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Protein Synthesis Process

Tags: protein synthesis, cell-based protein synthesis, Central dogma

We know that protein production systems generally include cell-free protein
synthesis, cell-based protein synthesis and virus-like particles. This
article mainly introduces the process of protein synthesis based on cell.
Protein is the material foundation of life. It is an organic macromolecule, the
basic organic substance of the cell, and it is also the main bearer of the life
activity. No protein, no life. Protein is involved in every cell in the body and all
the important parts of the body. Amino acid is the basic unit of protein. It is a
matter of life.
Protein replication process
Central dogma: DNA is its own copy of the template, DNA transfers the
genetic information to RNA through transcription. RNA expresses the genetic
information to protein through translation. This is the rule that all biological
cell structure should follow.
The first stepDNA replication: the original DNA double helix structure has
chemical bonds to link the chains. First of all, the chemical bonds are
disconnected between them, and then divided into two separate strands, like
P1 and P2.
According to the C-G, A-T corresponding principle, those two strands can be
paired out two complete DNA double helix chains. P1 is speculated to a
corresponding F1, and P2 is inferred to a corresponding F2. So the generation
of P1+F1 and P2+F2 are the same as the original P1+P2.
One of these two DNA remained in mothers, while the other is passed to the
Conditions: template, enzymes (helicase and polymerase), energy (ATP), four
kinds of raw material (A/T/C/G four kinds of deoxynucleotide)
Place: cell nucleus (location of the original DNA)
The second steptranscription: the main difference between RNA and DNA
is that RNA is only single stranded while DNA is double stranded. RNA does
not have T (thymine) and needs to use U (uracil).
The chemical bond in DNA is open again. A chain of 3'-5' is chosen as a
template, in accordance with the A-U, C-G pairing principle of mRNa
(messenger RNA), a mRNA chain is formed.
Conditions: templates, polymerase, ATP, raw materials (A/U/C/G)
Place: nuclear
The third steptranslation: mRNA is transferred to the surface of the
ribosome in the cytoplasm to translate.
A combination of amino acids are formed into peptide chains to generate
different proteins.
The types and arrangement of proteins determine the biological traits.
Conditions: mRNA, enzyme, twenty kinds of amino acids as raw materials, ATP
Place: ribosome

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