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Skittles data individual work part 1:

I went and bought a bag of Skittles (2.17 oz Original Skittles. From my bag I gathered this

data:

Count Red Count Orange Count Yellow Count Green Count Purple Total

My Bag

14

15

16

62

My Bag

23%

24%

Count Yellow

13%

Count Green

26%

Count Purple

15%

After receiving this data we submitted it to the instructor who then shared with everyone the

entire classs data. The entire class was then broken up into groups where we applied the

objectives we were learning to help us understand how to apply statistics.

Determine the proportion of each color within the overall sample gathered by the class.

FIRST: Guess! What do you expect the proportions to be? Why?

My guess:

Red: 0.232

Orange: 0.071

Yellow: 0.232

Green: 0.25

Purple: 0.214

Me and my group guessed this data by sharing our results with one another to see if it was

close to the entire classs population.

SECOND: Now open the data set and compute the proportions of Red, Orange, Yellow, Green,

and Purple candies in the class data set. Note that the sample size is the total number of

candies collected by the class.

Red: 0.206

Orange: 0.198

Yellow: 0.210

Green: 0.192

Purple: 0.193

Pie Chart

Histogram Chart

Does the class data represent a random sample? What would the population be? Collaborate

to discuss sampling and our data in a paragraph or two.

Sample: The 94 2.17 oz bags of Original Skittles purchased by students in the class

Population: 2.17 oz bags of Original Skittles in the Greater Salt Lake area.

The population really depends on where all the students in this class got their bag of skittles.

It could be all of Utah if we were spread out evenly across the state; however, I bet most of

the students live in the Greater Salt Lake area, since they are attending Salt Lake

Community College.

This is not a true simple random sample, because we would have to take a sample from all

of the bags of 2.17 oz Original Skittles, before they were shipped all around the world. A

sample of size n from a population of size N is a simple random sample only if every possible

sample of size n has an equal chance of occurring.

Count

Count

Count

Count

Count

Orange

Yellow

Green

Purple

14

15

16

62

1,238

1,148

1,238

1,133

1,135

5,892

Total

Red

My Bag

Class

Counts

Do the graphs reflect what you expected to see? Are there any surprises?

This Skittles study was really interesting. I saw a few surprises. I believe it was

number 53 that had almost 200 Skittles in their bag and I found that surprising but as

I thought about it I came up with some rational reasoning that possibly they bought a

bigger bag (for example like a king size). However, this probably didn't affect the

percentages of the totals to change because not only was there more Skittles as a

whole but there was more of each individual color so that would have balanced out

the percentages. As far as surprises between my results and the class as a whole was

the yellow after breaking each result into percentages I had a 7% difference of the

number of yellow skittles in the bag when compared with the class as a whole.

Are there any observations that appear to be outliers? If so, what impact might they have on

graphics and summary statistics?

Some outliers that I noticed was that there was a couple to a few responses

that only had the red number (and no other number) inserted into the statistics of the

whole class. This would affect the percentages of the average amount (or odds) of

the random sampling. I suppose it may be possible that someone could have

received a whole bag of just red Skittles but statistically this would be rare and an

outlier. I wonder if they just accidentally submitted it before they submitted their

other colors.

Does the distribution of colors in the total class data match the distribution of your own data

from your single bag of candies or are they different?

They were similar but different. For example my most common color was

green. In my bag 26% of all the skittles were green. However, in the class as a whole

it is tied for the least common color. With all the classes skittles it made up for only

19%. This repeated itself with my least common color which was yellow. In my bag of

skittles only 13% was yellow, whereas in the class as a whole it was tied for the most

common skittle to make up to 21% of all skittles. Here are the other percentages of

my bag compared to the classes bag:

Count Red Count Orange Count Yellow Count Green Count Purple

My Bag

23%

24%

13%

26%

15%

Class Counts

21%

19%

21%

19%

19%

As a group we continued to use the data to estimate values.

1

ii Standard deviation of the number of candies per bag: 5.6 (sample sd)

iii 5-number summary for the number of candies per bag

Minimum: 37

Q1: 58

Median: 60

Q3: 62

Maximum: 82

Histogram:

Total Candies in Each Bag

x-axis: number of candies per bag

y-axis: frequency

This was my response to the values that were found.

1.

Write a paragraph discussing your findings about the variable Total candies in

each bag. Address the following in your writing:

i.

1. I would say that according to our group and my individual research that

this is a bell shaped distribution because according to the data the

majority of the values are concentrated in the middle.

ii.

