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gama (Hinduism)

For other uses of the term Agama, see Agama.

Agama, states Dhavamony, is also a generic name of religious texts which are at the basis of Hinduism and which
are divided into Vaishnava Agamas (also called PancarThe Agamas (Sanskrit: ) are a collection of
Agamas, and Sakta Agamas (more
scriptures of several Hindu devotional schools.
The atra Samhitas), Saiva [8]
often called Tantras).
term literally means tradition or that which has come
down, and the Agama texts describe cosmology, epistemology, philosophical doctrines, precepts on meditation and practices, four kinds of yoga, mantras, temple 2 Signicance
construction, deity worship and ways to attain sixfold
desires.[1][3] These canonical texts are in Sanskrit[1] and in
south Indian languages such as Tamil (written in Grantha
script and Tamil script).[4][5]
The three main branches of Agama texts are those
of Shaivism (Shiva), Vaishnavism (Vishnu), Shaktism
(Devi).[1] The Agamic traditions are sometimes called
Tantrism,[6] although the term Tantra is usually used
specically to refer to Shakta Agamas.[7][8] The Agama
literature is voluminous, and includes 28 Saiva Agamas,
77 Shakta Agamas (also called Tantras), and 108 Vaishnava Agamas (also called Pancharatra Samhitas), and numerous Upa-Agamas.[9]
The origin and chronology of Agamas is unclear. Some
are Vedic and others non-Vedic.[10] Agama traditions include Yoga and Self Realization concepts, some include
Kundalini Yoga,[11] asceticism, and philosophies ranging from Dvaita (dualism) to Advaita (monism).[12][13]
Some suggest that these are post-Vedic texts, others as
pre-Vedic compositions.[14][15][16] Epigraphical and archaeological evidence suggests that Agama texts were in
existence by about middle of the 1st millennium CE, in
Pallava dynasty era.[17][18]
Scholars note that some passages in the Hindu Agama
texts appear to repudiate the authority of the Vedas, while
other passages assert that their precepts reveal the true
spirit of the Vedas.[2][19][20] The Agamas literary genre
may also be found in ramaic traditions (i.e.Buddhist, Developing physical and mental discipline with Yoga is one of
Jaina etc.).[21][22] Bali Hindu tradition is ocially called four recommendations in Agama texts.[12] Above a Yoga posture
statue from Kashmir, India, a center of monistic Agama texts.
Agama Hindu Dharma in Indonesia.[23]

Agamas, states Rajeshwari Ghose, teach a system of

spirituality involving ritual worship and ethical personal
conduct through a precepts of a god.[24] The means of
worship in the Agamic religions dier from the Vedic
form. While the Vedic form of yajna require no idols
and shrines, the Agamic religions are based on idols with
puja as means of worship.[24] Symbols, icons and temples
are a necessary part of the Agamic practice, while nontheistic paths are alternative means of Vedic practice.[24]
Action and will drives Agama precepts, while knowledge


Agama (Sanskrit ) is derived from the verb root

(gam) meaning to go and the preposition (aa) meaning toward and refers to scriptures that which has come
Agama literally means tradition,[1] and refers to precepts and doctrines that have come down as tradition.[8]

is salvation in Vedic precepts.[24] This, however, does not

necessarily mean that Agamas and Vedas are opposed,
according to medieval era Hindu theologians. Tirumular,
for example, explained their link as, the Vedas are the
path, and the Agamas are the horse.[24][25]
Each Agama consists of four parts:[12][24]
Jnana pada, also called Vidya pada consists of
doctrine, the philosophical and spiritual knowledge,
knowledge of reality and liberation.

Yoga pada - precepts on yoga, the physical and mental discipline.

