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Application of Derivatives

Solutions

SECTION - A

Objective Type Questions (One option is correct)

1.

Suppose x1 and x2 are the point of maximum and the point of minimum respectively of the function f(x) =

2x3 9ax2 + 12a2x + 1 respectively, (a > 0) then for the equality x12 = x2 to be true the value of a must be

(1) 0

(2)

(3)

(4)

1

4

6(x2 3ax + 2a2)

= 6(x a)(x 2a);

a>0

x = a is point of maxima

x = 2a is point of minima

a2 = 2a

a = 0 or a = 2

but a > 0 a = 2

2.

Point A lies on the curve y e x and has the coordinate ( x, e x ) where x > 0. Point B has the coordinates

(x, 0). If O is the origin, then the maximum area of the triangle AOB is

(1)

(2)

2e

1

4e

(3)

1

e

(4)

1

8e

A=

2

1

x e x

2

dA

1 x2

2 x2

= [e 2 x e ] = 0

dx

2

x2 =

1

2

1

1 1

e 2 =

A=

2

2

1

8e

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84

3.

Application of Derivatives

The radius of a right circular cylinder increases at the rate of 0.1 cm/minute, and the height decreases at

the rate of 0.2 cm/minute. The rate of change of the volume of the cylinder, in

cm3/minute, when the radius is 2 cm and the height is 3 cm is

(1) 2

(2)

8

5

(3)

3

5

(4)

2

5

(4)

(4)

V = r2h

dV = 2rh dr + r2 dh

dV = 2 2 3 (0.1) + 22 (0.2)

= 1.2 0.8

= 0.4 =

4.

2

5

(1) 0

(2)

(3)

y = x (x + 1) (x + 2) (x + 3)

5.

The difference between the greatest and the least values of the function,

f(x) = sin 2x x on , is

2 2

(1)

(2)

3 3

(3)

2 3

3 2

2

3

y = sin 2x x

y' = 2 cos 2x 1 = 0

cos 2x =

2x =

1

2

x=

y =

6

2 6

3

y =

6

2 6

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Application of Derivatives

85

=

2

2 6

y =

2

2

ymax =

2

Difference =

ymin =

6.

If a variable tangent to the curve x2y = c3 makes intercepts a, b on x and y axis respectively, then the value

of a2b is

(1) 27 c3

(2)

4 3

c

27

(3)

27 3

c

4

(4)

4 3

c

9

(4)

x2y = c3

y=

c3

x2

dy

2c 3

= 3

dx

x

Variable tangent :

(y y1) =

a=

2c 3

( x x1 )

x13

y1x13

x1

2c 3

x1

x1

2

3 x1

2

b = y1

2c 3

3c 3

=

2

x1

x12

9 2 3c 3

27 3

c

a b = x1 2 =

4

x1

4

2

7.

Difference between the greatest and the least values of the function

f(x) = x (ln x 2) on [1, e2] is

(1) 2

(2)

(3)

e2

f(x) = x (ln x 2)

f'(x) = (ln x 2) + 1

= ln x 1

=0

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86

Application of Derivatives

x=e

f''(x) =

f''(e) =

1

x

1

0

e

x = e is minima

Minimum value = e (ln e 2) = e

f(1) = 1 (0 2) = 2

f(e2) = e2 (2 2) = 0

Maximum = 0

Difference = 0 ( e) = e

8.

The sum of lengths of the hypotenuse and another side of a right angle triangle is given. The area of the triangle

will be maximum if the angle between them is

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

5

12

A

1

bc

2

1

b a2 b2

2

1

b (b k )2 b 2 where a + b = k

2

dA

k

2k

0 b

and a

db

3

3

Hence, cos

9.

,

2

3

Let C be the curve y = x3 (where x takes all real values). The tangent at A except (0, 0) meets the curve

again at B. If the gradient at B is k times the gradient at A, then k is equal to

(1) 4

(2)

(3)

(4)

1

4

Tangent at A

x1

y = 3x12 x 2x13

2 x

3x12 x 2x13 = x3

Or, x3 3x12 x + 2x13 = 0

(x x1)2 (x + 2x1) = 0

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Application of Derivatives

87

x = (x1, 2x1)

Gradient at A = 3x12

Gradient at B = 3 (4 x12)

k = 4

10. The interval on which f(x) = 2x3 + 9x2 + 12x 1 is decreasing in

(1) ( 1, )

(2)

(2, 1)

(3)

( , 2)

(4)

(1, 1)

(3)

( , )

(4)

(0, )

f(x) = 2x3 + 9x2 + 12x 1

f'(x) = 6x2 + 18x + 12

For decreasing

f'(x) < 0

6x| + 18x + 12 < 0

x2 + 3x + 2 < 0

(x + 1) (x + 2) < 0

x (2, 1)

11. The function f(x) = cot1 x + x increases in the interval

(1) (1, )

(2)

( 1, )

f(x) = cot1 x + x

f'(x) =

1

x2

1

=

1 x2

1 x2

f'(x) > 0

xR

12. Divide 64 into two parts such that sum of the cubes of two parts is minimum. The two parts are

(1) 44, 20

(2)

16, 48

(3)

32, 32

(4)

50, 14

x + y = 64

S = x3 + y3

S = x\ + (64 x)3

S' = 3x2 3 (64 x)2

For maxima and minima, S' = 0

x2 = (64 x)2

x = 64 x

x = 32

13. If f(x) = x5 5x4 + 5x3 10 has local maximum and minimum at x = a and x = b respectively then (a, b) is

(1) (0, 1)

(2)

(1, 3)

(3)

(1, 0)

(4)

(2, 4)

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88

Application of Derivatives

f(x) = x5 5x4 + 5x3 10

f'(x) = 5x4 20x3 + 15x2

For maxima and minima, f'(x) = 0

5x2 (x2 4x + 3) = 0

x2 (x 3) (x 1) = 0

x=0

x = 3, 1

f''(x) = 20x3 60x2 + 30x

= 10x (2x2 6x + 3)

f''(3) > 0

Point of minima

f''(1) < 0

Point of maxima

14. A point on the parabola y2 = 18x at which the ordinate increases at twice the rate of abscissa is

(1) (2, 4)

(2)

(2, 4)

(3)

9 9

8,2

(4)

9 9

8,2

y2 = 18x

2y

dy

dx

18

dt

dt

2y

2dx

dx

18

dt

dt

4y = 18

y=

9

2

81

= 18x

4

x=

9

8

15. The real number x when added to its reciprocal gives the minimum value of sum at x equal to

(x > 0)

(1) 1

(2)

(3)

(4)

y = x

1

, x > 0 x 2 if x 0 and minima occurs at x 1

x

x

x

, x 1

3

x

, 0 x 1

f (x)

3

x

3 4 x , x 0

(2) f(x) fails to exist for 3 distinct real values of x

(3) f(x) changes its sign twice as x varies from (, )

(4) Function attains its extreme values at x1 and x2, such that x1x2 > 0

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Application of Derivatives

89

x

x 1

3

x

0 x 1

f(x) = 3

x

3 4 x x 0

1

x 1

2 x

f'(x) = 2

0 x 1

3 x

x 2 4 x 0

f'(x) changes its sign two times at x = 0, 2

17. The function f ( x ) x 3 3 x is

(1) Increasing in ( , 1) (1, ) and decreasing in (1, 1)

(2) Decreasing in ( , 1) (1, ) and increasing in (1, 1)

(3) Increasing in (0, ) and decreasing in (, 0)

(4) Decreasing in (0, ) and increasing in (, 0)

Sol. Answer (1)

f(x) = x3 3x

f'(x) = 3x2 3

= 3 (x2 1)

f'(x) = 3 (x + 1) (x 1)

For increasing function

f'(x) > 0

x (, 1) (1, )

18. Coffee is draining from a conical filter of height and diameter both 15 cm into a cylindrical coffee pot of diameter

15 cm. The rate at which coffee drains from the filter into the pot is 100 cm3/minute. The rate in cm/minute

at which the level in the pot is rising at the instant when the coffee in the pot is 10 cm, is

(1)

9

16

(2)

25

9

(3)

5

3

(4)

16

9

Rate of change of volume in the cylinder = Rate of change of volume in conical filter.

r2h= V

Differentiate w.r.t. t

dV

2 dh

= r

dt

dt

2

15 dh

100 =

2 dt

dh

16

cm/s

=

dt

9

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90

Application of Derivatives

x = sec2 t and y = cot t

where t is a parameter. If the tangent at the point P on the curve where t

4

(1)

5 3

2

(2)

5 5

2

(3)

2 5

3

(4)

3 5

2

x = sec2 t

y = cot t

dx

2 sec t sec t tan t

dt

dy

cosec 2 t

dt

dy

cosec 2 t

=

sin t

dx

2

cos3 t

dy

1

3

= (cot t )

dx

2

1

dy

= 2

dx t

4

Equation of tangent

1

y 1 = ( x 2)

2

2y 2 = x + 2

x + 2y = 4

Equation of curve

1

=1

y2

1

=1x

y2

y2 =

1

1 x

(2y 3) y2 = 1

2y3 3y2 + 1 = 0

For point Q,

1

, x 5

2

Distance |PQ| =

1

(5 2)2 1

2

9

=

4

45

3 5

=

4

2

Application of Derivatives

91

20. For all a, b R, the function f(x) = 3x4 4x3 + 6x2 + ax + b has

(1) No extremum

(2)

(4)

Three extremum

f'(x) = 12x3 12x2+ 12x + a

= 12x (x2 x + 1) + a

f''(x) = 12 (3x2 2x + 1)

f''(x) > 0

f'(x) is always increasing

So, there is one point at which f'(x) = 0.

21. Maximum area of a rectangle which can be inscribed in a circle of a given radius R is

(1)

R 2

3

(2)

3R 2

(3)

2R2

(4)

3R2

Let rectangle has width b and height h

A = bh

2

b 4R h

so, area A( h ) h 4R 2 h 2

Area is maximum when A2 is maxima.

A2 = h2(4R2 h2)

f(h) = h2(4R2 h2)

For maxima f'(h) = 0

f'(h) = h2 (2h) + (4R2 h2)2h = 0

h2 + 4R2 h2 = 0

h2 = 2R2

h 2R

From physical nature of problem it is clear that this should be maximum area since minimum area will tend

towards zero.

