization structure is a common feature in most of the big enterprises. The organizational structure has an important

influence on the capacity of the embers to communicate. Complexity involves many layers of supervision, long distance, more lines, communication gap organizational distance between the workers and the top management. This is also a barrier for effective communication.

e) Facilities: The management in every organisation must provide minimum facilities to

handle message load and to communicate effectively. Facilities like typing pool, media, mechanical instruments, communication carriers, cost, etc. Organisational facilities are 'indispensable for smooth, proper and a timely flow of communication. The purpose of the communication is defeated if minimum facilities for transmitting message are not provided.

2. Semantic Barriers

Problems of language are called semantic barriers. Semantic barriers arise on account of

linguistic background and ability of the communicator.

a) Badly Expressed Message: The basic essential of an effective communication is clarity

and precision. The absence of clarity and precision in the subject matter of communication

results in badly ex- pressed message. The common causes for lack of clarity and precision are using unfamiliar words and complex words, jargon, using superfluous words, lack of unity and coherence use of unnecessary prepositions, adjec- tives and adverbs lack of simplicity longer sentences, poor language, poor construction of sentences etc.

b) Faculty Translations: The message is always an abstract and intangible requires to use

certain symbols. Transmitting and receiving of information is a continuous process of

communication in which transmitters and receivers of message function. Encoding process translates ideas. facts, opinions, feelings into words, symbols, action, pictures and audio- visual media. Every communicator receives various types of communication from superiors, peers, subordinates and he must translate information destined for subordinates, peers, and superiors into language suitable to each. Hence the message should be encoded into a set of symbols or words understandable to the receiver. Koontz and Donnell say that it must be put into words appropriate to the framework in which the receiver operates, or it must be accompanied by an interpretation which will be understood by the receiver. So faulty translation is a barrier on the way to effective communication.

c) Unclarified Assumptions: Assumptions or propositions are bound to be there in message

transmission Koontz and Donnell often overlooked but critically important are the uncommunicated assumption, which underline practically all messages. Certain implied things cannot be interpreted by the receiver correctly. Even though a message is specified., the unclarified assumptions may not be clear to the receiver. It may lead to delay in decision-

making, loss of goodwill and taking no action.

3. Personal Barriers

a) Regard and Attitude: The regard and attitudes of the superiors towards subordinates in

connection with communication may affect the flow of message both in vertical and

horizontal directions. This particularly adversely affects in case of oral communication. To mention face-to-face contacts it is more serious nonlistening attitude of the superiors desire to keep or withhold message etc. They feel responding subordinates will lower down their prestige. So this is a serious barrier.

b) To Maintain Authority: Fear of challenge of authority is a barrier in the flow of

communication. It is the general preference of human beings to maintain prestige and status to satisfy ego and strategy. Managers often under-rate the understanding and intelligence of the subordinates. They often reason to withholding information partly or wholly coming the

line or downward communication or going up or upward communication. People generally resist as frequent passing of information may disclose their weakness.

c) Self Satisfaction: Seniors often resist smooth flow of message. They ignore anything that

conflicts and like messages which confirm their beliefs and ideas. They withhold information

and make the subordinates to move round the information and derive satisfaction out of it.

d) Principle of Proper Channel: They mostly insist on through proper channel which is the

essence of formal communication. The officially designated channel for communication is the only path for formal communication. It implies that all communications should flow through line superior. Superiors always wish to exercise their authority and they do not like by passing them in communication. Sometimes in order to avoid delay, communication may

directly be sent to the concerned but superiors treat this as overlooking them. For this they often insist through proper channel.

e) Prejudice: Prejudice among the superiors may stand on the way of free flow of

information. Prejudice is a serious problem and a barrier. Prejudice creates a barrier for a

proper understanding in the organization.

f) Distrust: Distrust of communicator is a barrier. Superiors often screen or filter the

information. They are noted for modifying messages. Distrust of the superior for any reasons restricts communication.