Kriya pada - consists of rules for rituals, construction
of temples (Mandir); design principles for sculpting,
carving, and consecration of idols of deities for worship in temples;[26] for dierent forms of initiations
or diksha. This code is analogous to those in Puranas
and in the Buddhist text of Sadhanamala.[12]


in Chapter 36 of Tantraloka, the 10th century scholar

Abhinavagupta.[13] In Shaivism alone, there are ten dualistic (dvaita) Agama texts, eighteen qualied monismcum-dualism (bhedabheda) Agama texts and sixty four
monism (advaita) Agama texts.[29] The Bhairava Shastras
are monistic, while Shiva Shastras are dualistic.[30][31]
A similar breadth of diverse views is present in Vaishnava
Agamas as well. The Agama texts of Shaiva and Vaishnava schools are premised on existence of Atman (soul,
self) and the existence of an Ultimate Reality (Brahman
called Shiva in Shaivism, and Vishnu in Vaishnavism).[32]
The texts dier in the relation between the two. Some assert the dualistic philosophy of the individual soul and Ultimate Reality being dierent, while others state a Oneness between the two.[32] Kashmir Shaiva Agamas posit
absolute oneness, that is God (Shiva) is within man, God
is within every being, God is present everywhere in the
world including all non-living being, and there is no spiritual dierence between life, matter, man and God. The
parallel group among Vaishnavas are the Shuddhadvaitins
(pure Advaitins).[32]

Charya pada - lays down rules of conduct, of worship (puja), observances of religious rites, rituals, Scholars from both schools have written treatises ranging
festivals and prayaschittas.
from dualism to monism. For example, Shivagrayogin
has emphasized the non-dierence or unity of being (beThe Agamas state three requirements for a place of tween the Atman and Shivam), which is realized through
pilgrimage - Sthala, Tirtha and Murti. Sthala refers to the stages which include rituals, conduct, personal discipline
place of the temple, Trtha is the temple tank, and Murti and the insight of spiritual knowledge.[33] This bears a
striking similarity, states Soni, to Shankara, Madhva and
refers to the image of god (usually an idol of a deity).
Ramanujan Vedantic discussions.[33]
Elaborate rules are laid out in the Agamas for Silpa (the
art of sculpture) describing the quality requirements of
the places where temples are to be built, the kind of im- 3.1 Relation to the Vedas and Upanishads
ages to be installed, the materials from which they are to
be made, their dimensions, proportions, air circulation, Main articles: Vedas and Upanishads
lighting in the temple complex etc.[26] The Manasara and
Silpasara are some of the works dealing with these rules.
The rituals followed in worship services each day at the The Vedas and Upanishads are common scriptures of
Hinduism, states Dhavamony, while the Agamas are satemple also follow rules laid out in the Agamas.
cred texts of specic sects of Hinduism.[8] The surviving
Vedic literature can be traced to the 1st millennium BCE
and earlier, while the surviving Agamas can be traced to
3 Philosophy
1st millennium of the common era.[8] The Vedic literature, in Shaivism, is primary and general, while Agamas
are special treatise. In terms of philosophy and spiritual
precepts, no Agama that goes against the Vedic literature,
states Dhavamony, will be acceptable to the Shaivas.[8]
Similarly, the Vaishnavas treat the Vedas along with the
Bhagavad Gita as the main scripture, and the Samhitas
(Agamas) as exegetical and exposition of the philosophy
and spiritual precepts therein.[8] The Shaktas have a simiTemplelar reverence for the Vedic literature and view the Tantras
design (Shore temple) and iconography such as the (Agamas) as the fth Veda.[8]
Nataraja (Dancing Shiva) are described in the Agama The heritage of the Agamas, states Krishna Sivaraman,
was the Vedic peity maturing in the monism of the Upanishads presenting the ultimate spiritual reality as BrahThe Agama texts of Hinduism present a diverse range of man and the way to realizing as portrayed in the Gita.[34]
philosophies, ranging from theistic dualism to absolute David Smith remarks, that a key feature of the Tamil
monism.[13][28] This diversity of views was acknowledged Saiva Siddhanta, one might almost say its dening fea-


Saiva Agamas

ture, is the claim that its source lies in the Vedas as well
as the Agamas, in what it calls the Vedagamas.[35] This
schools view can be summed as,

17. Makutam
18. Vimalam
19. Chandragnanam

The Veda is the cow, the true Agama its

Umapati, Translated by David Smith[35]

20. Bimbam
21. Prodgeetham
22. Lalitham


23. Sidham
24. Santhanam


Saiva Agamas

The Shaiva Agama traces its origins from Shiva as,

Shivena devya datham, Devya dathamthu
Nandhine, Nandhina Brahmana Datham,
Brahmana Rishi Dhathakam, Rishinaam
Maanusha Datham, Athyethe agamodhbavam
From Shiva to Devi, From Devi to Nandhi,
From Nandhi to Brahma, From Brahma to
Rishi, From Rishi to human beings
Shaiva Agama,