Amax =

=

2R 4R 2 2R 2

2R 2R = 2R2

22. If atmosphere pressure at a height of h units is given by the function P(h) = heh then pressure is maximum at

the height of

(1) 1 unit

(2)

1

e

units

(3)

e units

(4)

2 units

92

Application of Derivatives

P(h) = heh

P'(h) = heh + eh = eh(1 h)

P'(h) = 0 h = 1

at h = 1, P'(h) changes sign from positive to negative so it is point of maxima.

23. The radius of cylinder of maximum volume which can be inscribed in a right circular cone of radius R and

height H (axis of cylinder and cone are same) H given by

(1)

R

2

(2)

R

3

(3)

2R

3

(4)

2R

5

(4)

Let cylinder has radius r and height h.

AO'B and AOC are similar

so,

AO O B

AO OC

H h

r

=

H

R

h

r

H R

h

r

1

H

R

h H 1

R

V = r2h

V (r ) r 2 H 1

R

r3

V (r ) H r 2

R

3r 2

V (r ) H 2r

0

R

2r

3r 2

0

R

3r

0

R

2R

3

(r 0)

; x3

| x 2 |

24. Let f ( x ) 2

x 2x 4 ; x 3

(1) 1

(2)

(3)

Application of Derivatives

93

Critical point is the point where f'(x) = 0 or f'(x) does not exist.

Function changes its definition at a point x = 3 so we will check at x = 3

Also, |x 2| = (x 2) if x > 2 = (x 2) if x < 2

; x2

x 2

so, f ( x ) ( x 2)

; 2 x 3

x 2 2x 4 ; x 3

if

1

f ( x ) 1

if

2 x 2 if

x2

2x3

x3

2 x 2 0 x 1 (3, )

so f'(x) cannot be zero anywhere.

Now, f'(x) does not exist at x = 2

since, f'(2 0) = 1

and f'(2 + 0) = 1

Also, f'(3 0) = 1

f'(3 + 0) = 2(3) 2 = 4

so, f'(x) does not exist at x = 3

Hence, there are two critical points

x = 2 and x = 3

25. Consider the function f(x) = x cos x sin x, then identify the statement which is correct

(1) f is neither odd nor even

(2)

f is monotonic increasing in 0,

2

(4)

f has a minima at x =

(3)

8

3

f(x) is odd function

f'(x) = x sin x + cos x cos x

f'(x) = x sin x

f''(x) = x cos x sin x

at x =

f''(x) < 0 point of maxima

26. If x = 2t 3t2 and y = 6t3 then

(1)

1

3

(2)

dy

at point (1, 6) is

dx

9

2

(4)

dx

2 6t

dt

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94

Application of Derivatives

dy

18t 2

dt

dy

dy

18t 2

dt

dx dx 2 6t

dt

If y = 6 = 6t3

t=1

18 12 18 9

dy

dx 2 6 1 4 2

t 1

27. For the cubic, f(x) = 2x3 + 9x2 + 12x + 1, which one of the following statement, does not hold good?

(1) f(x) is non-monotonic

(2) Increasing in ( , 2) (1, ) and decreasing in (2, 1)

(3) f : R R is bijective

(4) Inflection point occurs at x

3

2

f'(x) = 6x2 + 18x + 12

= 6 (x2 + 3x + 2)

= 6 (x + 1) (x + 2),

f is increasing in (, 2) (1, ) and decreasing in (2, 1).

f(x) = 6(2x + 3)

f(x) changes sing at x =

3

2

3

2

28. The function f is defined by f(x) = xp (1 x)q for all x R where p, q are positive integer, has a maximum

value, for x equal to

(1)

pq

pq

(2)

(3)

1

2

(4)

p

pq

f'(x) = xp q (1 x)q 1 (1) + p(1 x)q xp

q

p

q p

= x (1 x )

x (1 x )

f'(x) = 0

Then, x = 1, (As x 0)

p

q

=0

x 1 x

p(1 x) qx = 0

and

p x(p + q) = 0

x=

p

pq

Application of Derivatives

95

29. Let h(x) be a twice continuously differentiable positive function on an open interval J. Let

g(x) = ln(h(x)) for each x J.

Suppose (h(x))2 > (h(x))h(x) for each x J then

(1) g is increasing on J

(2)

g is decreasing on J

(3) g is concave up on J

(4)

g(x) = ln (h(x))

g'(x) =

1

h( x )

h( x )

g''(x) =

h( x ) h( x ) ( h( x ))2

h2 ( x )

g''(x) < 0

So, g'(x) is decreasing function and g is concave down on J.

30. The least area of a circle circumscribing any right triangle of area S is

(1) S

(2)

2S

(3)

2S

(4)

4S

1

2r r sin

2

Area of ABC =

S = r2 sin

r2 =

S

sin

Area of circle =

S

sin

Least area = S.

31. If f(x) = x(1 x)3 then which of following is true?

(1) f(x) has local maxima at x = 1

(2)

1

4

(4)

1

4

f ( x ) x 3(1 x )2 ( 1) (1 x )3 1

f ( x ) (1 x )2 [ 3 x 1 x ]

f ( x ) (1 x )2 [1 4 x ]

x = 1, f'(x) does not change sign so x = 1 is not maxima/minima

At x

1

it has maxima since f(x) changes sign from positive to negative.

4

96

Application of Derivatives

1

1

y

for all t > 0, then f is

2 and

t (1 t 2 )

1 t

3

3

(1) Increasing for t 0, and decreasing for t ,

2

2

1

2

(4) Decreasing for t (0, 1)

Sol. Answer (3)

x=

1

1

y

2 ,

t

(1

t2)

1 t

dx

2t

dy (1 3t 2 )

dt (1 t 2 )2 , dt t 2 (1 t 2 )2

dy

(1 3t 2 )

= 2

dx

t 2t

dy

1 3t 2

=

dx

2t 3

dy

> 0, if t > 0

dx

with

4

+ x-axis :

(1) x y

1

4

(2)

xy

1

4

(3)

xy

1

2

(4)

xy

1

2

1

dy

=

dx

2 x

1

2 x

=1

1

x = 2

x=

1

4

y=

1

2

1

x = y

4

2

xy=

1

4

Application of Derivatives

97

34. The radius of a right circular cylinder increases at a constant rate. Its altitude is a linear function of the radius

and increases three times as fast as radius. When the radius is 1 cm the altitude is 6 cm. When the radius

is 6 cm, the volume is increasing at the rate of 1 cm/s. When the radius is 36 cm, the volume is increasing

at a rate of n cm/s. The value of n is equal to

(1) 12

(2)

22

(3)

30

(4)

33

dr

= k

dt

dh

= 3k

dt

h = r + c

dh

dr

=

dt

dt

=3

h = 3r + c

h = 6, r = 1

c=3

Volume = r2 (3r + 3)

dr

dV

2

= 3 [3r 2r ]

dt

dt

1 = 3 [108 12]

dr

dt

dr

1

=

dt

360

dV

dr

= 3r (3r 2)

dt

dt

1

40 9

= 33 cubic cm/second.

= 3 36(110)

35. Two side of a triangle are to have lengths a cm and b cm. If the triangle is to have the maximum area, then

the length of the median from the vertex containing the side a and b is

(1)

1 2

a b2

2

(2)

2a b

3

(3)

a2 b2

2

(4)

a 2b

3

1

ab sin

2

For maximum area = 90

Area of triangle =

Length of median OD =

a2 b2

2

98

Application of Derivatives

36. The cost function at American Gadget is C(x) = x3 6x2 + 15x (x is thousands of units and x > 0). The

production level at which average cost is minimum is

(1) 2

(2)

(3)

(4)

Average cost = A( x ) =

(cx )

= x 2 6 x + 15

x

A(x) = 2x 6

A(x)= 0

x=3

3

37. A particle moves along the curve y x 2 in the first quadrant in such a way that its distance from the origin

increases at the rate of 11 units per second. The value of

(1) 4

(2)

9

2

(3)

dx

where x = 3 is, t is time in seconds

dt

3 3

2

(4)

12

3

y = x2

y2 = x3

Distance from origin

D x2 x3

Squaring both side and differentiating

2

2DD' = (2 x 3 x )

2D

dx

dt

( x,

3

x2 )

2 x 3 x dx

dD

=

dt

2x (1 x ) dt

11 =

2 3 x dx

2 1 x dt

11 2 2

dx

=

=4

11

dt x 3

38. Let f(x) = ax2 b|x|, where a and b are constant. Then at x = 0, f(x) has

(1) A maxima whenever a > 0, b > 0

(2) A maxima whenever a > 0, b < 0

(3) Minima whenever a > 0, b > 0

(4) Neither maxima nor minima whenever a > 0, b < 0

Sol. Answer (1)

f(x) = ax2 b|x|

f'(x) = 2ax b, x > 0

= 2ax + b, x < 0

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Application of Derivatives

99

39. The co-ordinates of the point on the curve 9y2 = x3 where the normal of positive slope to the curve makes equal

intercepts with the axis is

1

(1) 1,

3

(2)

(3, 3)

(3)

8

4, 3

(4)

6 2 6

,

5 5 5

9y2 = x3

18 y

dy

= 3x2

dx

x3

1

6 xy

3y = 2x

9y2 =

27 3

y

8

y2 (8 3y) = 0

x2

dy

=

=1

6y

dx

9y 2

=1

6 xy

3

9y = y

2

8y2 3y3 = 0

y=

8

3

40. The tangent of angle made by the tangent of the curve x = a (t + sin t cos t), y = a (1 + sin t)2 with the xaxis at any point on it is

(1)

1

( 2t )

4

(2)

1 sin t

cos t

(3)

1

(2t )

4

(4)

1 sin t

cos 2t

x = a (t + sin t . cos t)

y = a (1 + sin t)2

dx

= a (1 + cos 2t)

dt

dy

= 2a (1 + sin t) cos t

dt

2a (1 sin t ) cos t

dy

2(1 sin t ) cos t

=

=

a (1 cos 2t )

dx

2cos2 t

1 sin t

tan =

cos t

41. A cube of ice melts without changing shape at the uniform rate of 4 cm3/minute. The rate of change of the

surface area of the cube, in cm2/minute, when the volume of the cube is 125 cm3, is

