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Chapter

Application of Derivatives
Solutions
SECTION - A
Objective Type Questions (One option is correct)
1.

Suppose x1 and x2 are the point of maximum and the point of minimum respectively of the function f(x) =
2x3 9ax2 + 12a2x + 1 respectively, (a > 0) then for the equality x12 = x2 to be true the value of a must be
(1) 0

(2)

(3)

(4)

1
4

Sol. Answer (2)


6(x2 3ax + 2a2)
= 6(x a)(x 2a);

a>0

x = a is point of maxima
x = 2a is point of minima
a2 = 2a
a = 0 or a = 2
but a > 0 a = 2
2.

Point A lies on the curve y e x and has the coordinate ( x, e x ) where x > 0. Point B has the coordinates
(x, 0). If O is the origin, then the maximum area of the triangle AOB is
(1)

(2)

2e

1
4e

(3)

1
e

(4)

1
8e

Sol. Answer (4)


A=

2
1
x e x
2

dA
1 x2
2 x2
= [e 2 x e ] = 0
dx
2

x2 =

1
2
1

1 1
e 2 =
A=
2
2

1
8e

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84
3.

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

The radius of a right circular cylinder increases at the rate of 0.1 cm/minute, and the height decreases at
the rate of 0.2 cm/minute. The rate of change of the volume of the cylinder, in
cm3/minute, when the radius is 2 cm and the height is 3 cm is
(1) 2

(2)

8
5

(3)

3
5

(4)

2
5

(4)

(4)

Sol. Answer (4)


V = r2h
dV = 2rh dr + r2 dh
dV = 2 2 3 (0.1) + 22 (0.2)
= 1.2 0.8
= 0.4 =
4.

2
5

The number of points of maxima/minima of f(x) = x(x + 1) (x + 2) (x + 3) is


(1) 0

(2)

(3)

Sol. Answer (4)


y = x (x + 1) (x + 2) (x + 3)

Clearly, option (4).


5.

The difference between the greatest and the least values of the function,


f(x) = sin 2x x on , is
2 2
(1)

(2)

3 3

(3)

2 3

3 2

2
3

Sol. Answer (1)


y = sin 2x x
y' = 2 cos 2x 1 = 0
cos 2x =
2x =

1
2

x=

y =
6

2 6

3

y =

6
2 6
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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

85

=
2
2 6


y =
2
2
ymax =

2
Difference =

ymin =

6.

If a variable tangent to the curve x2y = c3 makes intercepts a, b on x and y axis respectively, then the value
of a2b is
(1) 27 c3

(2)

4 3
c
27

(3)

27 3
c
4

(4)

4 3
c
9

(4)

Sol. Answer (3)


x2y = c3
y=

c3
x2

dy
2c 3
= 3
dx
x

Variable tangent :
(y y1) =
a=

2c 3
( x x1 )
x13

y1x13
x1
2c 3

x1
x1
2

3 x1
2

b = y1

2c 3
3c 3
=
2
x1
x12

9 2 3c 3
27 3
c
a b = x1 2 =
4
x1
4
2

7.

Difference between the greatest and the least values of the function
f(x) = x (ln x 2) on [1, e2] is
(1) 2

(2)

(3)

e2

Sol. Answer (2)


f(x) = x (ln x 2)
f'(x) = (ln x 2) + 1
= ln x 1
=0
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86

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

x=e
f''(x) =
f''(e) =

1
x
1
0
e

x = e is minima
Minimum value = e (ln e 2) = e
f(1) = 1 (0 2) = 2
f(e2) = e2 (2 2) = 0
Maximum = 0
Difference = 0 ( e) = e
8.

The sum of lengths of the hypotenuse and another side of a right angle triangle is given. The area of the triangle
will be maximum if the angle between them is
(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

5
12

Sol. Answer (3)


A

1
bc
2

1
b a2 b2
2

1
b (b k )2 b 2 where a + b = k
2

dA
k
2k
0 b
and a
db
3
3

Hence, cos

9.

,
2
3

Let C be the curve y = x3 (where x takes all real values). The tangent at A except (0, 0) meets the curve
again at B. If the gradient at B is k times the gradient at A, then k is equal to
(1) 4

(2)

(3)

(4)

1
4

Sol. Answer (1)


Tangent at A

(y y1) = 3x12 (x x1)

x1

y x13 = 3x12 x 3x13


y = 3x12 x 2x13

2 x

Solving tangent with curve


3x12 x 2x13 = x3
Or, x3 3x12 x + 2x13 = 0

(x x1) (x2 + x x1 2x12) = 0


(x x1)2 (x + 2x1) = 0
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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

87

x = (x1, 2x1)
Gradient at A = 3x12
Gradient at B = 3 (4 x12)
k = 4
10. The interval on which f(x) = 2x3 + 9x2 + 12x 1 is decreasing in
(1) ( 1, )

(2)

(2, 1)

(3)

( , 2)

(4)

(1, 1)

(3)

( , )

(4)

(0, )

Sol. Answer (2)


f(x) = 2x3 + 9x2 + 12x 1
f'(x) = 6x2 + 18x + 12
For decreasing
f'(x) < 0
6x| + 18x + 12 < 0
x2 + 3x + 2 < 0
(x + 1) (x + 2) < 0
x (2, 1)
11. The function f(x) = cot1 x + x increases in the interval
(1) (1, )

(2)

( 1, )

Sol. Answer (3)


f(x) = cot1 x + x
f'(x) =

1
x2

1
=
1 x2
1 x2

f'(x) > 0
xR
12. Divide 64 into two parts such that sum of the cubes of two parts is minimum. The two parts are
(1) 44, 20

(2)

16, 48

(3)

32, 32

(4)

50, 14

Sol. Answer (3)


x + y = 64
S = x3 + y3
S = x\ + (64 x)3
S' = 3x2 3 (64 x)2
For maxima and minima, S' = 0
x2 = (64 x)2
x = 64 x
x = 32
13. If f(x) = x5 5x4 + 5x3 10 has local maximum and minimum at x = a and x = b respectively then (a, b) is
(1) (0, 1)

(2)

(1, 3)

(3)

(1, 0)

(4)

(2, 4)

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88

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Sol. Answer (2)


f(x) = x5 5x4 + 5x3 10
f'(x) = 5x4 20x3 + 15x2
For maxima and minima, f'(x) = 0
5x2 (x2 4x + 3) = 0
x2 (x 3) (x 1) = 0
x=0

neither maxima nor minima

x = 3, 1
f''(x) = 20x3 60x2 + 30x
= 10x (2x2 6x + 3)
f''(3) > 0

Point of minima

f''(1) < 0

Point of maxima

14. A point on the parabola y2 = 18x at which the ordinate increases at twice the rate of abscissa is
(1) (2, 4)

(2)

(2, 4)

(3)

9 9
8,2

(4)

9 9
8,2

Sol. Answer (4)


y2 = 18x
2y

dy
dx
18
dt
dt

2y

2dx
dx
18
dt
dt

4y = 18

y=

9
2

81
= 18x
4

x=

9
8

15. The real number x when added to its reciprocal gives the minimum value of sum at x equal to
(x > 0)
(1) 1

(2)

(3)

(4)

Sol. Answer (1)


y = x

1
, x > 0 x 2 if x 0 and minima occurs at x 1
x
x

16. Which of the following statement is true for the function?


x
, x 1
3
x
, 0 x 1
f (x)
3
x
3 4 x , x 0

(1) It is monotonic increasing x R


(2) f(x) fails to exist for 3 distinct real values of x
(3) f(x) changes its sign twice as x varies from (, )
(4) Function attains its extreme values at x1 and x2, such that x1x2 > 0
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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

89

Sol. Answer (3)

x
x 1
3
x
0 x 1
f(x) = 3
x
3 4 x x 0
1
x 1

2 x
f'(x) = 2
0 x 1
3 x
x 2 4 x 0
f'(x) changes its sign two times at x = 0, 2
17. The function f ( x ) x 3 3 x is
(1) Increasing in ( , 1) (1, ) and decreasing in (1, 1)
(2) Decreasing in ( , 1) (1, ) and increasing in (1, 1)
(3) Increasing in (0, ) and decreasing in (, 0)
(4) Decreasing in (0, ) and increasing in (, 0)
Sol. Answer (1)
f(x) = x3 3x
f'(x) = 3x2 3
= 3 (x2 1)
f'(x) = 3 (x + 1) (x 1)
For increasing function
f'(x) > 0
x (, 1) (1, )
18. Coffee is draining from a conical filter of height and diameter both 15 cm into a cylindrical coffee pot of diameter
15 cm. The rate at which coffee drains from the filter into the pot is 100 cm3/minute. The rate in cm/minute
at which the level in the pot is rising at the instant when the coffee in the pot is 10 cm, is
(1)

9
16

(2)

25
9

(3)

5
3

(4)

16
9

Sol. Answer (4)


Rate of change of volume in the cylinder = Rate of change of volume in conical filter.
r2h= V
Differentiate w.r.t. t
dV
2 dh
= r
dt
dt
2

15 dh
100 =
2 dt

dh
16
cm/s
=
dt
9

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90

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

19. A curve is represented by the equations,


x = sec2 t and y = cot t
where t is a parameter. If the tangent at the point P on the curve where t

meets the curve again at the


4

point Q then, | PQ | is equal to :


(1)

5 3
2

(2)

5 5
2

(3)

2 5
3

(4)

3 5
2

Sol. Answer (4)


x = sec2 t
y = cot t

dx
2 sec t sec t tan t
dt
dy
cosec 2 t
dt

dy
cosec 2 t
=
sin t
dx
2
cos3 t
dy
1
3

= (cot t )
dx
2

1
dy

= 2
dx t
4

Equation of tangent
1
y 1 = ( x 2)
2

2y 2 = x + 2
x + 2y = 4
Equation of curve

1
=1
y2

1
=1x
y2

y2 =

1
1 x

(2y 3) y2 = 1
2y3 3y2 + 1 = 0
For point Q,

1
, x 5
2

Distance |PQ| =

1
(5 2)2 1
2

9
=
4

45
3 5
=
4
2

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

91

20. For all a, b R, the function f(x) = 3x4 4x3 + 6x2 + ax + b has
(1) No extremum

(2)

Exactly one extremum

(3) Exactly two extremum

(4)

Three extremum

Sol. Answer (2)


f'(x) = 12x3 12x2+ 12x + a
= 12x (x2 x + 1) + a
f''(x) = 12 (3x2 2x + 1)
f''(x) > 0
f'(x) is always increasing
So, there is one point at which f'(x) = 0.
21. Maximum area of a rectangle which can be inscribed in a circle of a given radius R is
(1)

R 2
3

(2)

3R 2

(3)

2R2

(4)

3R2

Sol. Answer (3)


Let rectangle has width b and height h
A = bh

also, b2 + h2 = (2R)2 = 4R2


2

b 4R h

so, area A( h ) h 4R 2 h 2
Area is maximum when A2 is maxima.
A2 = h2(4R2 h2)
f(h) = h2(4R2 h2)
For maxima f'(h) = 0
f'(h) = h2 (2h) + (4R2 h2)2h = 0
h2 + 4R2 h2 = 0
h2 = 2R2
h 2R

From physical nature of problem it is clear that this should be maximum area since minimum area will tend
towards zero.
Amax =
=

2R 4R 2 2R 2
2R 2R = 2R2

22. If atmosphere pressure at a height of h units is given by the function P(h) = heh then pressure is maximum at
the height of
(1) 1 unit

(2)

1
e

units

(3)

e units

(4)

2 units

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92

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Sol. Answer (1)


P(h) = heh
P'(h) = heh + eh = eh(1 h)
P'(h) = 0 h = 1
at h = 1, P'(h) changes sign from positive to negative so it is point of maxima.
23. The radius of cylinder of maximum volume which can be inscribed in a right circular cone of radius R and
height H (axis of cylinder and cone are same) H given by
(1)

R
2

(2)

R
3

(3)

2R
3

(4)

2R
5

(4)

Sol. Answer (3)