25. Sarvoktham
26. Parameshwaram
27. Kiranam
28. Vathulam

The Saiva Agamas are found in four main schools

- Kapala, Kalamukha, Pashupata and Shaivaand
number 28 in total as follows:

1. Kamikam
2. Yogajam
3. Chintyam

of the Nihsvasatattvasamhita manuscript from Nepal,

reproduced in 1912 from a palm-leaf original, linking
Shaiva Agama to esoteric Tantra.[36]

4. Karanam
5. Ajitham

4.1.1 Saiva Siddhanta

6. Deeptham
7. Sukskmam
8. Sahasram
9. Ashuman

The Saiva Agamas led to the Saiva Siddhanta philosophy

in Tamil-speaking regions of South-India and gave rise to
Kashmir Saivism in the North-Indian region of Kashmir.
4.1.2 Kashmiri Shaivism

10. Suprabedham
11. Vijayam
12. Nishwasam
13. Swayambhuvam
14. Analam
15. Veeram
16. Rouravam

The Agamas of Kashmiri Saivism is also called the Trika

Shastra.[37] It centers mainly on the Trika system of mAlinI, siddha and nAmaka Agamas and venerates the triad
Shiva, Shakti, Nara (the bound soul) and the union of
Shiva with Shakti.[38] The trika philosophy derives its
name from the three shaktis, namely, parA, aparA and
parApara; and provides three modes of knowledge of
reality, that is, non-dual (abheda), non-dual-cum-dual
(bhedabheda) and dual (bheda). The literature of Kashmiri Shaivism is divided under three categoriesAgama

shastra, Spanda shastra and Pratyabhijna shastra.[38] Although the Trika Shastra in the form of Agama Shastra
is said to have existed eternally, the founder of the system is considered Vasugupta (850 AD) to whom the Shiva
Sutras were revealed.[37][38] Kallata in Spanda-vritti and
Kshemaraja in his commentary Vimarshini state Shiva revealed the secret doctrines to Vasugupta while Bhaskara
in his Varttika says a Siddha revealed the doctrines to Vasugupta in a dream.[37]


Shakta Agamas


The Shakta Agamas are related to the Shaiva Agamas,

with their respective focus on Shakti with Shiva in Shakta
Tantra and on Shiva in Shaiva texts.[39] DasGupta states
that the Shiva and Shakti are two aspects of the same
truth static and dynamic, transcendent and immanent,
male and female, and neither is real without the other,
Shivas dynamic power is Shakti and she has no existence
without him, she is the highest truth and he the manifested
The Shakta Agamas or Shakta tantras are 64 in number.[9]
Some of the older Tantra texts in this genre are called
Yamalas, which literally denotes, states Teun Goudriaan,
the primeval blissful state of non-duality of Shiva and
Shakti, the ultimate goal for the Tantric Sadhaka.[40]

4.3 Vaishnava Agamas

Main article: Pancharatra
The Vaishnava Agamas are found into two main schools
-- Pancharatra and Vaikhanasas. While Vaikhanasa Agamas were transmitted from Vikhanasa Rishi to his disciples Brighu, Marichi, Atri and Kashyapa, the Pancharatra Agamas are classied into three: Divya (from
Vishnu), Munibhaashita (from Muni, sages), and Aaptamanujaprokta (from sayings of trustworthy men).[1]
4.3.1 Vaikhanasa Agama
Main article: Vaikhanasa

The Shakta Agamas deploy Shiva and Shakti, and a unied view
as the foundation for spiritual knowledge.