(1) 4

(2)

16

5

(3)

16

6

(4)

8

15

V = a3

dV

2 da

= 3a

dt

dt

100

Application of Derivatives

4 cm3/minute = 3 25

S = 6a2

da

dt

da

dS

= 12a

dt

dt

dS

4

16

= 12 5

=

dt

75

5

x = t3 4t2 3t and

y = 2t2 + 3t 5 where t R

If H denotes the number of point on the curve where the tangent is horizontal and V the number of point where

the tangent is vertical then

(1) H = 2 and V = 1

(2)

H = 1 and V = 2

(3) H = 2 and V = 2

(4)

H = 1 and V = 1

x = t3 4t2 3t

y = 2t2 + 3t 5

dx

= 3t2 8t 3

dt

= 3t2 9t + t 3

= (3t + 1) (t 3)

dy

= 4t + 3

dt

(4t 3)

dy

=

(3t 1)(t 3)

dx

dy

1

t 3,

dx

3

3

dy

0 t

4

dx

So, H = 1, V = 2

43. The point on the curve y = 6x x2 where the tangent is parallel to x-axis is

(1) (0, 0)

(2)

(2, 8)

(3)

(6, 0)

(4)

(3, 9)

y = 6x x2

dy

= 6 2x = 0

dx

x=3

y = 18 9 = 9

i.e., (3, 9)

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Application of Derivatives

101

y = 3sin . cos, x = e sin , 0 ,

the tangent is parallel to x-axis when is

(1) 0

(2)

(3)

(4)

y = 3 sin . cos

=

3

sin2

2

dy

= 3 cos 2

d

x = e sin

dx

= e cos e sin

d

dx

= e (sin cos )

d

dy

3cos 2

0 , when

=

dx

4

e (sin cos )

2

, then point is

3

(4) (a, a)

45. The slope of normal to the curve x3 = 8a2y, a > 0 at a point in the first quadrant is

(1) (2a, a)

(2)

(2a, a)

(3)

(a, 2a)

2

(2)

(4)

2

x3 = 8a2 y

3x2 = 8a 2

dy

,a>0

dx

dy 3 x 2 3

dx 8a2 2

x2 = 4a2

(when x = 2a, y = a)

x = 2a

46. The normal to the curve x = a(cos + sin),

y = a (sin cos) at any point such that

x = a (cos + sin )

dx

= a ( sin cos sin )

d

= a cos

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102

Application of Derivatives

y = a (sin cos )

dy

= a (cos sin cos ) = a sin

d

dy

= tan

dx

[y a(sin cos )] =

cos

x a (cos sin )

sin

= a[1]

x cos + y sin = a

47. The equation of tangent to the curve x = a cos3 t, y = a sin3 t at t is

(1) x sec t y cosec t a

(2)

x sec t y cosec t a

(4)

x sec t y cos t a

x = a cos3 t

y = a sin3 t

dx

= 3a cos2 t . sin t

dt

dy

dt

= 3a sin2 t . cos t

dy

dx

sin2 t cos t

= tan t

cos2 t sin t

Equation of tangent

(y a sin3 t) = tan t (x a cos3 t)

y cos t a sin3 t . cos t = x sin t + a cos3 t . sin t

x sin t + y cos t = a sin t . cos t

x sec t + y cosec t = a

48. For the function f(x) = x2 6x + 8, 2 x 4, the value of x for which f(x) vanishes is

(1) 3

(2)

5

2

(3)

9

4

(4)

7

2

f'(x) = 2x 6

f'(x) = 0

For x = 3

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Application of Derivatives

x

dx

1 x

0

1

2

Sol. Answer (1)

(2)

(1)

103

(3)

1

4

(4)

1

5

y

dx

1 x3

dy

1

dx 1 x 3

1

1

dy

at x 1

1 1 2

dx

1

2

50. If at each point of the curve y = x3 ax2 + x + 1 the tangent is inclined at an acute angle with the positive

direction of the x-axis then

(1) a > 0

(2)

a 3

(3)

3 a 3

(4)

2a3

(4)

|m| 1

3

2

We have, y x ax x 1

dy

3 x 2 2ax 1

dx

Hence

dy

0

dx

3 a 3 a [ 3, 3]

51. If m be the slope of a tangent to the curve ey = 1 + x2 then

(1) |m| > 1

(2)

m<1

(3)

|m| < 1

The equation of the given curve is

ey = 1 + x2

dy

2x

dx

dy

2x

dx 1 x 2

ey

2x

1 x2

Since 1

2x

1 x2

Hence | m | 1 .

104

Application of Derivatives

52. The normal to the curve 2x2 + y2 = 12 at the point (2, 2) cuts the curve again at

2

22

(1)

,

9

9

Sol. Answer (1)

(2)

22 2

,

9 9

(3)

x2 y 2

1

6 12

(2, 2)

(4)

0, 12

(4)

1

2

(1)

x x1 2 y y1 2

a

b

x1

y1

x 2

y 2

6

12

2

2

x 2y 2 0

(2)

22 2

The point of intersection as , .

9

9

53. If 1 = radians then the approximate value of cos 60 1 is

(1)

1 3

2 120

2 120

(2)

(3)

1 3

2 120

f'(x) = sin x

cos60 1' =

1

3

1

3

1

3

1' =

=

2 2 60

2 120

2 2

then OP + OQ is

(1) 2a

(2)

(3)

x y a x1 y1 a

y

dy

1

dx

x1

( x1y1)

a

2

(4)

2a

Let point be (x1, y1)

x

x1

y

y1

y1

( x x1)

x1

x1 y1

OP x1 ( x1 y1 )

OQ y1 ( x1 y1 )

OP OQ ( x1 y1 )2 a

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Application of Derivatives

105

55. The slope of tangent to the curve represented by x = t2 + 3t 8 and y = 2t2 2t 5 at the point M(2, 1)

is

(1)

7

6

2

3

(2)

(3)

3

2

(4)

6

7

(4)

, 2

We have, x t 2 3t 8 , y 2t 2 2t 5

at M(2, 1)

y = 2t2 2t 5 = 1

t2 t 2 = 0 (t 2) (t + 1) = 0

t = 2, t = -1

Also x = t + 3t 8 = 2

t + 3t 10 = 0

(t + 5) (t 2) = 0

t = 2, 5

dy

dy

4t 2

dt

dx

dx

2t 3

dt

6

dy

dx t 2 7

56. The point(s) on the curve y3 + 3x2 = 12y, where the tangent is vertical is (are)

(1) ( 4 3 , 2)

(2)

11, 1

(3)

(0, 0)

We have, y 3 3 x 2 12y

(1)

dy

2x

2

dx

y 4

2 x1

y12 4

dx

0

dy

y1 2

If y1 2 x1

4

3

, 2 .

Hence points on the given curve where tangents are vertical are

3

106

Application of Derivatives

57. If f(x) = x3 + 4x2 + x + 1 is a monotonically decreasing function of x in the largest possible interval 2,

3

then

(1) = 4

=2

(2)

(3)

= 1

(4)

f ( x ) x 3 4 x 2 x 1

f '( x ) 3 x 2 8 x

For monotonic decreasing f '( x ) 0

3x2 8x 0

8 64 12

8 64 12

x

6

6

According to question 2 x

Hence 2

8 64 12

6

4 and 4

2

3

and

2 8 64 12

3

6

58. If a function f(x) increases in the interval (a, b) then the function (x) = [f(x)]n increases in the same interval

and (x) f(x) if

(1) n = 1

(2)

n=0

(3)

n=3

(4)

n=4

(4)

[1, )

'( x ) n[f ( x )]n 1.f '( x )

( x ) [f ( x )]n

if f(x) is increasing function then

n 1 = 2, n = 3.

(1) R

x2

ln x 2 cos x increases for x

2

R+

(2)

(3)

R {0}

f (x)

x2

ln x 2 cos x

2

We know that x

f '(x) x

1

2 sin x

x

1

2, x > 0 and 2 sinx 2, x R

x

Hence f(x) is increasing in (0, )

When x < 0, x

1

2 but 2 2sinx 2, x R

x

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Application of Derivatives

107

(1) Increasing on R

(2)

1

Increasing on ,

2

(3) Decreasing on R

(4)

1

Decreasing on ,

2

f ( x ) xe x (1 x )

f ( x ) e x (1 x ) (1 x 2 x 2 )

f '( x ) ( x 1)(2 x 1)e x (1 x )

1

Clearly f(x) is increasing on , 1

2

61. Which of the following is correct?

(1) ln(1 + x) < x

1 < x 0

0<x

x>0

x > 1

We know that

If x > 0

ex 1 x

x2 x3

...

2! 3!

ex 1 x

x ln(1 x )

Second Method

Let f(x) = x - ln(1 + x)

f'(x) = 1

1

x

1 x 1 x

f'(x) > 0 for x (, -1) (0, ) and f'(x) < 0 for x (1, 0)

f(x) > f(0) for x (0, )

x ln(1 + x) > 0

x > ln(1 + x), x > 0

62. Let the equation x sin x = a has a unique root in , , then

2 2

(1) a 1,

2

(2)

a , 1

2

(3) a 1 , 1

2 2

(4)

a R 1 , 1

2

2

108

Application of Derivatives

sin x = x a

Case1

y=xa

If a > 0

If y = x a touch sin x at x

a

1

2

2

B

Case2

If a < 0

If y = x a touch

y = sin x at x

a 1

Hence a 1 , 1 .