Let cylinder has radius r and height h.
AO'B and AOC are similar
so,

AO O B

AO OC

H h
r
=
H
R

h
r

H R

h
r
1
H
R

h H 1
R
V = r2h

V (r ) r 2 H 1
R

r3
V (r ) H r 2
R

For maximum volume

3r 2
V (r ) H 2r
0
R

2r

3r 2
0
R

3r
0
R

2R
3

(r 0)

; x3
| x 2 |
24. Let f ( x ) 2
x 2x 4 ; x 3

Then the number of critical points on the graph of the function is


(1) 1

(2)

(3)

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

93

Sol. Answer (2)


Critical point is the point where f'(x) = 0 or f'(x) does not exist.
Function changes its definition at a point x = 3 so we will check at x = 3
Also, |x 2| = (x 2) if x > 2 = (x 2) if x < 2

; x2
x 2

so, f ( x ) ( x 2)
; 2 x 3
x 2 2x 4 ; x 3

if
1

f ( x ) 1
if
2 x 2 if

x2
2x3
x3

If f'(x) = 0 then x > 3 and

2 x 2 0 x 1 (3, )
so f'(x) cannot be zero anywhere.
Now, f'(x) does not exist at x = 2
since, f'(2 0) = 1
and f'(2 + 0) = 1
Also, f'(3 0) = 1
f'(3 + 0) = 2(3) 2 = 4
so, f'(x) does not exist at x = 3
Hence, there are two critical points
x = 2 and x = 3
25. Consider the function f(x) = x cos x sin x, then identify the statement which is correct
(1) f is neither odd nor even

(2)

f is monotonic increasing in 0,
2

(3) f has a maxima at x =

(4)

f has a minima at x =

(3)

8
3

Sol. Answer (3)


f(x) is odd function
f'(x) = x sin x + cos x cos x
f'(x) = x sin x
f''(x) = x cos x sin x
at x =
f''(x) < 0 point of maxima
26. If x = 2t 3t2 and y = 6t3 then
(1)

1
3

(2)

dy
at point (1, 6) is
dx

9
2

(4)

Sol. Answer (2)


dx
2 6t
dt
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94

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

dy
18t 2
dt

dy
dy
18t 2
dt
dx dx 2 6t
dt
If y = 6 = 6t3

t=1
18 12 18 9
dy
dx 2 6 1 4 2

t 1

27. For the cubic, f(x) = 2x3 + 9x2 + 12x + 1, which one of the following statement, does not hold good?
(1) f(x) is non-monotonic
(2) Increasing in ( , 2) (1, ) and decreasing in (2, 1)
(3) f : R R is bijective
(4) Inflection point occurs at x

3
2

Sol. Answer (3)


f'(x) = 6x2 + 18x + 12
= 6 (x2 + 3x + 2)
= 6 (x + 1) (x + 2),
f is increasing in (, 2) (1, ) and decreasing in (2, 1).
f(x) = 6(2x + 3)
f(x) changes sing at x =

3
2

Point of inflection occur at x =

3
2

28. The function f is defined by f(x) = xp (1 x)q for all x R where p, q are positive integer, has a maximum
value, for x equal to
(1)

pq
pq

(2)

(3)

1
2

(4)

p
pq

Sol. Answer (4)


f'(x) = xp q (1 x)q 1 (1) + p(1 x)q xp

q
p
q p
= x (1 x )

x (1 x )
f'(x) = 0

Then, x = 1, (As x 0)
p
q

=0
x 1 x
p(1 x) qx = 0

and

p x(p + q) = 0
x=

p
pq

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

95

29. Let h(x) be a twice continuously differentiable positive function on an open interval J. Let
g(x) = ln(h(x)) for each x J.
Suppose (h(x))2 > (h(x))h(x) for each x J then
(1) g is increasing on J

(2)

g is decreasing on J

(3) g is concave up on J

(4)

g(x) is decreasing function

Sol. Answer (4)


g(x) = ln (h(x))
g'(x) =

1
h( x )
h( x )

g''(x) =

h( x ) h( x ) ( h( x ))2
h2 ( x )

g''(x) < 0
So, g'(x) is decreasing function and g is concave down on J.
30. The least area of a circle circumscribing any right triangle of area S is
(1) S

(2)

2S

(3)

2S

(4)

4S

Sol. Answer (1)

1
2r r sin
2

Area of ABC =
S = r2 sin
r2 =

S
sin

Area of circle =

S
sin

Least area = S.
31. If f(x) = x(1 x)3 then which of following is true?
(1) f(x) has local maxima at x = 1

(2)

f(x) has local minima at x = 1

1
4

(4)

f(x) has local maxima at x

(3) f(x) has local minima at x

1
4

Sol. Answer (4)

f ( x ) x 3(1 x )2 ( 1) (1 x )3 1
f ( x ) (1 x )2 [ 3 x 1 x ]
f ( x ) (1 x )2 [1 4 x ]
x = 1, f'(x) does not change sign so x = 1 is not maxima/minima
At x

1
it has maxima since f(x) changes sign from positive to negative.
4

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96

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

32. A function y = f(x) is given by x

1
1
y
for all t > 0, then f is
2 and
t (1 t 2 )
1 t

3
3
(1) Increasing for t 0, and decreasing for t ,
2
2
1

(2) Decreasing for t 0,


2

(3) Increasing for t (0, )


(4) Decreasing for t (0, 1)
Sol. Answer (3)
x=

1
1
y
2 ,
t
(1

t2)
1 t

dx
2t
dy (1 3t 2 )

dt (1 t 2 )2 , dt t 2 (1 t 2 )2
dy
(1 3t 2 )
= 2
dx
t 2t
dy
1 3t 2
=
dx
2t 3
dy
> 0, if t > 0
dx

33. Find the equation of tangent to the curve y

x at the point where tangent drawn makes an angle

with
4

+ x-axis :
(1) x y

1
4

(2)

xy

1
4

(3)

xy

1
2

(4)

xy

1
2

Sol. Answer (1)

1
dy
=
dx
2 x
1
2 x

=1
1
x = 2

x=

1
4

y=

1
2

1
x = y

4
2

xy=

1
4

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

97

34. The radius of a right circular cylinder increases at a constant rate. Its altitude is a linear function of the radius
and increases three times as fast as radius. When the radius is 1 cm the altitude is 6 cm. When the radius
is 6 cm, the volume is increasing at the rate of 1 cm/s. When the radius is 36 cm, the volume is increasing
at a rate of n cm/s. The value of n is equal to
(1) 12

(2)

22

(3)

30

(4)

33

Sol. Answer (4)


dr
= k
dt

dh
= 3k
dt

h = r + c
dh
dr
=
dt
dt

=3
h = 3r + c
h = 6, r = 1
c=3
Volume = r2 (3r + 3)
dr
dV
2
= 3 [3r 2r ]
dt
dt

1 = 3 [108 12]

dr
dt

dr
1
=
dt
360
dV
dr
= 3r (3r 2)
dt
dt
1
40 9
= 33 cubic cm/second.

= 3 36(110)

35. Two side of a triangle are to have lengths a cm and b cm. If the triangle is to have the maximum area, then
the length of the median from the vertex containing the side a and b is
(1)

1 2
a b2
2

(2)

2a b
3

(3)

a2 b2
2

(4)

a 2b
3

Sol. Answer (1)

1
ab sin
2
For maximum area = 90
Area of triangle =

Length of median OD =

a2 b2
2

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98

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

36. The cost function at American Gadget is C(x) = x3 6x2 + 15x (x is thousands of units and x > 0). The
production level at which average cost is minimum is
(1) 2

(2)

(3)

(4)

Sol. Answer (2)


Average cost = A( x ) =

(cx )
= x 2 6 x + 15
x

A(x) = 2x 6
A(x)= 0
x=3
3

37. A particle moves along the curve y x 2 in the first quadrant in such a way that its distance from the origin
increases at the rate of 11 units per second. The value of
(1) 4

(2)

9
2

(3)

dx
where x = 3 is, t is time in seconds
dt

3 3
2

(4)

12

Sol. Answer (1)


3

y = x2
y2 = x3
Distance from origin

D x2 x3
Squaring both side and differentiating
2
2DD' = (2 x 3 x )

2D

dx
dt

( x,

3
x2 )

2 x 3 x dx
dD
=
dt
2x (1 x ) dt

11 =

2 3 x dx
2 1 x dt

11 2 2
dx
=
=4

11
dt x 3
38. Let f(x) = ax2 b|x|, where a and b are constant. Then at x = 0, f(x) has
(1) A maxima whenever a > 0, b > 0
(2) A maxima whenever a > 0, b < 0
(3) Minima whenever a > 0, b > 0
(4) Neither maxima nor minima whenever a > 0, b < 0
Sol. Answer (1)
f(x) = ax2 b|x|
f'(x) = 2ax b, x > 0
= 2ax + b, x < 0
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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

99

39. The co-ordinates of the point on the curve 9y2 = x3 where the normal of positive slope to the curve makes equal
intercepts with the axis is

1
(1) 1,
3

(2)

(3, 3)

(3)

8
4, 3

(4)

6 2 6
,

5 5 5

Sol. Answer (3)


9y2 = x3
18 y

dy
= 3x2
dx

x3
1
6 xy

3y = 2x
9y2 =

27 3
y
8

y2 (8 3y) = 0

x2
dy
=
=1
6y
dx

9y 2
=1
6 xy

3
9y = y
2

8y2 3y3 = 0
y=

8
3

40. The tangent of angle made by the tangent of the curve x = a (t + sin t cos t), y = a (1 + sin t)2 with the xaxis at any point on it is
(1)

1
( 2t )
4

(2)

1 sin t
cos t

(3)

1
(2t )
4

(4)

1 sin t
cos 2t

Sol. Answer (2)


x = a (t + sin t . cos t)
y = a (1 + sin t)2
dx
= a (1 + cos 2t)
dt
dy
= 2a (1 + sin t) cos t
dt

2a (1 sin t ) cos t
dy
2(1 sin t ) cos t
=
=
a (1 cos 2t )
dx
2cos2 t
1 sin t
tan =

cos t

41. A cube of ice melts without changing shape at the uniform rate of 4 cm3/minute. The rate of change of the
surface area of the cube, in cm2/minute, when the volume of the cube is 125 cm3, is
(1) 4

(2)

16
5

(3)

16
6

(4)

8
15

Sol. Answer (2)


V = a3

dV
2 da
= 3a
dt
dt

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100

Application of Derivatives

4 cm3/minute = 3 25
S = 6a2

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

da
dt

da
dS
= 12a
dt
dt

dS
4
16
= 12 5
=
dt
75
5

42. Consider the curve represented parametrically by the equation


x = t3 4t2 3t and
y = 2t2 + 3t 5 where t R
If H denotes the number of point on the curve where the tangent is horizontal and V the number of point where
the tangent is vertical then
(1) H = 2 and V = 1

(2)

H = 1 and V = 2

(3) H = 2 and V = 2

(4)

H = 1 and V = 1

Sol. Answer (2)


x = t3 4t2 3t
y = 2t2 + 3t 5

dx
= 3t2 8t 3
dt

= 3t2 9t + t 3
= (3t + 1) (t 3)

dy
= 4t + 3
dt

(4t 3)
dy
=
(3t 1)(t 3)
dx

For vertical tangents

dy
1
t 3,
dx
3

For Horizontal tangents

3
dy
0 t
4
dx

So, H = 1, V = 2
43. The point on the curve y = 6x x2 where the tangent is parallel to x-axis is
(1) (0, 0)

(2)

(2, 8)

(3)

(6, 0)

(4)

(3, 9)

Sol. Answer (4)


y = 6x x2

dy
= 6 2x = 0
dx

x=3
y = 18 9 = 9
i.e., (3, 9)
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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

101

44. For the curve


y = 3sin . cos, x = e sin , 0 ,
the tangent is parallel to x-axis when is
(1) 0

(2)

(3)

(4)

Sol. Answer (3)


y = 3 sin . cos
=

3
sin2
2
dy
= 3 cos 2
d

x = e sin

dx

= e cos e sin
d
dx

= e (sin cos )
d
dy

3cos 2
0 , when
=
dx
4
e (sin cos )

