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ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

5. GENERAL USE INSTRUCTIONS

5.1. INTRODUCTION

IMPORTANT: It must be always considered that plate quality is very important in order to obtain a good rolling result, especially on machines for high precision works, like CNC equipped machines or pre-bending machines. Certified sheets with distension treatment (stress released) are ideal for this type of plastic forming machine. The sheet’s characteristics the greatly influence the forming result are indeed: resistance homogeneity, thickness, planarity, lamination fibres direction (parallel or transversal to the rollers), the residual stressing, squaring. Using sheets with different mechanical, physical or chemical features determines the differences in rolling diameters, thus making tolerances, results and rolled part quality poor. The more the plates are of high quality and consistent among them, the more the rolling results will be similar in diameter and of improved quality. The most frequent and clearest evidence of this situation is well known to the operators every time they roll on their machine an entire pack of sheet supposed to have the same features. More often it happens that, even if moving the rolling cylinders always at the same position, the final rolling diameter will result different almost on every shell. This is the actual proof, directly verifiable by the operators, that the difference that makes the final diameter different, resides in the sheet itself, having faithfully repeated the same positionings on the machine for each following operation. The sheets were therefore different among them in one or more characterizing parameters influencing the diameter, whether noticeable or however physically verifiable (thickness, resistance, fibres cutting sense, planarity) or unknown and difficult to verify (yield point, elastic return, residual stresses, weight of the sheet), but often mostly responsible for differences of diameter. The most evident demonstration of this is easily found on Numerical Control machines. The repeated positioning repeated by the high precision automatic control devices assure a precise repetition of the rollers positioning.

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But more often the final rolling diameters are different because of the different features of the sheet. Moreover it is hard to compensate these differences using compensation devices installed on Numeric Controls, since they are able to detect and compensate, only some of the diameter influencing factors (like thickness, tensile strength, weight), and very rarely some others (resistance, fibres cutting sense, planarity, elastic return, residual stresses). But what makes actually difficult to compensate sheet differences is that all the differences influencing the diameter get summed. A compensating device could correct one of these factors but its action could be nullified by other factors.

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5.2. PLATE PREPARATION

5.2.1. An accurate sheet preparation improves the rolling quality and preserves the rolls surface, avoiding scratches. Before being inserted among the rolls, the sheet must be cleaned and prepared as follows:

- Remove every flash slag or residue produced by

cutting the sheet along the edges, especially if the sheet has been cut by flame; any metallic residue must be removed carefully because excessive hardness could seriously damage the rolls’ surface. This operation can be done with an abrasive wheel and must make the edge perfectly smooth, like if bevelled. (5.2.1-A).

- clean the entire sheet’s flat surface until it is completely free of welding residues, rust and any outrigger that could cause damage to the rollers (5.2.1-B) or modify the rolling diameter, by changing the sheet thickness (absolutely unacceptable in case of CNC application);

- if necessary proceed with complete sandblasting of the sheet

5.2.2. Some suggestions to reduce working defects and to improve rolling quality.

- The sheet must be completely flat. It must not be

waved, bent in any part of its surface, deformed in any direction (5.2.1-C). This is required because

rolling is a deforming process and if the sheet’s surface is (totally or partially) deformed, rolling can result irregular or of poor quality.

- The sheet should be sustained during all rolling

phases (from introducing the sheet into the machine up to the rolling of the final diameter) because the

introducing the sheet into the machine up to the rolling of the final diameter) because the

5.2.1

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weight

diameter. (5.2.2).

of

the

sheet

could

modify

the

rolling

The above mentioned instructions become imperative when using CNC machines, because the final result could be dramatically influenced by these factors, getting absolutely useless the high precision CNC. Since rolling results depend more on the sheet that on the machine, for this reason the only responsibility bore by the manufacturer when using the CNC is the accurate repeatability of the machine positioning.

No responsibility can be bore by the manufacturer for the consistency of diameters rolled on the machine, as the diameters depend mainly by the plate tolerances, rather than by the machine itself.

as the diameters depend mainly by the plate tolerances, rather than by the machine itself. 5.2.2

5.2.2

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5.3. WORKS MEASURES

5.3.1. PINCH PRESSURE REGULATION

This is one of the most important phases of the rolling cycle. To guarantee a good rolling result and protect the bending rolls and the whole machine, it is important to adjust the pinching pressure according to the type of plate to be rolled. The adjustment of pinching pressure is made through commands placed on the console (for further details see “controls and commands” manual. To help the operator in finding the correct pinching pressure, the machine can be equipped with an optional device which shows instantaly the used load. Hereunder you can find a description of the correct operations to be made while bending plates with different thicknesses on machines equipped with such device.