2 2

y=xa

63. Number of real roots of the equation

ex 1 x = 0 is

(1) 1

(2)

(3)

(4)

The number of real roots of the equation ex-1 = x is the

number of points of intersection of the graph of the two

curves y = ex-1 and y = x.

y = ex 1

ex 1 = x

1

1

y=

64.

f (x)

x

x

and g ( x )

, where 0 < x 1, then in the interval

sin x

tan x

(2) Both f(x) and g(x) are decreasing functions

(3) f(x) is an increasing function

(4) g(x) is an increasing function

Sol. Answer (3)

f (x)

x

sin x

f '( x )

sin x x cos x

sin2 x

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Application of Derivatives

109

x

tan x x sec 2 x

g '( x )

tan x

tan2 x

Let tan x x sec2 x = (x)

Now g ( x )

'( x ) 0, x (0, 1]

65. If f ( x )

P2 1

2

P 1

(independent of x) is

(1) [1, 1]

(2)

(1, )

(3)

(, 1]

(4)

(2, )

f (x)

p2 1

p2 1

x 3 3 x log2

p2 1 2

f '( x )

3x 3

p2 1

f'(x) < 0

p2 1

p2 1 2

2

x 1 0

0

p 1

p2 1

1 p 1

p [1, 1]

66. Let f(x) = (x p)2 + (x q)2 + (x r)2. Then f(x) has a minimum at x = , where is equal to

(1)

pqr

3

(2)

pqr

(3)

3

1 1 1

p q r

(4)

3

pqr

We know that f(x) = ax2 + bx + c(if a > 0)

is minimum at x =

b

2a

pqr

3

Second method :

Hence

We observe that

x=

pqr

3

d 2f ( x )

dx 2

df ( x )

d 2f ( x )

0 and

0

dx

dx 2

df ( x )

6 x 2( p q r ) 0

dx

6 = +ve

pqr

3

110

Application of Derivatives

1

67. The maximum value of

x

(1) e

2x 2

is

(2)

e e

(3)

(4)

ee

(4)

a=

1

1

,b=

2

2

(4)

ac

b2

4

1

y

x

2x2

2

y x 2x

2

dy

x 2x [2x 4x log x]

dx

dy

0

dx

as x 0

d 2y

0

and 2

dx 1

x

e

1

e

and ymax = e e e e

68. If y = a log |x| + bx2 + x has its extremum values at x = 1 and x = 2 then

(1) a = 2, b = 1

(2)

a = 2, b =

1

2

(3)

a = 2, b =

1

2

y a log | x | bx 2 x

dy a

2bx 1

dx x

a 2b + 1 = 0 and

69. If ax

1

a

+ 4b + 1 = 0 a = 2 and b =

2

2

b

c , x > 0 and a, b, c are positive constants then

x

(1) ab

c2

4

(2)

ab

c2

4

(3)

bc

a2

4

Given ax

b

cx0

x

Application of Derivatives

111

A.M. G.M.

ax

b

2 ab

x

ab

c2

4

Second Method :

We have, ax +

b

c, x > 0

x

ax2 cx + b 0

x>0

c2

4

ab

70. Let x be a number which exceeds its square by the greatest possible quantity. Then x is equal to

(1)

1

2

1

4

(2)

(3)

3

4

(4)

(4)

(2, 2)

Let y = x x2

dy

1 2x

dx

We observe that

d 2y

dx

dy

0

dx

2 = negative

1 2x = 0

y is maximum for x =

1

2

1

2

(1)

2, 0

(2)

(0, 0)

(3)

(2, 2)

1 2

Let point on the curve x2 = 2y be t , t

2

1 2

The distance of the point (0, 3) from a point P t , t on

2

the given curve x2 = 2y is

t2

d t 3

2

t2

d2 t2 3

2

(0,3)

1

t, 2 t2

t2

z t2 3

2

t2

dz

2t 2t 3

2

dt

t = 0, 2, 2

d 2z

dt 2

dz

0

dt

3t 2 4

112

Application of Derivatives

d 2z

dt 2

0 at t = 2

Thus the point on the given curve which is nearest from (0, 3) is either (2, 2) or (2, 2).

72. Let f(x) be a function defined as below :

f(x) = sin(x2 3x), x 0

= 6x + 5x2, x > 0

then at x = 0, f(x)

(1) Has a local maximum

(2)

(3) Is discontinuous

(4)

Point of inflexion

sin( x 2 3 x ), x 0

We have, f ( x )

x0

6 x 5 x 2 ,

We observe that

f(0) = 0

f'(0 + h) = 6 + 10h > 0, for h > 0

and f'(0 h) = (2h + 3) cos (h2 + 3h) < 0

Here we observe that f'(x) changes its sign from -ve to +ve in the neighbourhood of x = 0, hence f(x) has a

local minimum at x = 0

Hence x = 0 is a point of local minima.

73. If , be real numbers such that x3 x2 + x 6 = 0 has its roots real and positive then minimum value of is

(1) 3 3 36

(2)

11

(3)

(4)

Let roots of

x3 x2 + x 6 = 0 be a, ,

++=

+ + =

= 6

Applying A.M. G.M. inequality

1 1 1

1/3

1 1 1

. .

3

2/3

3

2/3

3(6)

3(36)1/3

Minimum 3.(36)1/3

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Application of Derivatives

113

3a 2b 3

0

c d

2

(1) At least one root in [2, 0]

(2)

(4)

No root in [2, 2]

3a 2b 3

0

c d

2

Let f ( x )

6a + 4b + 3c + 4d = 0

ax 4 bx 3 cx 2

dx + e

4

3

2

f(0) = e

f (2)

2

[6a 4b 3c 3d ] e e

3

Hence according to Rolles theorem equation

f'(x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 has at least one root in (0, 2).

75. If the least area of triangle formed by tangent, normal at any point P on the curve y = f(x) and

x-axis is 4 sq. unit. Then the ordinate of the point P (P lies in first quadrant) is

(1) 1

(2)

1

2

(3)

1

4

(4)

From figure PQ = y1

MQ y1 cot

QN = y1 tan

Area of PMN =

2

1

Thus 4 = y

P(x1, y1)

MN = MQ + QN = y1(cot + tan )

1

1

1

MN PQ = y12 (tan cot ) y12 2 y12

2

2

2

y1 = 2

76. Let f (x) > 0 x R and let g(x) = f(x) + f(2 x) then interval of x for which g(x) is increasing is

(1) (1, )

(2)

(3)

[1, 1]

(4)

[2, )

g(x) = f(x) + f(2 x)

g'(x) = f'(x) f'(2 x)

for g to be increase

x>2x

x>1

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114

Application of Derivatives

77. The number of tangents to the curve x3/2 + y3/2 = a3/2, where the tangents are equally inclined to axes, is

(1) 2

(2)

(3)

(4)

(3)

(4)

The equation of the curve is

x 3/2 y 3/2 a3/2

(1)

dy

x

dx

y

hence

dy

1

dx

x

1

y

x

1

y

y=x

2x 3/2 a3/2

1

x

2

2/3

1

y

2

2/3

78. The number of tangents to the curve

y2 2x3 4y + 8 = 0 that pass through (1, 2) is

(1) 3

(2)

y2 2x3 4y + 8 = 0

Let point be (x1, y1)

3 x12

dy

dx

( x1,y1) y1 2

Equation of tangent at (x1, y1) is given by

y y1

3 x12

( x x1)

y1 2

Hence, 2 y1

3 x12

(1 x1)

y1 2

(1)

Hence y12 2 x13 4 y1 8 0

(2)

Application of Derivatives

115

x13 3 x12 4 0

( x1 1)( x12 4 x1 4) 0

( x1 1)( x1 2)2 0

x1 = 1, 2

From (2) at x = 1.

y12 4y1 + 10 = 0

Imaginary roots

at x = 2

y12 4 y1 8 0

4 16 32

= 2 3

2

y1

xn

a

yn

b

(1) (b, a)

(2)

x y

2 at the point

a b

(a, b)

(3)

(1, 1)

(4)

1 1

,

b a

xn

an

yn

bn

nx n 1

dy

b n x n 1

ny n 1 dy

0

dx

a n y n 1

bn dx

an

Let the point be (x1, y1)

xx1n 1

an

yy1n 1

bn

x1n

an

y1n

(1)

bn

x y

2

a b

(2)

Hence

x1n 1

y n 1 1 x1n y1n

1

a n 1

b n 1 2 a n

b n

x1 = a, y1 = b

Hence point is (a, b)

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116

Application of Derivatives

80. Let the equation of a curve be x = a( + sin ), y = a(1 cos ). If changes at a constant rate k then the

rate of change of the slope of the tangent to the curve at is

3

2k

k

(1)

(2)

(3) k

3

3

(4)

2k

3

We have x = a ( + sin), y = a (1 cos)

dy

tan

dx

2

dm 1

d

sec 2

dt

2

2 dt

m tan

2

1 4

dm

dt 2 3 k

2k

3

81. Two cyclists start from the junction of two perpendicular roads, their velocities being 3v metres/minute and

4v metres/minute. The rate at which the two cyclists are separating is

(1)

7

v m/min

2

(2)

5v m/min

(3)

v m/min

(4)

7v m/min

(4)

3y = 9x + 2

2 = x2 + y2

dx

dy

3vm / minute,

4vm / minute

dt

dt

d

dx

dy

d

2x

2y

x 3v y 4v .

2

dt

dt

dt

dt

x

3

4

d x

y

3v 4v = 3v 4v 5v

5

5

dt

(1) y = x + 2

(2)

y = 2x + 1

(3)

2y = x + 8

Equation of tangent to the curve y2 = 8x is

2

m

It is also the tangent to xy = 1

y mx

(1)

Hence x mx = 1

m

m

Consequently

b2 4ac = 0

4m 0 m = 1.

m2

Hence equation of the tangent common to the given curves is y = x + 2.