2
, then point is
3
(4) (a, a)

45. The slope of normal to the curve x3 = 8a2y, a > 0 at a point in the first quadrant is
(1) (2a, a)

(2)

(2a, a)

(3)

(a, 2a)

(1) It passes through , a


2

(2)

Is at a constant distance from origin

(3) It passes through origin

(4)

It makes an angle with the + x-axis


2

Sol. Answer (2)


x3 = 8a2 y
3x2 = 8a 2

dy
,a>0
dx

dy 3 x 2 3

dx 8a2 2

x2 = 4a2

(when x = 2a, y = a)

x = 2a
46. The normal to the curve x = a(cos + sin),
y = a (sin cos) at any point such that

Sol. Answer (2)


x = a (cos + sin )

dx
= a ( sin cos sin )
d

= a cos
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102

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

y = a (sin cos )

dy
= a (cos sin cos ) = a sin
d
dy
= tan
dx

[y a(sin cos )] =

cos
x a (cos sin )
sin

y sin + x cos = a[(cos + sin ) . cos + sin (sin cos )]


= a[1]
x cos + y sin = a
47. The equation of tangent to the curve x = a cos3 t, y = a sin3 t at t is
(1) x sec t y cosec t a

(2)

x sec t y cosec t a

(3) x cosec t y cos t a

(4)

x sec t y cos t a

Sol. Answer (2)


x = a cos3 t
y = a sin3 t
dx
= 3a cos2 t . sin t
dt
dy
dt

= 3a sin2 t . cos t

dy
dx

sin2 t cos t
= tan t
cos2 t sin t

Equation of tangent
(y a sin3 t) = tan t (x a cos3 t)
y cos t a sin3 t . cos t = x sin t + a cos3 t . sin t
x sin t + y cos t = a sin t . cos t
x sec t + y cosec t = a
48. For the function f(x) = x2 6x + 8, 2 x 4, the value of x for which f(x) vanishes is
(1) 3

(2)

5
2

(3)

9
4

(4)

7
2

Sol. Answer (1)


f'(x) = 2x 6
f'(x) = 0
For x = 3
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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives
x

49. The slope of the tangent to the curve y

dx

1 x
0

1
2
Sol. Answer (1)

(2)

(1)

103

at the point where x = 1 is

(3)

1
4

(4)

1
5

The equation of the curve is


y

dx

1 x3

dy
1

dx 1 x 3

1
1
dy


at x 1

1 1 2
dx

Slope of the tangent to the curve at x = 1 is

1
2

50. If at each point of the curve y = x3 ax2 + x + 1 the tangent is inclined at an acute angle with the positive
direction of the x-axis then
(1) a > 0

(2)

a 3

(3)

3 a 3

(4)

2a3

(4)

|m| 1

Sol. Answer (3)


3
2
We have, y x ax x 1

dy
3 x 2 2ax 1
dx

tangent make an acute angle with positive direction of x-axis


Hence

dy
0
dx

3x2 2ax + 1 0, x R 4a2 12 0


3 a 3 a [ 3, 3]
51. If m be the slope of a tangent to the curve ey = 1 + x2 then
(1) |m| > 1

(2)

m<1

(3)

|m| < 1

Sol. Answer (4)


The equation of the given curve is
ey = 1 + x2
dy
2x
dx
dy
2x

dx 1 x 2

ey

2x
1 x2

Since 1

= Slope of a tangent to the given curve

2x

1 x2
Hence | m | 1 .

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104

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

52. The normal to the curve 2x2 + y2 = 12 at the point (2, 2) cuts the curve again at
2
22
(1)
,
9
9
Sol. Answer (1)

(2)

22 2
,
9 9

(3)

x2 y 2

1
6 12

(2, 2)

(4)

0, 12

(4)

1
2

(1)

The equation of the normal to the given ellipse at (2, 2) is given by


x x1 2 y y1 2

a
b
x1
y1

x 2
y 2
6
12
2
2

x 2y 2 0

(2)

On solving (1) and (2) we get

22 2
The point of intersection as , .
9
9
53. If 1 = radians then the approximate value of cos 60 1 is
(1)

1 3

2 120

2 120

(2)

(3)

1 3

2 120

Sol. Answer (3)


f'(x) = sin x

Let f(x) = cos x

f(x + h) = f(x) + f'(x)y


cos60 1' =

1
3
1
3
1
3

1' =
=
2 2 60
2 120
2 2

54. The tangent to the curve

x y a at any point on it cuts the axes Ox and Oy at P and Q respectively

then OP + OQ is
(1) 2a

(2)

(3)

x y a x1 y1 a

y
dy
1

dx
x1

( x1y1)

a
2

(4)

2a

Sol. Answer (2)


Let point be (x1, y1)

The equation of tangent y y1

x
x1

y
y1

y1
( x x1)
x1

x1 y1

OP x1 ( x1 y1 )
OQ y1 ( x1 y1 )
OP OQ ( x1 y1 )2 a
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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

105

55. The slope of tangent to the curve represented by x = t2 + 3t 8 and y = 2t2 2t 5 at the point M(2, 1)
is
(1)

7
6

2
3

(2)

(3)

3
2

(4)

6
7

(4)

, 2

Sol. Answer (4)


We have, x t 2 3t 8 , y 2t 2 2t 5
at M(2, 1)
y = 2t2 2t 5 = 1
t2 t 2 = 0 (t 2) (t + 1) = 0

t = 2, t = -1

Also x = t + 3t 8 = 2

t + 3t 10 = 0

(t + 5) (t 2) = 0

t = 2, 5

The common value of t is 2


dy
dy
4t 2
dt
dx
dx
2t 3
dt
6
dy

dx t 2 7

56. The point(s) on the curve y3 + 3x2 = 12y, where the tangent is vertical is (are)
(1) ( 4 3 , 2)

(2)

11, 1

(3)

(0, 0)

Sol. Answer (4)


We have, y 3 3 x 2 12y

(1)

dy
2x

2
dx
y 4

Let point be (x1, y1)

2 x1

y12 4

Tangent is vertical hence

dx
0
dy

y1 2

Let us put y = 2 in (1)


If y1 2 x1

4
3

, 2 .
Hence points on the given curve where tangents are vertical are
3

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106

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

57. If f(x) = x3 + 4x2 + x + 1 is a monotonically decreasing function of x in the largest possible interval 2,
3

then

(1) = 4

=2

(2)

(3)

= 1

(4)

has no real value

Sol. Answer (1)


f ( x ) x 3 4 x 2 x 1
f '( x ) 3 x 2 8 x
For monotonic decreasing f '( x ) 0
3x2 8x 0

8 64 12
8 64 12
x
6
6

According to question 2 x
Hence 2

8 64 12
6

4 and 4

2
3

and

2 8 64 12

3
6

58. If a function f(x) increases in the interval (a, b) then the function (x) = [f(x)]n increases in the same interval
and (x) f(x) if
(1) n = 1

(2)

n=0

(3)

n=3

(4)

n=4

(4)

[1, )

Sol. Answer (3)


'( x ) n[f ( x )]n 1.f '( x )

( x ) [f ( x )]n

as f (x ) is increasing function in (a, b) hence f'(0) > 0, x (a, b)


if f(x) is increasing function then
n 1 = 2, n = 3.

59. The function f, defined by f ( x )


(1) R

x2
ln x 2 cos x increases for x
2
R+

(2)

(3)

R {0}

Sol. Answer (2)

f (x)

x2
ln x 2 cos x
2

We know that x

f '(x) x

1
2 sin x
x

1
2, x > 0 and 2 sinx 2, x R
x

f'(x) > 0 for x > 0


Hence f(x) is increasing in (0, )
When x < 0, x

1
2 but 2 2sinx 2, x R
x

f'(0) < 0hence f(x) is decreasing in (, 0)


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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

107

60. Let f(x) = xex(1 x), then f(x) is


(1) Increasing on R

(2)

1
Increasing on ,
2

(3) Decreasing on R

(4)

1
Decreasing on ,
2

Sol. Answer (2)


f ( x ) xe x (1 x )
f ( x ) e x (1 x ) (1 x 2 x 2 )
f '( x ) ( x 1)(2 x 1)e x (1 x )

1
Clearly f(x) is increasing on , 1
2
61. Which of the following is correct?
(1) ln(1 + x) < x

1 < x 0

(2) ln(1 + x) < x

0<x

(3) ln(1 + x) > x

x>0

(4) ln(1 + x) < x

x > 1

Sol. Answer (2)


We know that
If x > 0

ex 1 x

x2 x3

...
2! 3!

ex 1 x

x ln(1 x )

Second Method
Let f(x) = x - ln(1 + x)
f'(x) = 1

1
x

1 x 1 x

f'(x) > 0 for x (, -1) (0, ) and f'(x) < 0 for x (1, 0)
f(x) > f(0) for x (0, )
x ln(1 + x) > 0
x > ln(1 + x), x > 0

62. Let the equation x sin x = a has a unique root in , , then
2 2

(1) a 1,
2

(2)

a , 1
2


(3) a 1 , 1
2 2

(4)

a R 1 , 1
2
2

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108

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Sol. Answer (3)


sin x = x a
Case1

y=xa

If a > 0
If y = x a touch sin x at x
a

1
2

2
B

Case2

If a < 0
If y = x a touch
y = sin x at x
a 1


Hence a 1 , 1 .
2 2

y=xa
63. Number of real roots of the equation
ex 1 x = 0 is
(1) 1

(2)

(3)

(4)

Sol. Answer (1)


The number of real roots of the equation ex-1 = x is the
number of points of intersection of the graph of the two
curves y = ex-1 and y = x.

y = ex 1

ex 1 = x

1
1

y=

From graph it is clear that the number of real root = 1.

64.

f (x)

x
x
and g ( x )
, where 0 < x 1, then in the interval
sin x
tan x

(1) Both f(x) and g(x) are increasing functions


(2) Both f(x) and g(x) are decreasing functions
(3) f(x) is an increasing function
(4) g(x) is an increasing function
Sol. Answer (3)
f (x)

x
sin x

f '( x )

Let sin x x cos x h( x )

sin x x cos x
sin2 x

h '( x ) cos x [cos x x sin x ] = x sin x

h'(x) > 0 x (0, 1)

f'(x) > 0 i.e., f(x) is increasing function in (0, 1]


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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

109

x
tan x x sec 2 x
g '( x )
tan x
tan2 x
Let tan x x sec2 x = (x)

Now g ( x )

'( x ) sec 2 x [sec 2 x 2 x sec 2 x tan x ] = 2x sec x tan x


'( x ) 0, x (0, 1]

g(x) is decreasing in (0, 1]


65. If f ( x )

P2 1
2

x 3 3 x log 2 is a decreasing function of x in R then the set of possible values of P

P 1
(independent of x) is

(1) [1, 1]

(2)

(1, )

(3)

(, 1]

(4)

(2, )

Sol. Answer (1)


f (x)

p2 1
p2 1

x 3 3 x log2

p2 1 2
f '( x )
3x 3
p2 1

For decreasing function


f'(x) < 0

p2 1
p2 1 2
2
x 1 0
0
p 1
p2 1

1 p 1

p [1, 1]

66. Let f(x) = (x p)2 + (x q)2 + (x r)2. Then f(x) has a minimum at x = , where is equal to
(1)

pqr
3

(2)

pqr

Sol. Answer (1)

(3)

3
1 1 1

p q r

(4)

3
pqr

f(x) = (x p)2 + (x q)2 + (x r)2 = 3x2 2x(p + q + r) + (p2 + q2 + r2)


We know that f(x) = ax2 + bx + c(if a > 0)
is minimum at x =

b
2a

pqr
3
Second method :

Hence

For minimum value of f(x),


We observe that
x=

pqr
3

d 2f ( x )
dx 2

df ( x )
d 2f ( x )
0 and
0
dx
dx 2

df ( x )
6 x 2( p q r ) 0
dx

6 = +ve

Hence f(x) is minimum at x =

pqr
3

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110

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

1
67. The maximum value of
x

(1) e

2x 2

is

(2)

e e

(3)

(4)

ee

(4)

a=

1
1
,b=
2
2

(4)

ac

b2
4

Sol. Answer (2)