g) ‘Yes' Superiors: There are some superiors in all organizations called as 'Yes' men, who always wish to remain neutral and non-committed. This is because they may sometimes like to be in good looks of top management. This takes the form of acting to please the boss, not seeking clarification, not expressing opinions which may lead to incur displeasure from boss etc

h) Complex: Personal complexity inhibits communication. No superior likes to show his

mistakes to someone else especially to his subordinates. They generally resist the advice given by the lower level people. In their view they are less competent, capable; they are not

able to advice superiors. Lack of confidence in subordinate complexion is a serious barrier on the way of flow of effective communication. j) Message Overload: Message overload is really a hurdle in the communication process. If message overload is routine there is grave danger to orderly and smooth flow of communication. The effects of overload may be omission of message, errors, delay, filtering, approximation. They are barriers to communication.

4. Describe the steps for effective writing.

Here are eight steps that will help you write more effectively:

a. Know your objective Before you write your first word, make sure that you know what your subject is and know the subject well enough to write about it. Above all, know what you want to accomplish. Why is it important? When you know where you are going, it is easier to get there. You can find the supporting material by doing some research. On the other hand, just knowing your topic well without a clear idea of what you want to accomplish will lead you nowhere. So, what result do you want to produce? Do you want to educate your readers? Gain their trust? Dazzle them? Make them think? Do you want them to call you? Or to order your special report? Vote for you? Do you want them to read everything on your website and come back for more? Or maybe you just want them to remember you forever and tell everyone about you? All of the above? Everything can be accomplished if you know what it is. Be realistic - not everything can be done in a one short piece. Write down your objective in one paragraph - it might be difficult at first, so start with a few words, and build on it. You will be amazed how easy it is to write when you really know what you want to accomplish. If you have trouble getting started, try writing "I'm

having trouble getting started, what I mean to say is flow, brainstorm, and enjoy yourself.

b. Organize your message logically

Create an outline - from the first point in your introduction to the last one in the conclusion. Arrange your major points in a logical order. Then start to work on your opening and on your conclusion. I know it sounds strange, but you should know your conclusion before you write the rest - like in everything else, the only way to write clearly is to know where you are going. Spend a lot of time on the headline and introduction because if you don't grab the reader's attention right from the beginning, the reader won't read the rest, no matter how good it may be!

c. Use plain language

Use simple words. Plain talk. Write the way you and your readers talk. Short words of one, two, or three syllables. Forget about your power vocabulary - to communicate effectively, simple is better. Do not use jargon. Write in short, easy-to-read sentences. Avoid clichés - however use familiar word combinations. Such phrases are usually well understood and remembered longer than the sophisticated language. Good grammar is important because it allows us to express ourselves clearly. But forget about your high school English teacher and don't be afraid to violate the rules if it helps you make your point. Break the rules whenever you feel that it will make the message sound more real.

d. Concentrate on your reader

Even if you write about you yourself, your company, and your product, concentrate on your reader. Because your reader is more important than your topic, trust me! Think about helping your readers get involved with whatever you write about, help them understand it,

help them remember it.

and watch it flow. Let your thoughts


To measure how well you pay attention to your readers, keep an eye on the use of pronouns "me" and "you". By saying "you" (and yours) at least three times as often as saying I (and me, we, mine, our) you take the focus away from yourself and put it on the reader. Whenever you see too many "me" and "mine" rewrite until your balance is right. For example: instead of "I think that this is really important", say - "You will find that this is very important".

e. Write about what they want to know

Provide information. Do not assume that by merely describing your product or service you are doing great job of informing the reader. Ask yourself : What do your readers need? What do they care about? What do they want? What do they fear? Write to answer their needs, their wants, and their fears. Make sure that the reader will feel better informed after reading what you wrote. Keep in mind that your readers have in their minds one major question: "What's in it for me?". So keep enticing them to read all the way to the end by constantly providing something new and important to discover. You might explain some confusing data, give a new perspective, or introduce new facts and new ideas You need to be aware that even after they start to read your message, they can still dump it in the wastepaper basket if it's paper - or with a click of that deadly mouse if it is on their computer screen. The more you concentrate on your reader, the more likely it is that she or he will finish reading whatever your write.