The Shakta Agamas are commonly known as

Tantras,[8][9] and they are imbued with reverence
for the feminine, representing goddess as the focus and
treating the female as equal and essential part of the
cosmic existence.[39] The feminine Shakti (literally, energy and power) concept is found in the Vedic literature,
but it owers into extensive textual details only in the
Shakta Agamas. These texts emphasize the feminine
as the creative aspect of a male divinity, cosmogonic
power and all pervasive divine essence. The theosophy,
states Rita Sherma, presents the masculine and feminine
principle in a state of primordial, transcendent, blissful
unity.[39] The feminine is the will, the knowing and the
activity, she is not only the matrix of creation, she is
creation. Unied with the male principle, in these Hindu
sects Tantra texts, the female is the Absolute.[39]

Maharishi Vikhanasa is considered to have guided in

the compilation of a set of Agamas named Vaikhnasa Agama. Sage Vikhanasa is conceptualized as a
mind-born creation, i.e., Maanaseeka Utbhavar of Lord
Narayana.[41] Originally Vikhanasa passed on the knowledge to nine disciples in the rst manvantara -- Atri,
Bhrigu, Marichi, Kashyapa, Vasishta, Pulaha, Pulasthya,
Krathu and Angiras. However, only those of Bhrigu,
Marichi, Kashyapa and Atri are extant today. The four
rishis are said to have received the cult and knowledge of
Vishnu from the rst Vikahansa, i.e., the older Brahma
in the Svayambhuva Manvanthara. Thus, the four sages
Atri, Bhrigu, Marichi, Kashyapa, are considered the
propagators of vaikhnasa stra. A composition of Sage
Vikhanasas disciple Marichi, namely, Ananda-Samhita
states Vikhanasa prepared the Vaikhanasa Sutra according to a branch of Yajurveda and was Brahma himself.[41]
The extant texts of vaikhnasa Agama number 28 in total and are known from the texts, vimnrcakakalpa and
nanda sahit, both composed by marci which enumerate them. They are:[42][43]
The 13 Adhikaras authored by Bhrigu are khilatantra, purtantra, vsdhikra, citrdhikra, mndhikra, kriydhikra, arcandhikra, yajndhikra,

vardhikra, prakrndhikra, pratigrhydhikra,
niruktdhikra, khildhikra.
However, nanda
sahit attributes ten works to Bhrigu, namely, khila,
khildhikra, purdhikra, vsdhikraa, arcandhikaraa, mndhikaraa, kriydhikra, niruktdhikra,
prakrndhikra, yajndhikra.

the 1st millennium CE, likely existed by the 5th century CE.[18] However, scholars such as Ramanan refer
to the archaic prosody and linguistic evidence to assert
that the beginning of the Agama literature goes back to
about 5th century BCE, in the decades after the death of

The 8 Samhitas authored by Mareechi are Jaya sahit,

Ananda sahit, Sajnna sahit, Vra sahit, Vijaya sahit, Vijita sahit, Vimala sahit, Jnna
sahit. However, nanda sahit attributes the following works to Marichijaya sahit, nanda sahit,
sajnna sahit, vra sahit, vijaya sahit, vijita
sahit, vimala sahit, kalpa sahit.

Temple and archaeological inscriptions, as well as textual evidence, suggest that the Agama texts were in existence by 7th century in Pallava dynasty era.[17] However, Richard Davis notes that the ancient Agamas are
not necessarily the Agamas that survive in modern times.
The texts have gone through revision over time.[17]

The 3 Kandas authored by Kashyapa are Satyaka,

Tarkaka, Jnnaka. However, Ananda Sahit attributes the satyaka, karmaka and jnnaka to
The 4 tantras authored by Atri are Prvatantra, Atreyatantra, Viutantra, Uttaratantra. However, Ananda
Sahit attributes the prvatantra, viutantra, uttaratantra and mahtantra to Atri.

6 See also
gama (Buddhism)
gama (Jainism)
Sacred geometry

7 References

Pancharatra Agama

See main article: Pacaratra

Like the Vaikhanasa Agama, the Pancharatra Agama is
centered around the worship of Lord Vishnu. While
the Vaikhansa deals primarily with Vaidhi Bhakti, the
Pancaratra Agama teaches both vaidhi and Raganuga


Soura Agamas

The Soura or Saura Agamas comprise one of the six popular agama-based religions of Shaiva, Vaishnava, Shakta,
Ganapatya, Kaumara and Soura. The Saura Tantras are
dedicated to the sun (Surya) and Soura Agamas are in use
in temples of Sun worship. One of the earliest agamic
texts of Jains, the Jaina Souraseni, is said to have derived
from the Soura tantric element.