1
y
x

2x2

2
y x 2x

2
dy
x 2x [2x 4x log x]
dx

For maxima or minima of y,

dy
0
dx

as x 0

d 2y
0
and 2
dx 1

x
e

Hence y attains maximum value at x =

1
e

and ymax = e e e e

68. If y = a log |x| + bx2 + x has its extremum values at x = 1 and x = 2 then
(1) a = 2, b = 1

(2)

a = 2, b =

1
2

(3)

a = 2, b =

1
2

Sol. Answer (2)


y a log | x | bx 2 x

dy a
2bx 1
dx x

f(x) has extremum at x = 1 and x = 2

Hence f'(1) = 0 and f'(2) = 0


a 2b + 1 = 0 and

69. If ax

1
a
+ 4b + 1 = 0 a = 2 and b =
2
2

b
c , x > 0 and a, b, c are positive constants then
x

(1) ab

c2
4

(2)

ab

c2
4

(3)

bc

a2
4

Sol. Answer (1)


Given ax

b
cx0
x

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

111

A.M. G.M.

ax

b
2 ab
x

ab

c2
4

Second Method :
We have, ax +

b
c, x > 0
x

ax2 cx + b 0

c2 4ab 0 and a > 0

x>0

c2
4

ab

70. Let x be a number which exceeds its square by the greatest possible quantity. Then x is equal to
(1)

1
2

1
4

(2)

(3)

3
4

(4)

(4)

(2, 2)

Sol. Answer (1)

Let y = x x2

dy
1 2x
dx

For maximum or minimum value of y,

We observe that

d 2y
dx

dy
0
dx

2 = negative

1 2x = 0

y is maximum for x =

1
2

1
2

71. The point (0, 3) is nearest to the curve x2 = 2y at


(1)

2, 0

(2)

(0, 0)

(3)

(2, 2)

Sol. Answer (3)

1 2
Let point on the curve x2 = 2y be t , t
2
1 2
The distance of the point (0, 3) from a point P t , t on
2
the given curve x2 = 2y is
t2

d t 3
2

t2

d2 t2 3
2

(0,3)

1
t, 2 t2

Let d2 = z d is maximum or minimum according as z is maximum or minimum

t2

z t2 3
2

t2

dz
2t 2t 3
2

dt

For maximum or minimum value of z,


t = 0, 2, 2

d 2z
dt 2

dz
0
dt

3t 2 4

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112

Application of Derivatives

d 2z
dt 2

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

0 at t = 2

Hence point is (2, 2) or (2, 2)


Thus the point on the given curve which is nearest from (0, 3) is either (2, 2) or (2, 2).
72. Let f(x) be a function defined as below :
f(x) = sin(x2 3x), x 0
= 6x + 5x2, x > 0
then at x = 0, f(x)
(1) Has a local maximum

(2)

Has a local minimum

(3) Is discontinuous

(4)

Point of inflexion

Sol. Answer (2)


sin( x 2 3 x ), x 0
We have, f ( x )
x0
6 x 5 x 2 ,

We observe that
f(0) = 0
f'(0 + h) = 6 + 10h > 0, for h > 0
and f'(0 h) = (2h + 3) cos (h2 + 3h) < 0
Here we observe that f'(x) changes its sign from -ve to +ve in the neighbourhood of x = 0, hence f(x) has a
local minimum at x = 0
Hence x = 0 is a point of local minima.
73. If , be real numbers such that x3 x2 + x 6 = 0 has its roots real and positive then minimum value of is
(1) 3 3 36

(2)

11

(3)

(4)

Sol. Answer (1)


Let roots of
x3 x2 + x 6 = 0 be a, ,

++=

+ + =
= 6
Applying A.M. G.M. inequality
1 1 1

1/3
1 1 1
. .
3


2/3

3

2/3
3(6)

3(36)1/3
Minimum 3.(36)1/3
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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

113

74. If a, b, c, d are real numbers such that


3a 2b 3
0
c d
2

then the equation ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 has


(1) At least one root in [2, 0]

(2)

At least one root in [0, 2]

(3) At least two roots in [2, 2]

(4)

No root in [2, 2]

Sol. Answer (2)


3a 2b 3
0
c d
2

Let f ( x )

6a + 4b + 3c + 4d = 0

ax 4 bx 3 cx 2

dx + e
4
3
2

f(0) = e
f (2)

2
[6a 4b 3c 3d ] e e
3

Since f(x) is continuous and differentiable in (0, 2) and f(0) = f(2) = e


Hence according to Rolles theorem equation
f'(x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 has at least one root in (0, 2).
75. If the least area of triangle formed by tangent, normal at any point P on the curve y = f(x) and
x-axis is 4 sq. unit. Then the ordinate of the point P (P lies in first quadrant) is
(1) 1

(2)

1
2

(3)

1
4

(4)

Sol. Answer (4)


From figure PQ = y1

MQ y1 cot

QN = y1 tan
Area of PMN =
2
1

Thus 4 = y

P(x1, y1)

MN = MQ + QN = y1(cot + tan )

1
1
1
MN PQ = y12 (tan cot ) y12 2 y12
2
2
2

y1 = 2

76. Let f (x) > 0 x R and let g(x) = f(x) + f(2 x) then interval of x for which g(x) is increasing is
(1) (1, )

(2)

(3)

[1, 1]

(4)

[2, )

Sol. Answer (1)


g(x) = f(x) + f(2 x)
g'(x) = f'(x) f'(2 x)
for g to be increase
x>2x
x>1
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114

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

77. The number of tangents to the curve x3/2 + y3/2 = a3/2, where the tangents are equally inclined to axes, is
(1) 2

(2)

(3)

(4)

(3)

(4)

Sol. Answer (2)


The equation of the curve is
x 3/2 y 3/2 a3/2

(1)

dy
x

dx
y

Since the tangent is equally inclined to the axes


hence

dy
1
dx

x
1
y

x
1
y

y=x

Putting x = y in (1), we get,


2x 3/2 a3/2

1
x
2

2/3

1
y
2

2/3

Hence number of tangent = 1


78. The number of tangents to the curve
y2 2x3 4y + 8 = 0 that pass through (1, 2) is
(1) 3

(2)

Sol. Answer (3)


y2 2x3 4y + 8 = 0
Let point be (x1, y1)
3 x12
dy

dx

( x1,y1) y1 2
Equation of tangent at (x1, y1) is given by
y y1

3 x12
( x x1)
y1 2

Since the tangent passes through (1, 2)


Hence, 2 y1

3 x12
(1 x1)
y1 2

4 y12 4 y1 3 x13 3 x12

3 x13 3 x12 y12 4 y1 4 0

(1)

Also (x1, y1) lies on y2 2x3 4y + 8 = 0


Hence y12 2 x13 4 y1 8 0

(2)

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

115

Solving (1) and (2)


x13 3 x12 4 0
( x1 1)( x12 4 x1 4) 0
( x1 1)( x1 2)2 0
x1 = 1, 2
From (2) at x = 1.
y12 4y1 + 10 = 0
Imaginary roots
at x = 2
y12 4 y1 8 0

4 16 32
= 2 3
2

y1

Points are (2, 2 3) hence number of tangent = 2.

79. The curve

xn
a

yn
b

2 touches the line

(1) (b, a)

(2)

x y
2 at the point
a b

(a, b)

(3)

(1, 1)

(4)

1 1
,
b a

Sol. Answer (2)

xn
an

yn

bn

Differentiating it w.r.t. x we get

nx n 1

dy
b n x n 1
ny n 1 dy

0
dx
a n y n 1
bn dx

an
Let the point be (x1, y1)

The equation of tangent

xx1n 1
an

yy1n 1
bn

x1n
an

y1n

(1)

bn

According to question tangent is

x y
2
a b

(2)

Equations (1) & (2) represent same line


Hence

x1n 1

y n 1 1 x1n y1n
1

a n 1
b n 1 2 a n
b n

x1 = a, y1 = b
Hence point is (a, b)
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116

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

80. Let the equation of a curve be x = a( + sin ), y = a(1 cos ). If changes at a constant rate k then the
rate of change of the slope of the tangent to the curve at is
3
2k
k
(1)
(2)
(3) k
3
3

(4)

2k
3

Sol. Answer (4)


We have x = a ( + sin), y = a (1 cos)

dy

tan
dx
2

dm 1
d
sec 2
dt
2
2 dt

m tan

= Slope of the tangent to the given curve


2

1 4
dm
dt 2 3 k

The rate of change of the slope of the tangent =

2k
3

81. Two cyclists start from the junction of two perpendicular roads, their velocities being 3v metres/minute and
4v metres/minute. The rate at which the two cyclists are separating is
(1)

7
v m/min
2

(2)

5v m/min

(3)

v m/min

(4)

7v m/min

(4)

3y = 9x + 2

Sol. Answer (2)


2 = x2 + y2
dx
dy
3vm / minute,
4vm / minute
dt
dt

d
dx
dy
d
2x
2y
x 3v y 4v .
2

dt
dt
dt
dt


x

3
4
d x
y
3v 4v = 3v 4v 5v
5
5
dt



82. The equation of the common tangent to the curves y2 = 8x and xy = 1 is


(1) y = x + 2

(2)

y = 2x + 1

(3)

2y = x + 8

Sol. Answer (1)


Equation of tangent to the curve y2 = 8x is

2
m
It is also the tangent to xy = 1
y mx

(1)

Hence x mx = 1
m

i.e., mx 2 2 x 1 0 have equal real roots.


m
Consequently
b2 4ac = 0

4m 0 m = 1.
m2
Hence equation of the tangent common to the given curves is y = x + 2.
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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

117

83. If is a positive acute angle then


(1) tan < < sin

(2)

< sin < tan

(3) sin < tan <

(4)

sin < < tan

Sol. Answer (4)


Let f() = sin
f'() = 1 cos



f ' ( ) 0 0, which shows that f() is increasing in 0,
2
2
Hence f() > f(0)
sin > 0
> sin

(1)

Again let g() = tan


g'() = sec2 1



g '() 0, 0, which shows that g(q) is increasing in 0,
2
2
g() > g(0)
tan > 0
tan >

(2)

Combining (1) and (2)


tan > > sin
84. If f(x) = x2 + 2bx + 2c2 and g(x) = x2 2cx + b2 are such that, min f(x) > max g(x), then
(1) 0 c

b
2

(2)

|c||b| 2

(3)

|c||b| 2

(4)

|b||c| 2

(4)

Sol. Answer (3)


2
2
We have, f ( x ) x 2 2bx 2c 2 , and g ( x ) x 2cx b
2
2
2
f ( x ) ( x b )2 2c 2 b2 and g ( x ) b c ( x c )
2
2
min f ( x ) 2c 2 b2 and max g ( x ) c b

Since min f(x) > max g(x)


Hence 2c2 b2 > c2 + b2
c2 > 2b2
|c| > |b|

85. If x [1, 1] then the minimum value of


f(x) = x2 + x + 1 is
(1)

3
4

(2)

(3)

3
4

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118

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Sol. Answer (1)


2

1
3
3

,xR
f(x) = x2 + x + 1 = x
4
2
4

Minimum f(x) =

3
4

86. The maximum value of cos[cos (sin x)] is


(1) cos (cos 1)

(2)

cos 1

(3)

(4)

Sol. Answer (1)


f(x) = cos [cos(sin x)]
f'(x) = sin[cos(sin x)] sin(sin x) cos x
for maximaminima of f(x)

f'(x) = 0

x = (2n 1) , m
2

i.e, f(x) is maximum at x = (2n + 1)


2
2

f"(x) < 0 at x (2n 1)

maximum value of f(x) = cos(cos 1)


87. In a ABC, B = 90 and a + b = 4. The area of the triangle is the maximum when C is

4
Sol. Answer (3)
A

1
1
ac = a b 2 a 2
2
2

A2

A2

(2)

(1)

(3)

(4)