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Application of Derivatives

117

(1) tan < < sin

(2)

(4)

Let f() = sin

f'() = 1 cos

f ' ( ) 0 0, which shows that f() is increasing in 0,

2

2

Hence f() > f(0)

sin > 0

> sin

(1)

g'() = sec2 1

g '() 0, 0, which shows that g(q) is increasing in 0,

2

2

g() > g(0)

tan > 0

tan >

(2)

tan > > sin

84. If f(x) = x2 + 2bx + 2c2 and g(x) = x2 2cx + b2 are such that, min f(x) > max g(x), then

(1) 0 c

b

2

(2)

|c||b| 2

(3)

|c||b| 2

(4)

|b||c| 2

(4)

2

2

We have, f ( x ) x 2 2bx 2c 2 , and g ( x ) x 2cx b

2

2

2

f ( x ) ( x b )2 2c 2 b2 and g ( x ) b c ( x c )

2

2

min f ( x ) 2c 2 b2 and max g ( x ) c b

Hence 2c2 b2 > c2 + b2

c2 > 2b2

|c| > |b|

f(x) = x2 + x + 1 is

(1)

3

4

(2)

(3)

3

4

118

Application of Derivatives

2

1

3

3

,xR

f(x) = x2 + x + 1 = x

4

2

4

Minimum f(x) =

3

4

(1) cos (cos 1)

(2)

cos 1

(3)

(4)

f(x) = cos [cos(sin x)]

f'(x) = sin[cos(sin x)] sin(sin x) cos x

for maximaminima of f(x)

f'(x) = 0

x = (2n 1) , m

2

2

2

87. In a ABC, B = 90 and a + b = 4. The area of the triangle is the maximum when C is

4

Sol. Answer (3)

A

1

1

ac = a b 2 a 2

2

2

A2

A2

(2)

(1)

(3)

(4)

1 2 2

a (b a2 )

4

1 2

a [(4 a )2 a 2 )

4

1

A a 2 [16 8a]

4

2

A 4a 2 2a3

2

90

a

Let A2 y

y 4a2 2a3

Area is maximum when y is maximum

dy

8a 6a 2

da

For maximum

a

dy

0

da

4

8

,b

3

3

cos C

a

b

cos C

1

2

Application of Derivatives

119

x

0

(1) 3

(2)

(3)

12

(4)

x

0

For critical points of f(x), we must have f'(x) = 0 = ex(x 1) (x 2) (x 3)

x = 1, 2, 3

Number of critical point = 3.

89. If the equation x3 + px2 + qx + 1 = 0 (p < q) has only one real root , then belongs to

(1) (2, 1)

(2)

(1, 0)

(3)

(0, 1)

(4)

(1, 2)

x 3 px 2 qx 1 0 ( p q )

Let f ( x ) x 3 px 2 qx 1

f (0) 1 f (0) 0

f ( 1) p q f ( 1) 0

(1, 0)

90. The value of C (if exists) in Lagrange's theorem for the function |x| in the interval [1, 1] is

(1) 0

(3)

1

2

(2)

1

2

(4)

| x | is not differentiable at x = 0 hence conditions of Lagranges theorem is not satisfied consequently c does

not exist.

91. The equation ex 1 + x 2 = 0 has

(1) One real root

(2)

(4)

The given equation can be put in the form ex1 = 2 x

Let us draw the graphs of y = ex1 and y = 2 x and the

point of intersection of the two curves gives the number

of real roots of the equation.

x1

y=e

y=2x

From the graph of the two curves it follows that the given

equation has one real root.

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120

Application of Derivatives

and

2

then

cos cos cos

(2)

x (tan , tan )

(4)

x [cot , cot ]

3 sin < sin + sin + sin < 3 sin

Also cos > cos cos

(1)

1

1

1

(2)

tan

tan

cos cos cos

93. Let A be the area formed by the positive x-axis and the normal and tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = 4 at (1, 3 )

then A2 equals

(1) 9

(2)

12

dy

dx (1,

(3)

15

(4)

18

x2 + y2 = 4

dy

x

dx

y

y 3

1

3

P(1, 3)

3)

3 ) is

( x 1)

Q(4, 0)

The equation of normal at (1, 3) is

y 3 3( x 1)

and point of intersection with x-axis is (0, 0)

Hence A =

1

4 3 = 2 3

2

A2 = 12

94. The minimum value of 64 sec + 27 cosec where 0, is

2

(1) 91

(2)

12

(3)

36

(4)

125

Application of Derivatives

121

Let f () 64 sec 27 cosec

f '() 64 sec tan 27cosec cot =

64 sin3 27 cos3

sin cos

tan

f '() 0

3

4

3

4

95. If the tangent to the curve 2y3 = ax2 + x3 at the point (a, a) cuts off intercepts and on the co-ordinate axes,

(where 2 + 2 = 61) then a2 equals

(1) 400

(2)

600

(3)

900

(4)

800

We have, 2y 3 ax 2 x 3

5

dy

dx

(a,a ) 6

dy 2ax 3 x 2

dx

6y 2

x intercept of the tangent =

1

a

5

1

a

6

2

2

61 =

x2

a2

5

( x a)

6

a 2 a 2 61a 2

a2 = 900

25 36 900

y2

1 and y3 = 16x intersects at right angles, then 3a2 is equal to

4

(1) 1

(2)

(3)

(4)

Let point of intersection be ( x1, y 1 )

x2

a2

y2

1

4

(1)

dy

4 x

2

dx

a y

4 x

dy

m1

2. 1

dx

a y1

( x1, y1 )

y3 = 16x

(2)

16

dy

m2

dx ( x1, y1 ) 3 y12

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122

Application of Derivatives

4 x1 16

2

2 1

a y1 3 y1

x1

3a 2 y13

64

2 3

But y13 16 x1 16 3a y1

64

y13 16 x1 32 = 4

97. The area of the triangle formed by the tangent to the curve y

(1) 1

(2)

(3)

8

4 x2

(4)

Given curve is y

8

4 x2

dy

8

2x

dx

(4 x 2 )2

When x = 2, y = 1

point is (2, 1)

32

1

64

2

B

(2, 1)

1

y 1 ( x 2)

2

X'

X'

xy 2 = x + 2

x + xy = 4

A = (4, 0), B = (0, 2)

ar ( OAB )

1

4 2 4 sq. units

2

Y'

SECTION - B

Objective Type Questions (More than one options are correct)

1.

(1) a < 0, b > 0

(2)

a > 0, b < 0

(4)

a < 0, b < 0

Slope of the normal (ax by c 0)

a

b

xy = 2

dy

y b

b

0

dx

x a

a

2.

Application of Derivatives

123

The equation of the tangents to the curve y = x4 from the point (2, 0), are given by

(1) y = 0

(3) y

4096 2048

8

81

27

3

(2)

y 1 = 5(x 1)

(4)

32

80

2

x

243 81

3

Let P(x1, y1) be a point on the curve

y = x4

dy

4x3

dx

dy

4 x13

m

dx ( x1,y1 )

The equation of tangent to the given curve at (x1, y1) is given by

y y1 4 x13 ( x x1 )

Which passes through (2, 0) hence

y1 4 x13 (2 x1 )

8 x13 4 x14 y1 0

4 x14 8 x13 y1 0

(1)

x1 0,

8

3

y1 0,

4096

2048

m = 0 and

81

27

y = 0 and y

3.

4096 2048

8

x

81

27

3

h(x) = f(x) (f(x))2 + (f(x))3 x R, then

(1) h is increasing whenever f is increasing

(2)

(4)

We have, h( x ) f ( x ) (f ( x ))2 f (( x ))3

h '( x ) f '( x ) 2f ( x )f '( x ) 3(f ( x ))2 f '( x )

= f '( x )[3(f ( x ))2 2f ( x ) 1]

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124

Application of Derivatives

h'(x) > 0 if f'(x) > 0 and h'(x) < 0 if f'(x) < 0

Hence h(x) is increasing or decreasing function according as f(x) increases or decreases.

4.

(1) f is increasing near a if g(a) < 0

(2)

(4)

f '( x ) g ( x )( x a)2

In the neighbourhood of x = a, we have x = a h as g(x) is continuous at x = a

f '(a ) g (a)h2

if g (a ) 0 f '(a ) 0

if g (a ) 0 f '(a ) 0 .

f(x) is increasing in the neighbourhood of a if g(a) > 0 and is decreasing if g(a) < 0

5.

Let f(x) = (x2 1)n (x2 + x 1) then f(x) has local minimum at x = 1, when

(1) n = 2

(2)

n=3

(3)

n=4

(4)

n=5

f ( x ) ( x 2 1)n ( x 2 x 1)

f(x) has local extremum at x = 1

then either

f (1) f (1 h ) and f (1) f (1 h ) or f (1) f (1 h ) and f (1) f (1 h )

f (1 h ) 0 and f (1 h ) 0 or f (1 h ) 0 and f (1 h ) 0

If f (1 h ) 0 and f (1 h ) 0 h 0

i.e., ( h )n 0

n even number

Hence n = 2, 4.

6.

(1) e2 > 2e

(2)

e3 > 3e

(3)

e > e

(4)

e

2

Consider the function

1

x

f ( x ) x1/ x = e

ln x

1/ x

1

1

f '( x ) x1/ x 2 2 n x = x [1 n x ]

x

x

x2

Application of Derivatives

125

if x e f '( x ) 0 i.e., f(x) is decreasing in (e, )

Now

2<e<3

f(e) > f(2)

Also e < 3 and f(x) decreases in (e, )

f(e) > f(3)

e

f() < f(e)

e > e

Moreover

1

/2

f f (e )

e1/ e

2

2

e

2

e /2

2

e

2

7.

f(x) = (sin1 x)3 + (cos1 x)3 (1 x 1) is

(1)

7 3

8

(2)

3

8

(3)

3

32

(4)

3

16

Let sin1 x y

cos1 x

y

2

f (y ) y 3 y

2

f ( y ) 3 y 2 3 y y

4

2

is point of minima

4

min

max

3

32

73

at y

2

8

126

8.

Application of Derivatives

x

f (x)

t (e

1) (t 1) (t 2) (t 3)dt

(1) 0

(2)

(3)

(4)

f'(x) = x(ex 1) (x + 1) (x 2) (x 3)

9.

(1) Point of relative maxima in [0, 4] is 4

(2)

(4)

3

4

7

4

11

4

15

4

10. For every pair of continuous functions f, g : [0, 1] such that max {f(x) : x [0, 1]} = max {g(x) :

x [0, 1]}, the correct statement(s) is(are)

[JEE(Advanced)-2014]

(1) (f(c))2 + 3f(c) = (g(c))2 + 3g(c) for some c [0, 1]

(2) (f(c))2 + f(c) = (g(c))2 + 3g(c) for some c [0, 1]

(3) (f(c))2 + 3f(c) = (g(c))2 + g(c) for some c [0, 1]

(4) (f(c))2 = (g(c))2 for some c [0, 1]

Sol. Answer (1, 4)

Let f and g be maximum at c1 and c2 respectively, c1, c2 (0, 1).