f. Understand the advantage of writing

When you speak, it's easy to get off the subject, to get tongue-tied, say something that can be regretted, have trouble clarifying a point, or miss confusing statements. Understand the beauty of writing and take full advantage of it. You can write and rewrite until you express exactly what you say the way you want to say it. You never run out of words because you can use a thesaurus and find the most effective expressions. You can say much more in writing in less time than in the a face-to-face conversation because people usually read faster than you or I can talk. So, do not simply spill your words on the paper (or on the computer screen). Take your time to craft the message. Keep reviewing it and rewriting until you say what you want to say in the most effective and compelling way. Remember that everything worth reading was rewritten many times.

g. Understand disadvantages of writing

In writing, we don't have the opportunity to use our voice tone or body language to emphasize what we say. Our message has to be clear enough to stand alone. Keeping that in mind, don't be afraid to use expressive personal statements. Don't be afraid to be different. Probably the greatest disadvantage of writing is that people will quit reading much quicker than they will quit listening. In real life, most people will listen to you talk even if they are bored - just to be polite - but that won't happen in print.

h. Include call for action Always ask readers to do something to respond. It may be to call you to request more information, recommend you to others, sign your guest book, respond to you in writing, sign a petition, or even order your product on the spot. Whatever it is, ask them to do something. If you ask your readers to do something and they don't do it, that usually means your writing is not effective. Writing is a challenging task. It is time consuming and not easy. It is also extremely essential for your business and personal growth - not only on the Internet. A poorly written piece equals missed opportunities, wasted time, and lost income.

5. Describe the pressure of writing performance reviews?

As a manager, you need to give your employees constructive feedback to make sure the business is operating at its peak. Annual or semiannual performance reviews give you the opportunity to praise employees for what they've done well, correct what they're doing wrong, and discuss your vision for their growth and future at the company. The ideal outcome for a performance appraisal is for managers and employees to have meaningful, reflective conversations together. While face-to-face conversations and regular informal feedback should always be included in the review process, the written review is an important tool to help your staff find out where they stand. An employee can refer back to this document to make sure he or she is staying on track between now and the next review period. For this reason, it's especially important to make sure the reviews you hand your team members are thorough, well-written and easy to understand.

Make it comprehensive A good written performance review covers all the bases of an employee's work. It shouldn't be all positive or all negative, a healthy balance of both is necessary to help your team members evolve in their roles. In addition to highlighting strengths and weaknesses, a review should establish performance goals for the upcoming year, and cover the employee's role as part of a collaborative team.

Recap regular, informal feedback

Formal review periods shouldn't be the only times employees receive feedback about their performance. There's no need to call a meeting for every individual issue that comes up, but there also shouldn't be any surprises when workers read their reviews from the boss.

" When there is a problem with an employee's habits or actions, address it as soon as possible after the incident occurs to avoid bringing that tension into the evaluation. If an employee's behavior (positive or negative) doesn't warrant immediate feedback, make a note of it and use it as a reference point during a formal or informal performance discussion

Give honest, constructive criticism

It's never easy to tell an employee what he or she needs to do to improve, but giving constructive criticism about your workers' performance is an important part of the review process. Be as clear and direct as possible about any shortcomings and mistakes, but also take the time to provide solutions to those problems.

Encourage discussion about the review Most managers agree that it's frustrating when an employee has nothing to say in response to his or her performance evaluation. You don't want your staff to fight you on every point, but you also don't want to meet with silence if you have suggestions. Push your employees to give you feedback on the issues you raised. The written review should be a brief but direct overview of discussion points, making for a more nuanced face-to-face conversation; this requires employee feedback.

If the conversation starts to get heated and you want to avoid saying something that you might regret, put the dialogue on hold. You can continue a more serious discussion later via email or in another meeting, after the employee has had a chance to cool down.

End on a positive note Always end performance reviews on a positive note. Encouraging your employees and letting them know you appreciate what they do for the company will give an added boost to a primarily good review, or lift your employee's spirits after a somewhat negative evaluation. Positive phraseology and reinforcement can go a long way in giving workers the confidence and drive they need to perform their jobs even better.