1 2 2
a (b a2 )
4

1 2
a [(4 a )2 a 2 )
4

1
A a 2 [16 8a]
4
2
A 4a 2 2a3
2

90
a

Let A2 y

y 4a2 2a3
Area is maximum when y is maximum
dy
8a 6a 2
da

For maximum
a

dy
0
da

4
8
,b
3
3

From figure, we have


cos C

a
b

cos C

1
2

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

119

88. The number of critical points of the function


x

f ( x ) e t (t 1)(t 2)(t 3)dt is


0

(1) 3

(2)

(3)

12

(4)

Sol. Answer (1)


x

f ( x ) et (t 1)(t 2)(t 3)dt


0

f '( x ) e x ( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)


For critical points of f(x), we must have f'(x) = 0 = ex(x 1) (x 2) (x 3)
x = 1, 2, 3
Number of critical point = 3.
89. If the equation x3 + px2 + qx + 1 = 0 (p < q) has only one real root , then belongs to
(1) (2, 1)

(2)

(1, 0)

(3)

(0, 1)

(4)

(1, 2)

Sol. Answer (2)

x 3 px 2 qx 1 0 ( p q )
Let f ( x ) x 3 px 2 qx 1
f (0) 1 f (0) 0
f ( 1) p q f ( 1) 0

f(0) . f(1) < 0

f(x) = 0 has one real root in (-1, 0)

(1, 0)

90. The value of C (if exists) in Lagrange's theorem for the function |x| in the interval [1, 1] is
(1) 0
(3)

1
2

(2)

1
2

(4)

Non-existent in the interval

Sol. Answer (4)


| x | is not differentiable at x = 0 hence conditions of Lagranges theorem is not satisfied consequently c does
not exist.
91. The equation ex 1 + x 2 = 0 has
(1) One real root

(2)

Two real roots

(3) Three real roots

(4)

Four real roots

Sol. Answer (1)


The given equation can be put in the form ex1 = 2 x
Let us draw the graphs of y = ex1 and y = 2 x and the
point of intersection of the two curves gives the number
of real roots of the equation.

x1

y=e

y=2x

From the graph of the two curves it follows that the given
equation has one real root.
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120

Application of Derivatives

92. If 0 < < < <

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

and
2

sin sin sin


then
cos cos cos

(1) x [tan , tan ]

(2)

x (tan , tan )

(3) x (cot , cot )

(4)

x [cot , cot ]

Sol. Answer (2)

sin < sin < sin


3 sin < sin + sin + sin < 3 sin
Also cos > cos cos

(1)

3 cos > cos + cos + cos > 3 sin

1
1
1

3cos cos cos cos 3cos

(2)

Multiplying (1) and (2), we get

tan

sin sin sin


tan
cos cos cos

93. Let A be the area formed by the positive x-axis and the normal and tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = 4 at (1, 3 )
then A2 equals
(1) 9

(2)

12

dy

dx (1,

(3)

15

(4)

18

Sol. Answer (2)


x2 + y2 = 4

dy
x

dx
y

The equation of tangent at (1,

y 3

1
3

P(1, 3)

3)

3 ) is

( x 1)

Q(4, 0)

and the point of intersection with x axis is (4, 0)


The equation of normal at (1, 3) is

y 3 3( x 1)
and point of intersection with x-axis is (0, 0)
Hence A =

1
4 3 = 2 3
2

A2 = 12

94. The minimum value of 64 sec + 27 cosec where 0, is
2

(1) 91

(2)

12

(3)

36

(4)

125

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

121

Sol. Answer (4)


Let f () 64 sec 27 cosec
f '() 64 sec tan 27cosec cot =

64 sin3 27 cos3
sin cos

For maximaminima of f()


tan

f '() 0

3
4

Since f"() > 0, f() has minimum value for tan =

3
4

and Min f() = 125


95. If the tangent to the curve 2y3 = ax2 + x3 at the point (a, a) cuts off intercepts and on the co-ordinate axes,
(where 2 + 2 = 61) then a2 equals
(1) 400

(2)

600

(3)

900

(4)

800

Sol. Answer (3)


We have, 2y 3 ax 2 x 3

5
dy

dx

(a,a ) 6

dy 2ax 3 x 2

dx
6y 2

The equation of tangent to the given curve at (a, a) is y a


x intercept of the tangent =

1
a
5

and y intercept of the tangent =

1
a
6

2
2
61 =

96. If the curves

x2
a2

5
( x a)
6

a 2 a 2 61a 2

a2 = 900
25 36 900
y2
1 and y3 = 16x intersects at right angles, then 3a2 is equal to
4

(1) 1

(2)

(3)

(4)

Sol. Answer (4)


Let point of intersection be ( x1, y 1 )
x2
a2

y2
1
4

(1)

dy
4 x
2
dx
a y
4 x
dy
m1
2. 1

dx
a y1

( x1, y1 )
y3 = 16x

(2)

16
dy
m2

dx ( x1, y1 ) 3 y12
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122

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

The two curves intersect at right angles then m1m2 = 1

4 x1 16
2
2 1
a y1 3 y1
x1

3a 2 y13
64
2 3

But y13 16 x1 16 3a y1
64

y13 16 x1 32 = 4
97. The area of the triangle formed by the tangent to the curve y
(1) 1

(2)

(3)

8
4 x2

at x = 2 and the co-ordinate axes is

(4)

Sol. Answer (4)


Given curve is y

8
4 x2

dy
8

2x
dx
(4 x 2 )2

When x = 2, y = 1

point is (2, 1)

32
1

64
2

B
(2, 1)

Equation of tangent at P(2, 1) is

1
y 1 ( x 2)
2

X'

X'

xy 2 = x + 2

x + xy = 4
A = (4, 0), B = (0, 2)

ar ( OAB )

1
4 2 4 sq. units
2

Y'

SECTION - B
Objective Type Questions (More than one options are correct)
1.

If the line, ax + by + c = 0 is normal to the curve xy = 2, then


(1) a < 0, b > 0

(2)

a > 0, b < 0

(3) a > 0, b > 0

(4)

a < 0, b < 0

Sol. Answer (1, 2)


Slope of the normal (ax by c 0)

a
b

The given curve is


xy = 2

dy
y b
b

0

dx
x a
a

a < 0, b > 0 or a > 0, b < 0

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

2.

Application of Derivatives

123

The equation of the tangents to the curve y = x4 from the point (2, 0), are given by
(1) y = 0
(3) y

4096 2048
8

81
27
3

(2)

y 1 = 5(x 1)

(4)

32
80
2

x
243 81
3

Sol. Answer (1, 3)


Let P(x1, y1) be a point on the curve
y = x4

dy
4x3
dx

dy
4 x13
m

dx ( x1,y1 )
The equation of tangent to the given curve at (x1, y1) is given by

y y1 4 x13 ( x x1 )
Which passes through (2, 0) hence

y1 4 x13 (2 x1 )
8 x13 4 x14 y1 0

4 x14 8 x13 y1 0

(1)

(x1, y1) lie on y x 4 y1 x14

x1 0,

8
3

4 x14 8 x13 x14 0

y1 0,

4096
2048
m = 0 and
81
27

Thus the equations of tangents are


y = 0 and y

3.

4096 2048
8

x
81
27
3

Suppose f '(x) exists for each x and


h(x) = f(x) (f(x))2 + (f(x))3 x R, then
(1) h is increasing whenever f is increasing

(2)

h is increasing whenever f is decreasing

(3) h is decreasing whenever f is decreasing

(4)

Nothing can be said in general

Sol. Answer (1, 3)


We have, h( x ) f ( x ) (f ( x ))2 f (( x ))3
h '( x ) f '( x ) 2f ( x )f '( x ) 3(f ( x ))2 f '( x )
= f '( x )[3(f ( x ))2 2f ( x ) 1]
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124

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Since 3(f ( x ))2 2f ( x ) 1 0 for real values of f(x) as 4 12 < 0


h'(x) > 0 if f'(x) > 0 and h'(x) < 0 if f'(x) < 0
Hence h(x) is increasing or decreasing function according as f(x) increases or decreases.
4.

Let f '(x) = g(x) (x a)2, where g(a) 0 and g is continuous at x = a then


(1) f is increasing near a if g(a) < 0

(2)

f is decreasing near a if g(a) > 0

(3) f is decreasing near a if g(a) < 0

(4)

f is increasing near a if g(a) > 0

Sol. Answer (3, 4)

f '( x ) g ( x )( x a)2
In the neighbourhood of x = a, we have x = a h as g(x) is continuous at x = a
f '(a ) g (a)h2
if g (a ) 0 f '(a ) 0
if g (a ) 0 f '(a ) 0 .
f(x) is increasing in the neighbourhood of a if g(a) > 0 and is decreasing if g(a) < 0
5.

Let f(x) = (x2 1)n (x2 + x 1) then f(x) has local minimum at x = 1, when
(1) n = 2

(2)

n=3

(3)

n=4

(4)

n=5

Sol. Answer (1, 3)

f ( x ) ( x 2 1)n ( x 2 x 1)
f(x) has local extremum at x = 1
then either
f (1) f (1 h ) and f (1) f (1 h ) or f (1) f (1 h ) and f (1) f (1 h )

where f(1) = 0. Thus for local minimum at x = 1


f (1 h ) 0 and f (1 h ) 0 or f (1 h ) 0 and f (1 h ) 0

If f (1 h ) 0 and f (1 h ) 0 h 0

( h )n (2 h )n (h2 3h 1) and (h )n (2 h )n (h2 3h 1) 0


i.e., ( h )n 0
n even number
Hence n = 2, 4.
6.

Which of the following is correct?


(1) e2 > 2e

(2)

e3 > 3e

(3)

e > e

(4)

e
2

Sol. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)


Consider the function
1
x
f ( x ) x1/ x = e

ln x

1/ x
1
1

f '( x ) x1/ x 2 2 n x = x [1 n x ]
x
x

x2

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

125

if x e f '( x ) 0 i.e., f(x) is increasing in (0, e)


if x e f '( x ) 0 i.e., f(x) is decreasing in (e, )
Now
2<e<3
f(e) > f(2)

e1/e > 21/2

e2 > 2e option (1) is correct


Also e < 3 and f(x) decreases in (e, )
f(e) > f(3)

e3 > 3e option (2) is correct

e
f() < f(e)

e1/ > e1/e

e > e

option (3) is correct

Moreover
1

/2
f f (e )
e1/ e
2
2

e
2

e /2
2

e
2

7.

option (4) is correct.

An extremum value of the function


f(x) = (sin1 x)3 + (cos1 x)3 (1 x 1) is
(1)

7 3
8

(2)

3
8

(3)

3
32

(4)

3
16

Sol. Answer (1, 3)


Let sin1 x y
cos1 x

y
2

f (y ) y 3 y
2

f ( y ) 3 y 2 3 y y
4
2

is point of minima
4

min

max

3
32

73

at y
2
8

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126
8.

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Let the function


x

f (x)

t (e

1) (t 1) (t 2) (t 3)dt

has a point of minima at x equal to


(1) 0

(2)

(3)

(4)

Sol. Answer (2, 4)


f'(x) = x(ex 1) (x + 1) (x 2) (x 3)

9.

Let f(x) = |sinx + cosx| then for 'f'


(1) Point of relative maxima in [0, 4] is 4

(2)

Point of relative maxima in [0, 4] is 7

(3) Point of relative minima in (0, 4) is 4

(4)

Point of relative minima in (0, 4) is 8

Sol. Answer (1, 3)

3
4

7
4

11
4

15
4

10. For every pair of continuous functions f, g : [0, 1] such that max {f(x) : x [0, 1]} = max {g(x) :
x [0, 1]}, the correct statement(s) is(are)
[JEE(Advanced)-2014]
(1) (f(c))2 + 3f(c) = (g(c))2 + 3g(c) for some c [0, 1]
(2) (f(c))2 + f(c) = (g(c))2 + 3g(c) for some c [0, 1]
(3) (f(c))2 + 3f(c) = (g(c))2 + g(c) for some c [0, 1]
(4) (f(c))2 = (g(c))2 for some c [0, 1]
Sol. Answer (1, 4)
Let f and g be maximum at c1 and c2 respectively, c1, c2 (0, 1).
Let h(x) = f(x) g(x)
Now h(c1) = f(c1) g(c1) = +ve
and h(c2) = f(c2) g(c2) = ve
h(x) = 0 has at least one root in (c1, c2)
f(x) = g(x) for some x = c (c1, c2)
f(c) = g(c) for some c (0, 1)
Clearly (1, 4) are correct
11. Let a and let f : be given by
f(x) = x5 5x + a.
Then

[JEE(Advanced)-2014]

(1) f(x) has three real roots if a > 4

(2)

f(x) has only one real root if a > 4

(3) f(x) has three real roots if a < 4

(4)

f(x) has three real roots if 4 < a < 4

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

127

Sol. Answer (2, 4)


f(x) = x5 5x + a
if f(x) = 0 a = 5x x5 = g(x)
g(x) = 0 x = 0, 5

4,

1
4

g(x) = 0 5 5x4 = 0 x = 1, 1

g(1) = 4

1
4

1
4

1
4

g(1) = 4
If a (4, 4)

f(x) = 0 has 3 real roots

if a > 4 or a < 4 f(x) = 0 has only 1 real root.