Do the graphs reflect what you expected to see or are there some surprises?

1. I believed that the values did reflect my expectations. I think that the

standard bag of Skittles would vary but only a little amount. There are

however, a couple surprises on both the low end and the high end.

What I mean by this is that I didnt think that those values would have

any results (for instance the 80-84 range and the 30-34 range).

Because when I get a bag of Skittles I assume that I will receive close

to the same amount in every bag.

iii.

Does the overall data collected by the whole class agree with your own single

bag data?

Include the number of candies from your own bag and the total number of bags

in the class sample in your discussion.

1. In my bag the total number of candies was 62. The total number of

candies for the whole class was 5,892 for 98 bags of Skittles so the

average of skittles per bag was 60.1 for the whole class. This data

agrees with my data in that my bag is very close to the class average.

2.

In a half page, explain the difference between categorical and quantitative data.

Also address the following in your writing:

i.

What types of graphs make sense and what types of graphs do not make

sense for categorical data? For quantitative data? Explain why.

ii.

What types of calculations make sense and what types of calculations do not

make sense for categorical data? For quantitative data? Explain why.

Categorical data its more like the characteristics of what you receive. In this specific

example it would be the colors of the candies. Its a data that cannot be counted but you can

group it to distinguish it from the others. On the other hand quantitative data can be

counted and given a number to distinguish it. In this example it would be the amount of

skittles per bag rather than identifying the characteristics in the bag.

In categorical data pie graphs are useful to identify characteristics in a visual form. It

would also be possible to do a bar graph as well, but its not as specific to categorical data

as a pie chart is. Stem and leaf plots would not work to identify characteristics. The stem

and leaf plot relies on quantitative data to draw its plot. Therefore, categorical data would be

difficult to express in this form.

In quantitative data there are a variety of different graphing types that makes sense

to use such as bar graphs, histograms, stem and leaf plots, and distribution graphs. These

types of graphs use numbers to distinguish the plot. A pie chart would not work very well

because it relies on characteristics rather than numbers to differentiate between variables.

In categorical there is no need to calculated a mean, median, mode, standard deviation,

max, or min because they cant calculate a characteristic. In quantitative you would want to

calculate the mean, median, mode, standard deviation, min, or max because all of these

values distinguish or separate the quantitative data from each other. With quantitative you

dont calculate percent because it doesnt give you any additional information.

Term project group portion Part 4:

See handwritten calculations on Term project group portion part 4 attached below this

document.

Term project individual portion part 4:

In life statistics is used to estimate the probability of an event or characteristic to occur in

a population. However, it is difficult to be a 100% accurate when determining the probability

of something in an entire population. This is why confidence interval is used. The purpose of

a confidence interval is to help determine an outcome of a probability but because a lot of

the time we are unable to get data from an entire population we take only samples of that

population so our numbers can vary. With a confidence interval we can determine that the

population parameter will land in between two values and we can put a confidence level on

those values. For example In my research (with the classes help) I am 99% confident that

the population proportion of the number of yellow skittles in the 2.17 oz bags of Original

Skittles is between 0.1965 and 0.2243; which means that if I bought a 2.17 oz of Original

Skittles I am 99% confident that that bag will contain 19.65%-22.43% yellow skittles.

Term project part 5: Summary Reflection

The skittles project that we worked on throughout the semester of statistics taught me how to

conduct and perform a study to form a hypothesis or to test a hypothesis among a population,

how to interpret statistics, and most importantly how useful statistics is in everyday life.

This project was able to teach me a real life statistics application. In the class, while doing

the homework assignments and tests, I would be tested on the interpretation of the data. With the

skittles project I actually had to start from scratch I studied a population find and collect data (it

wasnt given to me in a question) as well as interpret it. As I studied the skittles population I had

a few questions in mind that I wanted to answer. First was what color is most common? Second

what color is least common? At first I just analyzed my bag and although my calculations were

correct my sample alone was a poor representation of the population as a whole. As we

progressed in the semester we were able to see every ones data that was in the class. After

comparing results I found that my hypothesis of my bag alone was a bit different that the classs

data as a whole. We then would take our data and apply and carryout objectives as we learned

them through the progressing chapters.

This project helped me understand how useful statistics is in everyday life. If I have questions,

want to influence something, or understand a probability or statistic of something I can simply

start by gathering data on the population then put my data in the equations to help me understand

or control an outcome.

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