Ganapatya Agamas

The Paramanada Tantra mentions the number of sectarian tantras as 6000 for Vaishnava, 10000 for Shaiva,
100000 for Shakta, 1000 for Ganapatya, 2000 for
Saura, 7000 for Bhairava, and 2000 for Yaksha-bhutadisadhana.[7]

History and chronology

The chronology and history of Agama texts is unclear.[18]

The surviving Agama texts were likely composed in

[1] Grimes, John A. (1996). A Concise Dictionary of Indian

Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Dened in English. State
University of New York Press. ISBN 9780791430682.
LCCN 96012383. pages 16-17
[2] Julius Lipner (2004), Hinduism: the way of the banyan,
in The Hindu World (Editors: Sushil Mittal and Gene
Thursby), Routledge, ISBN 0-415215277, pages 27-28
[3] Mariasusai Dhavamony (2002), Hindu-Christian Dialogue, Rodopi, ISBN 978-9042015104, pages 54-56
[4] Indira Peterson (1992), Poems to Siva: The Hymns of
the Tamil Saints, Princeton University Press, ISBN 9788120807846, pages 11-18
[5] A Datta (1987), Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: ADevo, Sahitya Akademi, ISBN 978-0836422832, page 95
[6] Wojciech Maria Zalewski (2012), The Crucible of Religion: Culture, Civilization, and Armation of Life, Wipf
and Stock Publishers, ISBN 978-1610978286, page 128
[7] Banerji, S. C. (2007). A Companion To Tantra. Abhinav
Publications. ISBN 8170174023
[8] Mariasusai Dhavamony (1999), Hindu Spirituality,
Gregorian University and Biblical Press, ISBN 9788876528187, pages 31-34 with footnotes
[9] Klaus Klostermaier (2007), A Survey of Hinduism: Third
Edition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 9780791470824, pages 49-50
[10] PT Raju (2009), The Philosophical Traditions of India,
Routledge, ISBN 978-8120809833, page 45; Quote: The
word Agama means 'coming down', and the literature
is that of traditions, which are mixtures of the Vedic
with some non-Vedic ones, which were later assimilated to the Vedic.


[11] Singh, L. P. (2010). Tantra, Its Mystic and Scientic Basis, Concept Publishing Company. ISBN

[24] Ghose, Rajeshwari (1996). The Tygarja Cult in Tamilnu: A Study in Conict and Accommodation. Motilal
Banarsidass Publications. ISBN 812081391X.

[12] Jean Filliozat (1991), Religion, Philosophy, Yoga: A

Selection of Articles, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 9788120807181, pages 68-69

[25] Thomas Manninezhath (1993), Harmony of Religions:

Vednta Siddhnta Samarasam of Tyumnavar, Motilal
Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120810013, page 135

[13] Richard Davis (2014), Ritual in an Oscillating Universe:

Worshipping Siva in Medieval India, Princeton University
Press, ISBN 978-0691603087, page 167 note 21, Quote
(page 13): Some agamas argue a monist metaphysics,
while others are decidedly dualist. Some claim ritual is the most ecacious means of religious attainment, while others assert that knowledge is more important..

[26] V Bharne and K Krusche (2012), Rediscovering the

Hindu Temple: The Sacred Architecture and Urbanism of India, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, ISBN 9781443841375, pages 37-42

[14] Guy Beck (1993), Sonic Theology: Hinduism and Sacred

Sound, University of South Carolina Press, ISBN 9780872498556, pages 151-152
[15] Tripath, S.M. (2001). Psycho-Religious Studies Of Man,
Mind And Nature. Global Vision Publishing House.
ISBN 9788187746041
[16] Drabu, V. N. (1990). aivgamas: A Study in the
Socio-economic Ideas and Institutions of Kashmir (200
B.C. to A.D. 700), Indus Publishing Company. ISBN
9788185182384. LCCN lc90905805
[17] Richard Davis (2014), Worshiping iva in Medieval India: Ritual in an Oscillating Universe, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691603087, pages 12-13
[18] Hilko Wiardo Schomerus and Humphrey Palmer (2000),
aiva Siddhnta: An Indian School of Mystical Thought,
Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120815698, pages 7-10
[19] For examples of Vaishnavism Agama text verses praising
Vedas and philosophy therein, see Sanjukta Gupta (2013),
Lakm Tantra: A Pcartra Text, Motilal Banarsidass,
ISBN 978-8120817357, pages xxiii-xxiv, 96, 158-159,
219, 340, 353 with footnotes, Quote: "In order not to
dislocate the laws of dharma and to maintain the family, to govern the world without disturbance, to establish norms and to gratify me and Vishnu, the God of
gods, the wise should not violate the Vedic laws even
in thought The Secret Method of Self-Surrender, Lakshmi Tantra, Pcartra Agama.
[20] For examples in Shaivism literature, see T Isaac Tambyah
(1984), Psalms of a Saiva Saint, Asian Educational Services, ISBN 978-8120600256, pages xxii-xxvi
[21] Helen Baroni (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Zen
Buddhism, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0823922406,
page 3