SECTION - C
Linked Comprehension Type Questions
Comprehension I
Let the solution set of the inequation

1
0 in , be A and let solution set of equation sin1 (3x 4x3) = 3 sin1 x be B. Now
sin x
2

define a function f : A B.

sin x
2

1.

There are exactly two linear onto functions that can be drawn from A to B, one of them is
(3)

12 x 19

(1) cos = f(x), for some x A, R

(2)

sin + cos = f(x), for some x A, R

(3) tan = f(x) for some x A, R

(4)

sec = f(x) for some x A and R

(1)
2.

3.

12 x 19

(2)

12 x 19

(4)

12

19
x
2

Among the following statements which is true

on to
If f : A
B is a strictly decreasing function, then ordered pair (, ) satisfying the equation

2 6

37
f ( ) is
4

3 1
(1) ,
4 2

(2)

6 , 3

(3)

4 , 3

(4)

(3, )

Solutions of Comprehension I
1
1

0
sin x 2 sin x
2

3 5
x . = A
4 6

and sin1(3 x 4 x 3 ) 3 sin1( x )

1 1
x , = B
2 2
f:AB

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128
1.

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Answer (1)
Let f ( x ) ax b
Case -1

3
5

5
f a
b and f a
b
4
4
6
6

1 5a

b
2
6

1 3

ab
2
4

On solving a

i.e., f ( x )

12
, b 19

12
19
x

Case - 2

3 3
5 5
f
a b and f
ab
4 4
6 6

1 3

ab
2
4

1 5

ab
2
6

On solving
a

12
19
, b

f (x)

2.

Answer (4)

3.

Answer (3)

12
19
x

onto
As f : A B is strictly decreasing function

then

3 5 1 1
f : , ,
4 6 2 2
then

3
5
<x<
4
6

3
5
f > f ( x ) > f
4
6

Now
2 6

37
f ( )
4

If = 3 f ( )

( 3)2

1
f ( )
4

3
1
i.e.,
4
2

3
i.e., ordered pair (, ) is , 3 .
4

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

129

Comprehension II
When the product of two positive numbers is constant,then the minimum value of their sum is 2 times the square
root of their product. Also when the sum of two positive numbers is constant, the maximum value of their-product
is

1
time the square of their sum. We get these minimum and maximum values only when the two numbers are
4

equal.
1.

The minimum value of f ( x )


2

(1)

1
{ x } , (where {x} is fractional part of x) is
2{ x }
2 1

(2)

(3)

2 2

(4)

2 1

(3)

0,

(4)

0, 2

(3)

(, 0]

(4)

(0, )

Sol. Answer (1)

1
{ x }
{ x } 2
2
2{ x }
2{ x }
2.

The range of g(x) = (cot1x) (cot1(x)) is

2 2

(1) ,
4
6

(2)

0,

Sol. Answer (2)

g ( x ) cot 1 x( cot 1 x )
1
1
2
= cot x (cot x )
2

2
1
= cot x
4
4

Completing the squares

2
0,

3.

e
x
The range of f ( x ) ln 3 is
x
4e
(1) [0, )

(2)

[1, )

Sol. Answer (2)

e
x
f ( x ) ln 3
x
4e
1

ln , ln
e

x
4e

[1, ]

e
1
1
2

2
x
e
4e

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130

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Comprehension III
Among several applications of maxima and minima is finding the largest term of a sequence. Let < an > be a
n
x
consider f ( x )
on [1, )
sequence. Consider f(x) obtained by replacing x by n e.g., let an
n 1
x 1

f '(x)

1
(1 x )2

0 x R.

Hence max. f ( x ) lim f ( x ) 1


x

1.

The largest term of the sequence an

(1)

29
453

n2
n 3 200

is

49
543

(2)

(3)

43
543

(4)

41
451

(3)

(4)

1
7

Sol. Answer (2)


f (x)

x2
x 3 200

f '( x )

x(400 x 3 )
( x 3 200)2

f '( x ) 0 if 0 x (400)1/3
f '( x ) 0 if x (400)1/3

i.e., f(x) is maximum at x (400)1/3


Since 7 (400)1/3 8
Hence max term of the given sequence
an =

2.

n2
3

n 200

is a7

49
543

The largest term of the sequence an


(1)

3
19

n
2

n 10

2
13

(2)

is

Sol. Answer (1)


Let an

n
2

n 10

Let f ( x )
f '( x )

x
2

x 10
x 2 10 2 x 2
2

( x 10)

10 x 2
2

( x 10)

( x 10)( x 10)
( x 2 10)2

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

131

f '( x ) 0 if x 10
and f '( x ) 0 if x 10
i.e., f(x) is max at x 10
since 3 10 4
and a3

9
4

a4
19 26

Hence largest term of the sequence

an
3.

n
2

n 10

is a3

3
19

If f(x) is the function required to find largest term in question 1 then


(1) f(x) increase x

(2)

f(x) decrease x

(3) f(x) has a maxima at x = (400)1/3

(4)

f(x) increases on [0, 9]

Sol. Answer (3)


From (1), f(x) has maxima at x (400)1/3

SECTION - D
Assertion-Reason Type Questions
1.

STATEMENT-1 : Let f(x) = |x2 1|, x [2, 2] f(2) = f(2) and hence there must be at least one c (2, 2)
so that f (c) = 0.
and
STATEMENT-2 : f (0) = 0, where f(x) is the function of S1.

Sol. Answer (4)


Statement1 : f (x ) is not differentiable at x = 1 hence
Rolles theorem is not applicable consequently Statement1 is false.

2 1

From graph f'(0), a = 0 i.e., Statement2 is True.


2.

STATEMENT-1 : Let f (x) and g (x) be two decreasing function then f (g(x)) must be an increasing function.
and
STATEMENT-2 : f (g(2)) > f (g(1)); where f and g are two decreasing function.

Sol. Answer (2)


Statement1 : We have f'(x) < 0 and g'(x) < 0
Let h(x) = f[g(x)]
h '( x ) f '(g ( x )).g '( x )

h '( x ) 0 hence f (g ( x )) is increasing

Statement1 is true.
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132

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Since g (2) g (1) , as g(x) is a decreasing function


f [g (2)] f [g (1)] as f(x) is a decreasing function
Hence Statement2 is true but it is not correct explanation of statement-1.
3.

STATEMENT-1 : f(x) = x3 is a one-one function.


and
STATEMENT-2 : Any monotonic function is a one-one function.

Sol. Answer (1)


Clearly from graph x3 is one-one.
Statement1 is true.
By monotonic function we mean either it is monotonic
increasing or monotonic decreasing.

y = x3

Any monotonic function is one-one hence


Statement2 is true and correct explanation of
Statement1.
4.

STATEMENT-1 : f(x) = |x 1| + |x 2| +|x 3| has a local minima.


and
STATEMENT-2 : Any differentiable function f(x) may have a local maxima or minima if f '(x) = 0 at some points.

Sol. Answer (2)


Statement1 : f ( x ) | x 1| | x 2 | | x 3 |

3 x 6,
x 1

f ( x ) x 4, 1 x 2
x,
2x3

3 x 6, x 3
f(x) has minima at x = 2.

6
5
4
3

(1, 3)

(3, 3)

(2, 2)

1
1

If f'(x) = 0 then it is either point of maxima or minima hence Statement2 is true but not correct explanation.

5.

STATEMENT-1 : Let a function f(x) be satisfying f ' ( x ) f (b ) f (a ) , x (a, b) f(x) is a differentiable


ba
function on [a, b].
and
STATEMENT-2 : According to LMVT if f(x) is differentiable on [a, b] then f ' ( x )

f ( b ) f (a )
,a x b .
(b a)

Sol. Answer (4)


Statement1 : If f(x) is continuous on [a, b] and differentiable on (a, b) then
f ( b ) f (a )
, x (a, b )
ba
Hence Statement1 is false.
f '( x )

Statement2 is True.
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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

6.

Application of Derivatives

133

STATEMENT-1 : Let f(x) = ex and g(x) = e2x f(x) . g(x) be an increasing function.
and
STATEMENT-2 : Multiplication of two increasing function is an increasing function.

Sol. Answer (3)


Statement1 : f ( x ) e x , g ( x ) e2 x

h( x ) f ( x ).g ( x ) e3 x
h '( x ) 3e3 x .
h '( x ) 0 x R hence h(x ) is increasing i.e., Statement1 is True.
It is not necessary that multiplication of two increasing function is increasing hence Statement2 is false.
7.

Consider the function f(x) = 2x3 + 3x2 + 6x.


STATEMENT-1 : f (x) > 0.
and
STATEMENT-2 : f is an increasing function.

Sol. Answer (2)

f ( x ) 2x 3 3 x 2 6 x
f '( x ) 6 x 2 6 x 6 = 6( x 2 x 1)
2

1
3
= 6 x
2
4

f'(x) > 0 Statement1 is true.


f(x) is increasing function (but it is not given continuous) hence f(x) may not be differentiable.
i.e., Statement2 is true but not correct explanation.

SECTION - E
Matrix-Match Type Questions
1.

Match the greatest value of the function in column I to column II.


Column-I
2
(A) y 100 x on [6, 8]

(B) y = 2 tanx tan2x on 0,

x
1
on [0, 1]
(C) y tan
1 x
(D) y

a2
b2

on (0, 1), a > 0, b > 0


x 1 x

Column-II
(p) No greatest value
(q) 10
(r)

(s) 1

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134

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Sol. Answer A(q), B(s), C(r), D(p)


(A) y =

100 x 2 , domain x [ 10, 10]

dy
x

dx
100 x 2
critical points of y = f(x) are x = 0, 10
We find that
f (0) 10
f (10) 0
f ( 10) 0

ymax = 10
2
(B) y 2 tan x tan x

dy
2 sec 2 x 2 tan x.sec 2 x
dx

for maximaminima of y

dy
0 x
dx
4

d 2y
0
2
dx x
4

ymax = 1
1
(C) y tan

1 x
,0x1
1 x

1 x
1
1 x

1 x
0 tan1

1 x 4
y max

(D) y

dy
a2
b2
a2
b2
2

dx
x
(1 x )2
x 1 x

for maximaminima of y
dy
a
0 x
dx
ab

d 2y
2
dx x

a
ab

0 i.e., it is minima.

hence no maximum value.


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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

2.