Let h(x) = f(x) g(x)

Now h(c1) = f(c1) g(c1) = +ve

and h(c2) = f(c2) g(c2) = ve

h(x) = 0 has at least one root in (c1, c2)

f(x) = g(x) for some x = c (c1, c2)

f(c) = g(c) for some c (0, 1)

Clearly (1, 4) are correct

11. Let a and let f : be given by

f(x) = x5 5x + a.

Then

[JEE(Advanced)-2014]

(2)

(4)

Application of Derivatives

127

f(x) = x5 5x + a

if f(x) = 0 a = 5x x5 = g(x)

g(x) = 0 x = 0, 5

4,

1

4

g(x) = 0 5 5x4 = 0 x = 1, 1

g(1) = 4

1

4

1

4

1

4

g(1) = 4

If a (4, 4)

SECTION - C

Linked Comprehension Type Questions

Comprehension I

Let the solution set of the inequation

1

0 in , be A and let solution set of equation sin1 (3x 4x3) = 3 sin1 x be B. Now

sin x

2

define a function f : A B.

sin x

2

1.

There are exactly two linear onto functions that can be drawn from A to B, one of them is

(3)

12 x 19

(2)

(4)

(1)

2.

3.

12 x 19

(2)

12 x 19

(4)

12

19

x

2

on to

If f : A

B is a strictly decreasing function, then ordered pair (, ) satisfying the equation

2 6

37

f ( ) is

4

3 1

(1) ,

4 2

(2)

6 , 3

(3)

4 , 3

(4)

(3, )

Solutions of Comprehension I

1

1

0

sin x 2 sin x

2

3 5

x . = A

4 6

1 1

x , = B

2 2

f:AB

128

1.

Application of Derivatives

Answer (1)

Let f ( x ) ax b

Case -1

3

5

5

f a

b and f a

b

4

4

6

6

1 5a

b

2

6

1 3

ab

2

4

On solving a

i.e., f ( x )

12

, b 19

12

19

x

Case - 2

3 3

5 5

f

a b and f

ab

4 4

6 6

1 3

ab

2

4

1 5

ab

2

6

On solving

a

12

19

, b

f (x)

2.

Answer (4)

3.

Answer (3)

12

19

x

onto

As f : A B is strictly decreasing function

then

3 5 1 1

f : , ,

4 6 2 2

then

3

5

<x<

4

6

3

5

f > f ( x ) > f

4

6

Now

2 6

37

f ( )

4

If = 3 f ( )

( 3)2

1

f ( )

4

3

1

i.e.,

4

2

3

i.e., ordered pair (, ) is , 3 .

4

Application of Derivatives

129

Comprehension II

When the product of two positive numbers is constant,then the minimum value of their sum is 2 times the square

root of their product. Also when the sum of two positive numbers is constant, the maximum value of their-product

is

1

time the square of their sum. We get these minimum and maximum values only when the two numbers are

4

equal.

1.

2

(1)

1

{ x } , (where {x} is fractional part of x) is

2{ x }

2 1

(2)

(3)

2 2

(4)

2 1

(3)

0,

(4)

0, 2

(3)

(, 0]

(4)

(0, )

1

{ x }

{ x } 2

2

2{ x }

2{ x }

2.

2 2

(1) ,

4

6

(2)

0,

g ( x ) cot 1 x( cot 1 x )

1

1

2

= cot x (cot x )

2

2

1

= cot x

4

4

2

0,

3.

e

x

The range of f ( x ) ln 3 is

x

4e

(1) [0, )

(2)

[1, )

e

x

f ( x ) ln 3

x

4e

1

ln , ln

e

x

4e

[1, ]

e

1

1

2

2

x

e

4e

130

Application of Derivatives

Comprehension III

Among several applications of maxima and minima is finding the largest term of a sequence. Let < an > be a

n

x

consider f ( x )

on [1, )

sequence. Consider f(x) obtained by replacing x by n e.g., let an

n 1

x 1

f '(x)

1

(1 x )2

0 x R.

x

1.

(1)

29

453

n2

n 3 200

is

49

543

(2)

(3)

43

543

(4)

41

451

(3)

(4)

1

7

f (x)

x2

x 3 200

f '( x )

x(400 x 3 )

( x 3 200)2

f '( x ) 0 if 0 x (400)1/3

f '( x ) 0 if x (400)1/3

Since 7 (400)1/3 8

Hence max term of the given sequence

an =

2.

n2

3

n 200

is a7

49

543

(1)

3

19

n

2

n 10

2

13

(2)

is

Let an

n

2

n 10

Let f ( x )

f '( x )

x

2

x 10

x 2 10 2 x 2

2

( x 10)

10 x 2

2

( x 10)

( x 10)( x 10)

( x 2 10)2

Application of Derivatives

131

f '( x ) 0 if x 10

and f '( x ) 0 if x 10

i.e., f(x) is max at x 10

since 3 10 4

and a3

9

4

a4

19 26

an

3.

n

2

n 10

is a3

3

19

(1) f(x) increase x

(2)

f(x) decrease x

(4)

From (1), f(x) has maxima at x (400)1/3

SECTION - D

Assertion-Reason Type Questions

1.

STATEMENT-1 : Let f(x) = |x2 1|, x [2, 2] f(2) = f(2) and hence there must be at least one c (2, 2)

so that f (c) = 0.

and

STATEMENT-2 : f (0) = 0, where f(x) is the function of S1.

Statement1 : f (x ) is not differentiable at x = 1 hence

Rolles theorem is not applicable consequently Statement1 is false.

2 1

2.

STATEMENT-1 : Let f (x) and g (x) be two decreasing function then f (g(x)) must be an increasing function.

and

STATEMENT-2 : f (g(2)) > f (g(1)); where f and g are two decreasing function.

Statement1 : We have f'(x) < 0 and g'(x) < 0

Let h(x) = f[g(x)]

h '( x ) f '(g ( x )).g '( x )

Statement1 is true.

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132

Application of Derivatives

f [g (2)] f [g (1)] as f(x) is a decreasing function

Hence Statement2 is true but it is not correct explanation of statement-1.

3.

and

STATEMENT-2 : Any monotonic function is a one-one function.

Clearly from graph x3 is one-one.

Statement1 is true.

By monotonic function we mean either it is monotonic

increasing or monotonic decreasing.

y = x3

Statement2 is true and correct explanation of

Statement1.

4.

and

STATEMENT-2 : Any differentiable function f(x) may have a local maxima or minima if f '(x) = 0 at some points.

Statement1 : f ( x ) | x 1| | x 2 | | x 3 |

3 x 6,

x 1

f ( x ) x 4, 1 x 2

x,

2x3

3 x 6, x 3

f(x) has minima at x = 2.

6

5

4

3

(1, 3)

(3, 3)

(2, 2)

1

1

If f'(x) = 0 then it is either point of maxima or minima hence Statement2 is true but not correct explanation.

5.

ba

function on [a, b].

and

STATEMENT-2 : According to LMVT if f(x) is differentiable on [a, b] then f ' ( x )

f ( b ) f (a )

,a x b .

(b a)

Statement1 : If f(x) is continuous on [a, b] and differentiable on (a, b) then

f ( b ) f (a )

, x (a, b )

ba

Hence Statement1 is false.

f '( x )

Statement2 is True.

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6.

Application of Derivatives

133

STATEMENT-1 : Let f(x) = ex and g(x) = e2x f(x) . g(x) be an increasing function.

and

STATEMENT-2 : Multiplication of two increasing function is an increasing function.

Statement1 : f ( x ) e x , g ( x ) e2 x

h( x ) f ( x ).g ( x ) e3 x

h '( x ) 3e3 x .

h '( x ) 0 x R hence h(x ) is increasing i.e., Statement1 is True.

It is not necessary that multiplication of two increasing function is increasing hence Statement2 is false.

7.

STATEMENT-1 : f (x) > 0.

and

STATEMENT-2 : f is an increasing function.

f ( x ) 2x 3 3 x 2 6 x

f '( x ) 6 x 2 6 x 6 = 6( x 2 x 1)

2

1

3

= 6 x

2

4

f(x) is increasing function (but it is not given continuous) hence f(x) may not be differentiable.

i.e., Statement2 is true but not correct explanation.

SECTION - E

Matrix-Match Type Questions

1.

Column-I

2

(A) y 100 x on [6, 8]

x

1

on [0, 1]

(C) y tan

1 x

(D) y

a2

b2

x 1 x

Column-II

(p) No greatest value

(q) 10

(r)

(s) 1

134

Application of Derivatives

(A) y =

dy

x

dx

100 x 2

critical points of y = f(x) are x = 0, 10

We find that

f (0) 10

f (10) 0

f ( 10) 0

ymax = 10

2

(B) y 2 tan x tan x

dy

2 sec 2 x 2 tan x.sec 2 x

dx

for maximaminima of y

dy

0 x

dx

4

d 2y

0

2

dx x

4

ymax = 1

1

(C) y tan

1 x

,0x1

1 x

1 x

1

1 x

1 x

0 tan1

1 x 4

y max

(D) y

dy

a2

b2

a2

b2

2

dx

x

(1 x )2

x 1 x

for maximaminima of y

dy

a

0 x

dx

ab

d 2y

2

dx x

a

ab

0 i.e., it is minima.

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2.

Application of Derivatives

135

Let the function defined in Colomn-I have domain 0, then match the followings.

2

Column-I

Column-II

2

(p) Local maximum at cos1

3

(q) Maximum at x

x2 x

1

x

x

cos

sin

(C)

has

4

2

1

1

(s) Minima at x = 1

1

2

(A) f ( x ) x 2 2cos x 2 f '( x ) 2 x 2sin x = 2( x sin x )

For maximaminima of f(x)

f '( x ) 0 x = sin x no value of x lies in 0,

2

i.e., No extremum.