[27] Archana Verma (2012), Temple Imagery from Early Mediaeval Peninsular India, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 9781409430292, pages 150-159, 59-62
[28] DS Sharma (1990), The Philosophy of Sadhana, State
University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791403471,
pages 9-14
[29] Mark Dyczkowski (1989), The Canon of the aivgama,
Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120805958, pages 4344
[30] JS Vasugupta (2012), iva Stras, Motilal Banarsidass,
ISBN 978-8120804074, pages 252, 259
[31] Gavin Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521438780, pages
[32] Ganesh Tagare (2002), The Pratyabhij Philosophy,
Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120818927, pages 1619
[33] Jayandra Soni (1990), Philosophical Anthropology in aiva Siddhnta, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN
8-120806328, pages 178-181, 209-214
[34] Krishna Sivaraman (2008), Hindu Spirituality Vedas
Through Vedanta, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 9788120812543, page 263
[35] David Smith (1996), The Dance of Siva: Religion, Art
and Poetry in South India, Cambridge University Press,
ISBN 978-0521482349, page 116
[36] Teun Goudriaan (1981), Hindu Tantric and kta Literature, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447020916,
page 36
[37] Singh, J. (1979). iva Stras: The Yoga of Supreme Identity : Text of the Stras and the Commentary Vimarin
of Kemarja Translated Into English with Introduction,
Notes, Running Exposition, Glossary and Index. Motilal
Banarsidass Publications. ISBN 9788120804074. LCCN

[22] Tigunait, Rajmani (1998), akti, the Power in Tantra:

A Scholarly Approach, Himalayan Institute Press. ISBN
9780893891541. LCCN 98070188

[38] Sharma, D.S. (1983). The Philosophy of Sdhan: With

Special Reference to the Trika Philosophy of Kashmir. State University of New York Press. ISBN
9780791403471. LCCN lc89027739

[23] June McDaniel (2010), Agama Hindu Dharma Indonesia

as a New Religious Movement: Hinduism Recreated in
the Image of Islam, Nova Religio, Vol. 14, No. 1, pages

[39] Rita Sherma (2000), Editors: Alf Hiltebeitel and Kathleen M Erndl, Is the Goddess a Feminist?: The Politics
of South Asian Goddesses, New York University Press,
ISBN 978-0814736197, pages 31-49

[40] Teun Goudriaan (1981), Hindu Tantric and kta Literature, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447020916,
pages 39-40
[41] SrI Ramakrishna Deekshitulu and SrImAn VaradAccAri
SaThakOpan Swami. SrI VaikhAnasa Bhagavad SAstram
[42] Vaikhanasa Agama Books
[43] Venkatadriagaram Varadachari (1982). Agamas and
South Indian Vaisnavism. Prof M Rangacharya Memorial Trust.
[44] Awakened India, Volume 112, Year 2007, p.88, Prabuddha Bharata Oce.

Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami (November
2003) [1979]. Glossary. Dancing with Shiva,
Hinduisms Contemporary Catechism (Sixth ed.).
Kapaa, HI: Himalayan Academy. p. 755. ISBN
0-945497-96-2. Retrieved 2006-04-04.


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File:Wiki_letter_w_cropped.svg Source: License:
CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This le was derived from Wiki letter w.svg: <a href='//
Wiki_letter_w.svg' class='image'><img alt='Wiki letter w.svg' src='
letter_w.svg/50px-Wiki_letter_w.svg.png' width='50' height='50' srcset='
Wiki_letter_w.svg/75px-Wiki_letter_w.svg.png 1.5x,
100px-Wiki_letter_w.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='44' data-le-height='44' /></a>
Original artist: Derivative work by Thumperward


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