Application of Derivatives

135

Let the function defined in Colomn-I have domain 0, then match the followings.
2

Column-I

Column-II

(A) x2 + 2cos x + 2 has

2
(p) Local maximum at cos1
3

(B) 9x 4 tan x has

(q) Maximum at x

x2 x
1

x
x

cos
sin

(C)
has
4
2

(r) No local extremum

1
1

(D) x cos ( x 3) sin ( x 3) has

(s) Minima at x = 1

1
2

Sol. Answer A(r), B(p), C(q), D(q, s)


(A) f ( x ) x 2 2cos x 2 f '( x ) 2 x 2sin x = 2( x sin x )
For maximaminima of f(x)


f '( x ) 0 x = sin x no value of x lies in 0,
2
i.e., No extremum.
(B) f ( x ) 9 x 4 tan x

f '( x ) 9 4 sec 2 x
For maximaminima of f(x)

f '( x ) 0
sec 2 x

9
4

sec x

3
2

cos x

2
3

2
x cos1
3

f ''( x ) 8 sec 2 x tan x


2

f '' cos1 0
3

1 2
Hence f(x) attains maxima for x = cos
3

1
x2 x
(C) f ( x ) x cos x sin x
4
2

f '( x ) sin x x sin x cos x cos x 2 x 1


2
4
=

1 x 1

sin x
2x 1
x sin x
= sin x x
2
2
4

2 4

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136

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

For maximaminima of f(x)

f '( x ) 0 x

1
2

1
1

Now f ''( x ) x cos x sin x


2
2

1 1
1
f '' sin 0
2
2
2

Hence f(x) attains maximum value at x =

1
2

1
1

(D) f ( x ) x cos ( x 3) sin ( x 3)

f '( x ) x sin ( x 3)
2

For maximaminima of f(x)

f '( x ) 0 x

1
,1
2

f ''( x ) 2 x cos ( x 3) sin ( x 3)


2

1
f '' 0
2

f '' 1
3.

2
0
2

f(x) attains maximum value at x =

1
2

f(x) attains minima in the neighbourhood of x = 1

Match the followings


Column I

Column II
2 x

(A) The length of interval in which f(x) = x e is monotonic


increasing is

(p) 1

(B) If y = kx3 + 3x2 + (2k + 1) x + 1000 is strictly increasing


for all values of x, then the least of positive integral value
which k can attain, is

(q) 2

(C) If the sum of the squares of intercepts on axes made


by a tangent at any point on the curve x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3
is ak then k is

(r) Irrational number

(D) If

log x
attains maximum value at x = k then k is
x

(s) Greater than 1


(t) An integer

Sol. Answer A(q, s, t), B(p, t), C(q, s, t), D(r, s)


(A) f(x) = x2ex f(x) = xex(x 2) > 0 for x (0, 2)
hence the length of interval is 2.
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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

137

(B) y = kx3 + 3x2 + (2k + 1)x + 1000


y' = f'(x)= 3kx2 + 6x + (2k + 1) > 0, x R
k > 0 and 62 12k(2k + 1) < 0
k > 1 we observe that for k = 1, f(x) = (x + 1)3 + 999, which is clearly monotonic increasing.
Hence the least of positive integer which k attain is 1.
(C) Tangent at point (, ) is

x
y
1/3 a 2/3
1/3

Now, a 3 3 3 a k
4

k
a 3 .a 3 a
2
k
a a k 2

(D) y

log x 1
log x
y'
x
x2

The point of maximum is e


Which is an irrational number greater than 1.
4.

Match the followings according to the given conditions.


Column I

Column II

(A) Let k be the number which can be the slope of a tangent

(p) Less than 1

to the curve x2 + y2 2x + 2y + 2xy = 1, then k is


(B) f(x) = 2sec x

3 tan x, then minimum value of f(x) is

(C) If the function f x

ax b

x 1 x 4

has a local minima at

(q) 1
(r) Whole number

(2, 1), then a is


(D) Let f x max sin x , cos x x R then minimum
value of f(x) is

(s) Irrational number

(t)

1
2

Sol. Answer A(q, r), B(q, r), C(q, r), D(p, s, t)


(A) x2 + y2 2x 2y 2xy = 1

(1)

(x y)2 = 2x + 2y + 1
This is a parabolic curve with slope of axis = 1, therefore there can be no tangent with slope = 1
Differentiating (1) w.r.t. x

dy x y 1

dx x y 1
As

dy
1, we have x y + 1 = x y 1
dx

1 = 1 (not possible)
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138

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

(B) The minimum value of f x a sec x b tan x is a 2 b 2


Hence minimum of 2sec x 3 tan x is 22 3 1
2

(C) f(2) = 1
f(2) = 0

2a + b = 2

(1)

(2)

b=0

From (1) and (2) 2a = 2

a=1

(D) y = maximum {|sin x|, |cos x|}

gives minimum value

fmin f
4
2
5.

Match the interval of monotonicity of functions in column I to column II.


Column-I

Column-II

(A) y = x ex

(p) (, )

(B) y log ( x x 2 1)

(q) (0, 3)

(C) y x 4 x x 2

(r) (0, )

(D) y

10

(s) (1, )

4x 9x 2 6x

Sol. Answer A(q, r, s), B(p, q, r, s), C(q), D(s)


(A) y x e x
dy
1 ex
dx

dy
dx 0, if x 0

dy 0, if x 0
dx

i.e., y is monotonic in (0, 3), (0, ) and (1, )

2
(B) y log x x 1

dy
1
2x

dx x x 2 1 2 x 2 1

1
x2 1

dy
0 x R
dx

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

139

(C) y x 4 x x 2

4 x x 2 2 x 2 x 2 2(3 x x 2 )
dy
1
2

4x x x
(4 2 x ) =
dx
4x x2
4x x2
2 4x x 2

dy
0, x (0, 3)
dx

(D) y

6.

10
3

4x 9x 2 6x
dy
10(12 x 2 18 x 6)

dx
(4 x 3 9 x 2 6 x )2

dy
60(2 x 2 3 x 1)

dx
(4 x 3 9 x 2 6 x )2

dy
( x 1)(2 x 1)
60
dx
(4 x 3 9 x 2 6 x )2

0, , 2 (1, )
dy

dx
1
0, , 1

Match the extrema of the functions in column I to column II.


Column-I

Column-II

(A) y x 1 x 2

(p) ymin = 0

(B) y = x2ex

(q) ymin = 1

(C) y x 2 x 2

(r) ymax =

e ax e ax
2
Sol. Answer A(r, s), B(p), C(s), D(q)
(D) y

(s) ymin = 1

(A) f ( x ) x 1 x 2
x = cos

f ( x ) cos | sin |, sin 0


[0, ]

f ( x )max 2
Now,

f ( x ) cos sin

x 2

f ( x )min 1

(B) y x 2e x

dy
x e x (2 x )
dx

at x = 0 sign of

dy
changes from negative to positive
dx

Hence y = f(x) attains minima at x = 0 and min f(x) = 0


at x = 2 sign of

dy
changes from positive to negative
dx

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140

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Hence y = f(x) attains maxima at x = 2 and ymax =


ymin = 0, ymax =

4
e2

4
e2

(C) y x 2 x 2 , domain x [ 2, 2]
x2

dy 2(1 x 2 )

dx
2 x2

dy

dx

dy 0, 1 x 1

dx 0, x ( 2, 1) (1, 2)

2 x2

2 x2

In the neighbourhood of x = 1,

In the neighbourhood of x = 1,

dy
changes from negative to positive hence y attains minima at x = 1.
dx
dy
changes from positive to negative hence y attains maxima at x = 1.
dx

ymin = 1, ymax = 1
(D) y

eax e ax
2

From A.M. G. M. inequally, we have

eax e ax
1
2
ymin = 1.
7.

Match the maxima of the function in column I to column II.


Column-I
(A)

x2ex

(B)

Column-II
(p) 1

4x

(q) 0

x 4

(C) x2 (x 2)2/5
(D)

(r) f (2)

14

(s) 1

x 8x 2 2

Sol. Answer A(r), B(r, s), C(q), D(p)


(A) y x 2e x

+
0

dy
x
2
x 2 e x 2 xe x = x(2 - x)e-x e ( x 2x )
dx

We observe that f'(x) changes its sign from +ve to ve in the neighbourhood of x = 2 and from ve to +ve
in the neighbourhood of x = 0
f(2) is maxima.
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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

(B) y

4x

x 4

Application of Derivatives

141

4
x

4
x

A.M. G.M. inequally


x

4
4, x 0
x

4
x

4
x

ymax = 1
(C) y x 2 ( x 2)2/5
x 5 x 10
2 x (6 x 10)
2
dy
x2
=

2 x( x 2)2/5 = 2 x
3/5
3/5
dx
5 ( x 2)
5( x 2)3/5
5( x 2)

dy
4 x (3 x 5)

dx
5( x 2)3/5

Critical points of the given function are 0,

5
,2
3

f (0) 0
f (2) 0
1/5

25 1
5
f
3 9
3
y max 0 .

(D) y

14
4

x 8x 2 2

y is maximum when x4 8x2 + 2 is minimum


Let z = x4 8x2 + 2

dz
4 x 3 16 x
dx

For maximaminima of z
dz
0 x 0, 2
dx

d 2z
2
2 12 x 16
dx

d 2z
0
2
dx x 2
Hence ymax =

z is minimum for x = 2

14
= 1
16 32 2

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142

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

SECTION - F
Integer Answer Type Questions
1.

The ratio of absolute maxima and minima of f x

x2 x 1
, x R is___________ .
x2 x 1

Sol. Answer (9)


The absolute maxima = 3 and the absolute minima =
The required ratio =
[we know

2.

1
3

3
9
1/ 3

1 x2 x 1

3]
3 x2 x 1

Consider the function f x x


of interval of increase, then

1
1 9
, x , . If is the length of interval of decrease and be the length
2 2
x

is ________ .

Sol. Answer (7)


f x x

3.

1
1 9
1
9
, x , is decreasing in , 1 and increasing in 1, ,
x
2 2
2
2

1 1
,
2 2

9
7
1
2
2

If the function f x

1
is downward concave in (, ) then [ ] is ______ ( [.] is greatest integer function.)
1 x2

Sol. Answer (1)

6 x2
3

0 in 1 , 1 . Hence 1 , 1
f "x

3 3

3
3
1 x 2 3

1 2


1
3 3 3
1


4.

The slope of the tangent to the curve (y x5)2 = x(1 + x2)2 at the point (1, 3) is

[JEE(Advanced)-2014]

Sol. Answer (8)


(y x5)2 = x(1 + x2)2

dy

2( y x 5 )
5 x 4 = (1 + x2)2 + 2x(1 + x2).2x
dx

x = 1, y = 3

dy

2(3 1)
5 (1 1)2 4(1 1)
dx

dy

4
5 12
dx

dy
dy
5 3
8
dx
dx

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

143

SECTION - G
Multiple True-False Type Questions
1.

STATEMENT-1 : If two sides of a triangle are given, then its area will be maximum if the angle between the
given sides be

STATEMENT-2 : The function f x

1
is increases in the interval (0, ).
1 x2

STATEMENT-3 : The length of the subnormal of the curve y3 = 12ax at y = 1 is 4a.


(1) T F T

(2)

TTT

(3)

FFF

(4)

FFT

(4)

FFT

Sol. Answer (1)


STATEMENT-1

True,

Area =

1
1
ab sin C ab sin C sin C 1
2
2

Area maximum =
STATEMENT-2

False,

y f x

ab sin C 1 at C
2
2

1
1 x2

f(x) decreases in (0, )


STATEMENT-3
2.

True,

4a
subnormal = yy ' y . 2 4a, at y = 1
y

STATEMENT-1 : The maximum value of 3sinx + 4cos x is 7.


STATEMENT-2 : In the interval [1, 1] the greatest value of f x

1
x
is .
2
5
4 x x

STATEMENT-3 : The greatest value of 4sin2x + 3cos2x is 4.


(1) T F T

(2)

TTT

(3)

FFF

Sol. Answer (4)


STATEMENT-1

False, Maximum value of 3 sin x 4cos x 32 42 5

STATEMENT-2

False, f x

x
x2 4
, f 'x
0 for x(2, 2)
2
4xx
x 2 x 4 2

f(x) is increasing in [1, 1]


fmax f 1

STATEMENT-3

True,

1
6

f(x) = 4sin2x + 3cos2x = 3 + sin2x 4.

Hence f(x)max = 4
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144

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

SECTION - H
Aakash Challengers Questions
1.

The least natural number a for which x

Sol. x

a
x2

a
x2

2 x (0, ) is ______.

x 3 2x 2 a 0

Let f ( x ) x 3 2x 2 a
f '( x ) 3 x 2 4 x

f '( x ) x (3 x 4)

For maximum or minimum value of f ( x ) 0 x

4
,0
3

f ''( x ) 6 x 4

4
f '' = 4 > 0
3

f(x) attains minimum value at x =

4
3

32
4
and (f(x))min = f
a
3
27

for f ( x ) 0

4
f 0
3

2.