(B) f ( x ) 9 x 4 tan x

f '( x ) 9 4 sec 2 x

For maximaminima of f(x)

f '( x ) 0

sec 2 x

9

4

sec x

3

2

cos x

2

3

2

x cos1

3

2

f '' cos1 0

3

1 2

Hence f(x) attains maxima for x = cos

3

1

x2 x

(C) f ( x ) x cos x sin x

4

2

2

4

=

1 x 1

sin x

2x 1

x sin x

= sin x x

2

2

4

2 4

136

Application of Derivatives

f '( x ) 0 x

1

2

1

1

2

2

1 1

1

f '' sin 0

2

2

2

Hence f(x) attains maximum value at x =

1

2

1

1

f '( x ) x sin ( x 3)

2

f '( x ) 0 x

1

,1

2

2

1

f '' 0

2

f '' 1

3.

2

0

2

1

2

Column I

Column II

2 x

increasing is

(p) 1

for all values of x, then the least of positive integral value

which k can attain, is

(q) 2

by a tangent at any point on the curve x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3

is ak then k is

(D) If

log x

attains maximum value at x = k then k is

x

(t) An integer

(A) f(x) = x2ex f(x) = xex(x 2) > 0 for x (0, 2)

hence the length of interval is 2.

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Application of Derivatives

137

y' = f'(x)= 3kx2 + 6x + (2k + 1) > 0, x R

k > 0 and 62 12k(2k + 1) < 0

k > 1 we observe that for k = 1, f(x) = (x + 1)3 + 999, which is clearly monotonic increasing.

Hence the least of positive integer which k attain is 1.

(C) Tangent at point (, ) is

x

y

1/3 a 2/3

1/3

Now, a 3 3 3 a k

4

k

a 3 .a 3 a

2

k

a a k 2

(D) y

log x 1

log x

y'

x

x2

Which is an irrational number greater than 1.

4.

Column I

Column II

(B) f(x) = 2sec x

ax b

x 1 x 4

(q) 1

(r) Whole number

(D) Let f x max sin x , cos x x R then minimum

value of f(x) is

(t)

1

2

(A) x2 + y2 2x 2y 2xy = 1

(1)

(x y)2 = 2x + 2y + 1

This is a parabolic curve with slope of axis = 1, therefore there can be no tangent with slope = 1

Differentiating (1) w.r.t. x

dy x y 1

dx x y 1

As

dy

1, we have x y + 1 = x y 1

dx

1 = 1 (not possible)

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138

Application of Derivatives

Hence minimum of 2sec x 3 tan x is 22 3 1

2

(C) f(2) = 1

f(2) = 0

2a + b = 2

(1)

(2)

b=0

a=1

fmin f

4

2

5.

Column-I

Column-II

(A) y = x ex

(p) (, )

(B) y log ( x x 2 1)

(q) (0, 3)

(C) y x 4 x x 2

(r) (0, )

(D) y

10

(s) (1, )

4x 9x 2 6x

(A) y x e x

dy

1 ex

dx

dy

dx 0, if x 0

dy 0, if x 0

dx

2

(B) y log x x 1

dy

1

2x

dx x x 2 1 2 x 2 1

1

x2 1

dy

0 x R

dx

Application of Derivatives

139

(C) y x 4 x x 2

4 x x 2 2 x 2 x 2 2(3 x x 2 )

dy

1

2

4x x x

(4 2 x ) =

dx

4x x2

4x x2

2 4x x 2

dy

0, x (0, 3)

dx

(D) y

6.

10

3

4x 9x 2 6x

dy

10(12 x 2 18 x 6)

dx

(4 x 3 9 x 2 6 x )2

dy

60(2 x 2 3 x 1)

dx

(4 x 3 9 x 2 6 x )2

dy

( x 1)(2 x 1)

60

dx

(4 x 3 9 x 2 6 x )2

0, , 2 (1, )

dy

dx

1

0, , 1

Column-I

Column-II

(A) y x 1 x 2

(p) ymin = 0

(B) y = x2ex

(q) ymin = 1

(C) y x 2 x 2

(r) ymax =

e ax e ax

2

Sol. Answer A(r, s), B(p), C(s), D(q)

(D) y

(s) ymin = 1

(A) f ( x ) x 1 x 2

x = cos

[0, ]

f ( x )max 2

Now,

f ( x ) cos sin

x 2

f ( x )min 1

(B) y x 2e x

dy

x e x (2 x )

dx

at x = 0 sign of

dy

changes from negative to positive

dx

at x = 2 sign of

dy

changes from positive to negative

dx

140

Application of Derivatives

ymin = 0, ymax =

4

e2

4

e2

(C) y x 2 x 2 , domain x [ 2, 2]

x2

dy 2(1 x 2 )

dx

2 x2

dy

dx

dy 0, 1 x 1

dx 0, x ( 2, 1) (1, 2)

2 x2

2 x2

In the neighbourhood of x = 1,

In the neighbourhood of x = 1,

dy

changes from negative to positive hence y attains minima at x = 1.

dx

dy

changes from positive to negative hence y attains maxima at x = 1.

dx

ymin = 1, ymax = 1

(D) y

eax e ax

2

eax e ax

1

2

ymin = 1.

7.

Column-I

(A)

x2ex

(B)

Column-II

(p) 1

4x

(q) 0

x 4

(C) x2 (x 2)2/5

(D)

(r) f (2)

14

(s) 1

x 8x 2 2

(A) y x 2e x

+

0

dy

x

2

x 2 e x 2 xe x = x(2 - x)e-x e ( x 2x )

dx

We observe that f'(x) changes its sign from +ve to ve in the neighbourhood of x = 2 and from ve to +ve

in the neighbourhood of x = 0

f(2) is maxima.

Aakash Educational Services Pvt. Ltd. - Regd. Office : Aakash Tower, Plot No.-4, Sector-11, Dwarka, New Delhi-75 Ph.011-47623456

(B) y

4x

x 4

Application of Derivatives

141

4

x

4

x

x

4

4, x 0

x

4

x

4

x

ymax = 1

(C) y x 2 ( x 2)2/5

x 5 x 10

2 x (6 x 10)

2

dy

x2

=

2 x( x 2)2/5 = 2 x

3/5

3/5

dx

5 ( x 2)

5( x 2)3/5

5( x 2)

dy

4 x (3 x 5)

dx

5( x 2)3/5

5

,2

3

f (0) 0

f (2) 0

1/5

25 1

5

f

3 9

3

y max 0 .

(D) y

14

4

x 8x 2 2

Let z = x4 8x2 + 2

dz

4 x 3 16 x

dx

For maximaminima of z

dz

0 x 0, 2

dx

d 2z

2

2 12 x 16

dx

d 2z

0

2

dx x 2

Hence ymax =

z is minimum for x = 2

14

= 1

16 32 2

142

Application of Derivatives

SECTION - F

Integer Answer Type Questions

1.

x2 x 1

, x R is___________ .

x2 x 1

The absolute maxima = 3 and the absolute minima =

The required ratio =

[we know

2.

1

3

3

9

1/ 3

1 x2 x 1

3]

3 x2 x 1

of interval of increase, then

1

1 9

, x , . If is the length of interval of decrease and be the length

2 2

x

is ________ .

f x x

3.

1

1 9

1

9

, x , is decreasing in , 1 and increasing in 1, ,

x

2 2

2

2

1 1

,

2 2

9

7

1

2

2

If the function f x

1

is downward concave in (, ) then [ ] is ______ ( [.] is greatest integer function.)

1 x2

6 x2

3

0 in 1 , 1 . Hence 1 , 1

f "x

3 3

3

3

1 x 2 3

1 2

1

3 3 3

1

4.

The slope of the tangent to the curve (y x5)2 = x(1 + x2)2 at the point (1, 3) is

[JEE(Advanced)-2014]

(y x5)2 = x(1 + x2)2

dy

2( y x 5 )

5 x 4 = (1 + x2)2 + 2x(1 + x2).2x

dx

x = 1, y = 3

dy

2(3 1)

5 (1 1)2 4(1 1)

dx

dy

4

5 12

dx

dy

dy

5 3

8

dx

dx

Application of Derivatives

143

SECTION - G

Multiple True-False Type Questions

1.

STATEMENT-1 : If two sides of a triangle are given, then its area will be maximum if the angle between the

given sides be

1

is increases in the interval (0, ).

1 x2

(1) T F T

(2)

TTT

(3)

FFF

(4)

FFT

(4)

FFT

STATEMENT-1

True,

Area =

1

1

ab sin C ab sin C sin C 1

2

2

Area maximum =

STATEMENT-2

False,

y f x

ab sin C 1 at C

2

2

1

1 x2

STATEMENT-3

2.

True,

4a

subnormal = yy ' y . 2 4a, at y = 1

y

STATEMENT-2 : In the interval [1, 1] the greatest value of f x

1

x

is .

2

5

4 x x

(1) T F T

(2)

TTT

(3)

FFF

STATEMENT-1

STATEMENT-2

False, f x

x

x2 4

, f 'x

0 for x(2, 2)

2

4xx

x 2 x 4 2

fmax f 1

STATEMENT-3

True,

1

6

Hence f(x)max = 4

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144

Application of Derivatives

SECTION - H

Aakash Challengers Questions

1.

Sol. x

a

x2

a

x2

2 x (0, ) is ______.

x 3 2x 2 a 0

Let f ( x ) x 3 2x 2 a

f '( x ) 3 x 2 4 x

f '( x ) x (3 x 4)

4

,0

3

f ''( x ) 6 x 4

4

f '' = 4 > 0

3

4

3

32

4

and (f(x))min = f

a

3

27

for f ( x ) 0

4

f 0

3

2.

32

, i.e., least natural number value of a = 2.

27

x2 y 2

8 18

that the area of the OAB is least, then the point P is of the form (m, n) where m + n + 10 is

8

18

Sol.

x

2 2 sec

y

3 2 sec

ar ( OAB )

12

1

2 2 sec 3 2cosec =

sin 2

2

2

Y

B(0, 3 2 cos)

P(2 2 cos, 3 2 sin)

X'

X

A(2 2 sin, 0)

Y'

1

1

P 2 2

,3 2

(2, 3) ( m, n )

2

2

m + n + 10 = 2 + 3 + 10 = 15

Aakash Educational Services Pvt. Ltd. - Regd. Office : Aakash Tower, Plot No.-4, Sector-11, Dwarka, New Delhi-75 Ph.011-47623456

3.