32
, i.e., least natural number value of a = 2.
27

x2 y 2

1 meets the co-ordinate axes in the points A and B such


8 18
that the area of the OAB is least, then the point P is of the form (m, n) where m + n + 10 is

Any tangent at a point p(x, y) to the ellipse

Tangent at P is x.2 2 cos y .3 2 sin 1


8
18

Sol.

x
2 2 sec

y
3 2 sec

A : (2 2 sec ,0), B : (0, 3 2 cosec)


ar ( OAB )

12
1
2 2 sec 3 2cosec =
sin 2
2

ar(OAB) is least on sin2 = 1


2

Y
B(0, 3 2 cos)
P(2 2 cos, 3 2 sin)
X'

X
A(2 2 sin, 0)

Y'

1
1
P 2 2
,3 2
(2, 3) ( m, n )
2
2

m + n + 10 = 2 + 3 + 10 = 15
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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

3.

Application of Derivatives

145

If the tangent at P(1, 1) on the curve y2 = x(2 x)2 meets the curve again at Q, then the points is of the form
3a a
2
2
b , 2b , where a + b is

Sol. Given equation is y2 = x(2 x)2


dy
(2 x )2 2 x (2 x )
2y
dx
= 4 4x + x2 4x + 2x2
2

(i)

P(1, 1)
X'

Q
O

3a a
,
b 2b
X

= 3x 8x + 4

dy 3 x 2 8 x 4

dx
2y

dy
384
1
dx
m

(1,1)
2.1
2

Tangent at P is y 1 =

Y'

1
(x 1)
2

2y 2 = x + 1
x + 2y = 3
From (1) & (2), we get
2

3x
2
2 x( x 2)

(3 x)2 = 4x(x 2)2


4x3 17x2 + 22x 9 = 0
(x 1) (4x2 13x + 9) = 0
(x 1) (x 1) (4x 9) = 0
x = 1,

9
4

3x
y

9
4 3
2
8

9 3 3a a
Q , ,

4 8 b 2b

3a = 9, b = 4
a = 3, b = 4
a2 + b2 = 32 + 42 = 25
4.

The curve y = ax3 + bx2 + cx is inclined at 45 to x-axis at (0, 0) but it touches x-axis at (1, 0), then
a + b + c + 10 is

Sol. Given curve is y = ax3 + bx2 + cx

dy
3ax 2 2bx c
dx

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146

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Given tan 45 = 1
3ax2 + 2bx + c = 1
dy
c 1
Now,

dx (0,0)
dy
3a 2b c 0 3a + 2b + 1 = 0
dx

(1, 0)

Also, a + b + c = 0
3a + 2b + 1 = 0
a+b+1=0
2a + 2b + 2 = 0

a1=0
a=1b=2
a + b + c + 10 = 1 2 + 1 + 10 = 10
5.

Let f(x) = 2x3 + ax2 + bx 3cos2x is an increasing function for all x R such that ma2 + nb + 18 < 0 then the
value of m + n + 7 is

Sol. Given f(x) = 2x3 + ax2 + bx 3cos2x


f'(x) = 6x2 + 2ax + b + 3sin2x > 0
6x2 + 2ax + b 3 > 0 ( sin2x 1)
6x2 + 2ax + (b 3) > 0
D<0
4a2 24(b 3) < 0
a2 6b + 18 < 0
m = 1, n = 6
m+n+7=16+7=86=2

6.

x
Let g(x) = 2f f (2 x ) and f (x) < 0 x (0, 2). If g(x) increases in (a, b) and decreases in (c, d), then
2

the value of a + b + c + d

Sol. We have g ( x ) 2

2
is
3

1 x
x
f f (2 x ) = f f (2 x )
2 2
2

f'(x) is increase in (0, 2) ( f"(x) < 0 x (0, 2))

x
2x
2

3x
2
2

4
x
f f (2 x ), x
2
3

Let

4
3

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

147

g'(x) < 0
4
g(x) decrease in ,2
3

Also,

x
2x
2

4
x
f f (2 x ), x
3
2

g'(x) > 0

4
g(x) increase in 0,
3
4
Thus (a, b ) 0,
3

4
And (c, d ) ,2
3

a+b+c+d

4 4
2
2
= 0 2
3 3
3
3

7.

8 2
2 = 2 + 2 = 4
3 3

If the equation 3x2 + 4ax + b = 0 has at least one root in (0, 1) such that La + Mb + N = 0, then the value of
L + M + N + LMN is

Sol. Let f(x) = x3 + 2ax2 + bx


Clearly f(x) is continuous is [0, 1] and differentiable in (0, 1)
Also, f(0) = 0 = f(1)
Thus, all the conditions of Rolles theorem are satisfied
f(1) = 0 1 + 2a + b = 0
L = 1, M = 2, N = 1
L + M + N + LMN = 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 = 6
8.

The integral value of 'b' for which the function f(x) = (b2 3b + 2) (cos2x sin2x) + (b 1)x + sin(b2 + b + 1)
does not possesses any stationary point is

Sol. Given f(x) = (b2 3b + 2)cos2x + (b 1)x + sin(b2 + b + 1)


f'(x) = 2(b 1)(b 2) sin2x + (b 1) 0 for any x R
(b 1) (1 (b 2) (2sin2x)) 0
b 1&

1
1
2(b 2)

1
1
1,
1
2(b 2)
2(b 2)

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148

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

1
2 0
b2
1 2b 4
0
b2
5 2b
0
b2
2b 5
0
b2

1
2
b2
1
20
b2
1 2b 4
0
b2
2b 3
0
b2

5
2

5
b 2,

2
3 5
b , 2 2,
2 2

+
2

3
2

3
b , 2
2

When b = 2, f(x) = x + sin(7)


f'(x) = 1 0
3 5
Thus, b ,
2 2
b=2

9.

If the point on y x tan


4 sin2 equals________.

ax 2
2

32 cos

( > 0), where the tangent is parallel to y = x has an ordinate

4
then
a

Sol. We have,
y x tan a -

ax 2
2

32cos a

dy
ax
tan
dx
16cos2

tangent is parallel to y = x
hence

tan

ax
16cos2

16
(tan 1)16cos2
(sin cos )cos
=
a
a

The corresponding ordinate

16
a
256
(sin cos )sin
(sin cos )2 .cos2
2
a
32cos a 2

4 16 2
1

sin sin cos (1 2sin cos )

a a
2

3
1 2
1
2
2
4 sin 3
sin sin
4
4
2

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

10. The least value of a for which the equation

Sol. Let y

Application of Derivatives

149


4
1

a has at least one solution in 0, is_____.


2
sin x 1 sin x

dy
4
1
4
1

cos x 2

; x 0,

2
dx
sin x 1 sin x
2
sin x (1 sin x )

4
1
dy

0 cosx = 0 or
2
sin x (1 sin x )2
dx

or 4(1 sin x )2 sin2 x


2

2

Since x 0, 4(1 sin x )2 sin2 x sin x
3
2

d 2y
35 0
2
dx x sin1 2
3

2
Hence the given a has minimum at x sin1 in 0, and minimum a = 9.
3 2
11. If

y = f(x) is represented as
x = g(t) = t5 5t3 20t + 7 and
y = h(t) = 4t3 3t2 18t + 3 (2 < t < 2)

then, max f(x) equals________.


Sol. x g (t ) t 5 5t 3 20t 7

dx
g '(t ) 5t 4 15t 2 20
dt

g '(t ) 0 in (2, 2)

y h(t ) 4t 3 3t 2 18t 3

dy
h '(t ) 12t 2 6t 18 = 6(2t2 - t - 3)
dt

h '(t ) 0 t 1,

3
2

h ''(t ) 24t 6

3
h ''( 1) 30 0 , h '' 30 0
2
y = f(x) has maximum value at t = 1
and Max f(x) = 14
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150

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

12. The curve y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + 5 touches the x-axis at P(2, 0) and cuts the y-axis at Q, where its gradient
is 3. Then the value of a + b + c + abc is
Sol. P lies on curve

8a 4b 2c 5 0

(i)

dy
0
Also,

dx ( 2, 0)
2
(3ax 2bx c )( 2, 0) 0

12a 4b c 0

(ii)

dy
3
Also,

dx (0, 5)

c=3
Now,

8a + 4b = 1
12a 4b = 3

1
3
,b
2
4
x

13. Let f ( x ) | log2 (log3 (log4 (cos t a ))) |dt be increasing for all real value of x, then the range of 'a'
0

Sol.

Given f ( x ) | log2 (log3 (log4 (cos t a ))) | dt


0

f'(x) = log2(log3(log4(cosx + a)))


Since f(x) is a function, so f'(x) 0
log2(log3(log4(cosx + a))) 0 x R
Now, f(x) is increasing for all x, provided it is defined
log3(log4 (cosx + a)) > 0
log4(cosx + a) > 1
cosx + a > 4
a > 4 cosx x R
a > 5 ( 1 cosx 1)
a (5, )
14. If f (x) > 0 and f(1) = 0 such that g(x) = f(cot2x + 2cotx + 2) where 0 < x < , then g(x) decreasing in (a, b),
where a + b +

is
4

Sol. Given g(x) = f(cot2x + 2cotx + 2)


g'(x) = f'(cot2x + 2cotx + 2) {2cotxcosec2x 2cosec2x} < 0
f'{(cotx + 1)2 + 1} (cotx + 1) > 0

(A)

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Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

Application of Derivatives

151

Given f"(x) > 0


f'(x) is increase
f'{(cotx + 1)2 + 1} > f'(1). ( f'(1) = 0)
g'(x) < 0 if (cotx + 1) > 0

from (A)

3
x 0,
4

3
(a, b ) 0,
4

ab

3
0

4
4 4

15. If the equation x3 3x + k = 0 has two distinct roots is (0, 1), then the value of k is
Sol. Let and such that be the roots of f(x) = x3 3x + k = 0
Then 0 < < < 1 and f() = 0 = f()
Also f(x) is differentiable in (0, 1) and continuous in [0, 1] and f() = 0 = f()
Thus, all the conditions of Rolles theorem are satisfied.
Now, we have to show that a point. c (, ) such that f'(c) = 0
3c2 3c = 0
c = 0, 1. (0, 1)
Thus k =
16. Let 'f' be a real function whose derivative upto third order exist and for same pair a, b R such that a < b,
f (a ) f (a ) f (a )
f (c )
is
log
a b then there exist c (a, b) for which
f (c )
f (b ) f (b ) f (b )

Sol. Let (x) = (f(x) + f'(x) + f"(x))ex


(x) is differential on (a, b) and continuous on [a, b].
Also,

(a) f (a) f (a) f (a)

e b a
(b) f (b) f (b) f (b)
= eab eba = eab + b a = e0 = 1

(a) = (b)
Thus, Rolles theorem is satisfied
Now, there exists a point c (a, b) such that
'c) = 0
(f'(c)+ f"(c) + f'''(c))ec (f(c) + f'(c) + f''(c))eC = 0
f'(c) + f"(c) + f'''(c) f(c) f'(c) f"(c) = 0
f'''(c) = f(c)

f (c )
1
f (c )

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152

Application of Derivatives

Solution of Assignment (Set-2)

17. A function f : R R is defined as f(x) = |x|m |x 1|n x R, m, n N. Then the maximum value of the
functions is ______

Sol.

( 1)m n x m ( x 1)n

f ( x ) ( 1)n x m ( x 1)n

x m ( x 1)n

x0

, 0 x 1
,

x 1

Let g(x) = xm(x 1)n


g'(x) = mxm1(x 1)n + nxm(x 1)n 1
= xm1(x 1)n1 {mx m + nx} = 0
Now, f'(x) = 0
g'(x) = 0

m
mn
Now, f(0) = 0, f(1) = 1

x 0,

mn n m
mn n m ( 1)n
m
n
1
And f
=

(
1)
mn

mn
m
n
(

)
m
n

m
n
(
)

Hence, the maximum value =

mn n m
(m n )m n

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