Application of Derivatives

145

If the tangent at P(1, 1) on the curve y2 = x(2 x)2 meets the curve again at Q, then the points is of the form

3a a

2

2

b , 2b , where a + b is

dy

(2 x )2 2 x (2 x )

2y

dx

= 4 4x + x2 4x + 2x2

2

(i)

P(1, 1)

X'

Q

O

3a a

,

b 2b

X

= 3x 8x + 4

dy 3 x 2 8 x 4

dx

2y

dy

384

1

dx

m

(1,1)

2.1

2

Tangent at P is y 1 =

Y'

1

(x 1)

2

2y 2 = x + 1

x + 2y = 3

From (1) & (2), we get

2

3x

2

2 x( x 2)

4x3 17x2 + 22x 9 = 0

(x 1) (4x2 13x + 9) = 0

(x 1) (x 1) (4x 9) = 0

x = 1,

9

4

3x

y

9

4 3

2

8

9 3 3a a

Q , ,

4 8 b 2b

3a = 9, b = 4

a = 3, b = 4

a2 + b2 = 32 + 42 = 25

4.

The curve y = ax3 + bx2 + cx is inclined at 45 to x-axis at (0, 0) but it touches x-axis at (1, 0), then

a + b + c + 10 is

dy

3ax 2 2bx c

dx

146

Application of Derivatives

Given tan 45 = 1

3ax2 + 2bx + c = 1

dy

c 1

Now,

dx (0,0)

dy

3a 2b c 0 3a + 2b + 1 = 0

dx

(1, 0)

Also, a + b + c = 0

3a + 2b + 1 = 0

a+b+1=0

2a + 2b + 2 = 0

a1=0

a=1b=2

a + b + c + 10 = 1 2 + 1 + 10 = 10

5.

Let f(x) = 2x3 + ax2 + bx 3cos2x is an increasing function for all x R such that ma2 + nb + 18 < 0 then the

value of m + n + 7 is

f'(x) = 6x2 + 2ax + b + 3sin2x > 0

6x2 + 2ax + b 3 > 0 ( sin2x 1)

6x2 + 2ax + (b 3) > 0

D<0

4a2 24(b 3) < 0

a2 6b + 18 < 0

m = 1, n = 6

m+n+7=16+7=86=2

6.

x

Let g(x) = 2f f (2 x ) and f (x) < 0 x (0, 2). If g(x) increases in (a, b) and decreases in (c, d), then

2

the value of a + b + c + d

Sol. We have g ( x ) 2

2

is

3

1 x

x

f f (2 x ) = f f (2 x )

2 2

2

x

2x

2

3x

2

2

4

x

f f (2 x ), x

2

3

Let

4

3

Application of Derivatives

147

g'(x) < 0

4

g(x) decrease in ,2

3

Also,

x

2x

2

4

x

f f (2 x ), x

3

2

g'(x) > 0

4

g(x) increase in 0,

3

4

Thus (a, b ) 0,

3

4

And (c, d ) ,2

3

a+b+c+d

4 4

2

2

= 0 2

3 3

3

3

7.

8 2

2 = 2 + 2 = 4

3 3

If the equation 3x2 + 4ax + b = 0 has at least one root in (0, 1) such that La + Mb + N = 0, then the value of

L + M + N + LMN is

Clearly f(x) is continuous is [0, 1] and differentiable in (0, 1)

Also, f(0) = 0 = f(1)

Thus, all the conditions of Rolles theorem are satisfied

f(1) = 0 1 + 2a + b = 0

L = 1, M = 2, N = 1

L + M + N + LMN = 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 = 6

8.

The integral value of 'b' for which the function f(x) = (b2 3b + 2) (cos2x sin2x) + (b 1)x + sin(b2 + b + 1)

does not possesses any stationary point is

f'(x) = 2(b 1)(b 2) sin2x + (b 1) 0 for any x R

(b 1) (1 (b 2) (2sin2x)) 0

b 1&

1

1

2(b 2)

1

1

1,

1

2(b 2)

2(b 2)

148

Application of Derivatives

1

2 0

b2

1 2b 4

0

b2

5 2b

0

b2

2b 5

0

b2

1

2

b2

1

20

b2

1 2b 4

0

b2

2b 3

0

b2

5

2

5

b 2,

2

3 5

b , 2 2,

2 2

+

2

3

2

3

b , 2

2

f'(x) = 1 0

3 5

Thus, b ,

2 2

b=2

9.

4 sin2 equals________.

ax 2

2

32 cos

4

then

a

Sol. We have,

y x tan a -

ax 2

2

32cos a

dy

ax

tan

dx

16cos2

tangent is parallel to y = x

hence

tan

ax

16cos2

16

(tan 1)16cos2

(sin cos )cos

=

a

a

16

a

256

(sin cos )sin

(sin cos )2 .cos2

2

a

32cos a 2

4 16 2

1

a a

2

3

1 2

1

2

2

4 sin 3

sin sin

4

4

2

Sol. Let y

Application of Derivatives

149

4

1

2

sin x 1 sin x

dy

4

1

4

1

cos x 2

; x 0,

2

dx

sin x 1 sin x

2

sin x (1 sin x )

4

1

dy

0 cosx = 0 or

2

sin x (1 sin x )2

dx

2

2

Since x 0, 4(1 sin x )2 sin2 x sin x

3

2

d 2y

35 0

2

dx x sin1 2

3

2

Hence the given a has minimum at x sin1 in 0, and minimum a = 9.

3 2

11. If

y = f(x) is represented as

x = g(t) = t5 5t3 20t + 7 and

y = h(t) = 4t3 3t2 18t + 3 (2 < t < 2)

Sol. x g (t ) t 5 5t 3 20t 7

dx

g '(t ) 5t 4 15t 2 20

dt

g '(t ) 0 in (2, 2)

y h(t ) 4t 3 3t 2 18t 3

dy

h '(t ) 12t 2 6t 18 = 6(2t2 - t - 3)

dt

h '(t ) 0 t 1,

3

2

h ''(t ) 24t 6

3

h ''( 1) 30 0 , h '' 30 0

2

y = f(x) has maximum value at t = 1

and Max f(x) = 14

Aakash Educational Services Pvt. Ltd. - Regd. Office : Aakash Tower, Plot No.-4, Sector-11, Dwarka, New Delhi-75 Ph.011-47623456

150

Application of Derivatives

12. The curve y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + 5 touches the x-axis at P(2, 0) and cuts the y-axis at Q, where its gradient

is 3. Then the value of a + b + c + abc is

Sol. P lies on curve

8a 4b 2c 5 0

(i)

dy

0

Also,

dx ( 2, 0)

2

(3ax 2bx c )( 2, 0) 0

12a 4b c 0

(ii)

dy

3

Also,

dx (0, 5)

c=3

Now,

8a + 4b = 1

12a 4b = 3

1

3

,b

2

4

x

13. Let f ( x ) | log2 (log3 (log4 (cos t a ))) |dt be increasing for all real value of x, then the range of 'a'

0

Sol.

0

Since f(x) is a function, so f'(x) 0

log2(log3(log4(cosx + a))) 0 x R

Now, f(x) is increasing for all x, provided it is defined

log3(log4 (cosx + a)) > 0

log4(cosx + a) > 1

cosx + a > 4

a > 4 cosx x R

a > 5 ( 1 cosx 1)

a (5, )

14. If f (x) > 0 and f(1) = 0 such that g(x) = f(cot2x + 2cotx + 2) where 0 < x < , then g(x) decreasing in (a, b),

where a + b +

is

4

g'(x) = f'(cot2x + 2cotx + 2) {2cotxcosec2x 2cosec2x} < 0

f'{(cotx + 1)2 + 1} (cotx + 1) > 0

(A)

Application of Derivatives

151

f'(x) is increase

f'{(cotx + 1)2 + 1} > f'(1). ( f'(1) = 0)

g'(x) < 0 if (cotx + 1) > 0

from (A)

3

x 0,

4

3

(a, b ) 0,

4

ab

3

0

4

4 4

15. If the equation x3 3x + k = 0 has two distinct roots is (0, 1), then the value of k is

Sol. Let and such that be the roots of f(x) = x3 3x + k = 0

Then 0 < < < 1 and f() = 0 = f()

Also f(x) is differentiable in (0, 1) and continuous in [0, 1] and f() = 0 = f()

Thus, all the conditions of Rolles theorem are satisfied.

Now, we have to show that a point. c (, ) such that f'(c) = 0

3c2 3c = 0

c = 0, 1. (0, 1)

Thus k =

16. Let 'f' be a real function whose derivative upto third order exist and for same pair a, b R such that a < b,

f (a ) f (a ) f (a )

f (c )

is

log

a b then there exist c (a, b) for which

f (c )

f (b ) f (b ) f (b )

(x) is differential on (a, b) and continuous on [a, b].

Also,

e b a

(b) f (b) f (b) f (b)

= eab eba = eab + b a = e0 = 1

(a) = (b)

Thus, Rolles theorem is satisfied

Now, there exists a point c (a, b) such that

'c) = 0

(f'(c)+ f"(c) + f'''(c))ec (f(c) + f'(c) + f''(c))eC = 0

f'(c) + f"(c) + f'''(c) f(c) f'(c) f"(c) = 0

f'''(c) = f(c)

f (c )

1

f (c )

152

Application of Derivatives

17. A function f : R R is defined as f(x) = |x|m |x 1|n x R, m, n N. Then the maximum value of the

functions is ______

Sol.

( 1)m n x m ( x 1)n

f ( x ) ( 1)n x m ( x 1)n

x m ( x 1)n

x0

, 0 x 1

,

x 1

g'(x) = mxm1(x 1)n + nxm(x 1)n 1

= xm1(x 1)n1 {mx m + nx} = 0

Now, f'(x) = 0

g'(x) = 0

m

mn

Now, f(0) = 0, f(1) = 1

x 0,

mn n m

mn n m ( 1)n

m

n

1

And f

=

(

1)

mn

mn

m

n

(

)

m

n

m

n

(

)

mn n m

(m n )m n

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