THICKER PLATE

A) Keep the pinching pressure as low as possible; the eventual graph bar – where available – that monitors the pressure of the clamping roll, is in the YELLOW COLOR

B) While the side rolls raise and bend the edge of the plate, clamped, the pressure inside the clamping cylinders, raises, inducted by the plate, and the graph bar will change into GREEN COLOR, that is the optimal to not have any concave (canoeing) or convex (hourglass) defects on the plate.

If the graph bar should raise into the ORANGE color zone, it may produce a concave (canoeing) defect on the plate.

Do NEVE work in the RED COLOR zone of the graph bar, as the result on the plate would be a excessive concave (canoeing) defect on the plate, and a high overload to the machine, easy to be badly and dangerously damaged.

defect on the plate, and a high overload to the machine, easy to be badly and
defect on the plate, and a high overload to the machine, easy to be badly and
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THINNER PLATE

A) Use

the

COLOR.

optimal

preload

pressure,

GREEN

B) While bending the plate by the side roll, the graph bar will remain on the GREEN COLOR zone, (optimal to not have any concave or convex defects on the plate). If machine works on ORANGE COLOR zone, it may produce a concave defect on the plate. Do NEVER work in the RED COLOUR zone of the graph bar, on the result on the plate would be a excessive concave (canoeing) defect on the plate, and a high overload to the machine, easy to be badly and dangerously damaged.

5.3.2 NARROW PLATES

Position narrow plates always at the centre of rolls for a better rolling result. Mantain a pinch pressure as low as possible, just enough to move the sheet; this will avoid to concentrate excessive efforts on a short section of the rolls

(5.3.2.1).

EXCESSIVE PRESSURE COULD PERMANENTLY BEND THE ROLLS (5.3.2.2)

IMPORTANT: to reduce risk of damages when using narrow plates, the side rolls pressure MUST NEVER EXCEED the values indicated in the following chart (when pinching, check carefully the pressure value indicated by the gauge).

Maximum

Sheet length L

Pressure Allowed

100%

100%

80%

85%

60%

75%

50%

70%

40%

65%

30%

60%

20% or less

55%

For plate with length smaller than 25% please contact the PROMAU customer service.

plate with length smaller than 25% please contact the PROMAU customer service. 5.3.2.1 L 5.3.2.2 e5.3-A.eng.rev04.doc
plate with length smaller than 25% please contact the PROMAU customer service. 5.3.2.1 L 5.3.2.2 e5.3-A.eng.rev04.doc

5.3.2.1

L
L

5.3.2.2

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If exceeding these values, please ask for written authorization by the manufacturer.

It’s strongly suggested to square the sheet on the long side of the sheet. Squaring on the short side against the side rolls could not be accurate because of wrong cutting operations.

5.3.3 WARNING

Before starting a work, make sure of the complete closing of end yoke, by using the appropriate lever on the control panel.

5.3.4 COMPULSORY REQUIREMENTS

One of the major risks that can occur during the PRE- BENDING phase, is to bring the edge of the plate beyond the tangent point of the pinch between the pinching rolls

(5.3.4.1).

This can easily generate very strong cavitations on the hydraulic motors of the machine. These very strong cavitations occur when the motor, even for only a few seconds, instead of “pushing” the rolls to rotate, is instead “trailed”, “pulled” by the load, so it doesn’t work as a motor but as a pump. For this reason, since the motor is not able to suck enough oil for the required revolution speed, the pistons inside the motor risk to break the axial supports that keep them fixed on the motor’s shaft. This generates a violent expulsion of the plate, outside the pinch point, through the rolls, so that the load goes from maximum to zero, giving back all the potential energy of elasticity accumulated from the mechanical components and could make the motor turn backwards, therefore work as a pump.

On the machine, valves have been mounted so that in normal working conditions check the motor, avoiding cavitations, but in extreme conditions as when the plate is expulsed violently from the pinch between the rolls, cannot completely protect the motor (when the plate is brought beyond the tangent point).

Also the re-rolling phase could be at risk of cavitations that could destroy the hydraulic motor. During calibration, it is recommended to reduce the thickness down to about 75%.

moto r. During calibration, it is recommended to reduce the thickness down to about 75%. 5.3.4.1
moto r. During calibration, it is recommended to reduce the thickness down to about 75%. 5.3.4.1

5.3.4.1

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NOTES FOR THE OPERATOR:

WARNING:

1- Avoid absolutely to bring the edge of the plate beyond the

tangent point of the lower roller, keeping a minimum part of the plate always pinched, thus having a safety margin, not to risk expulsion. 2- When re-rolling welded plates, it’s important to select “re-rolling mode” and, it is recommended to reduce the thickness down to about 75% and lower completely the bottom roll.

One of the most dangerous conditions, that can cause damages to the machine, it’s inserting an over thickness between the sheet and the two pinching rolls (5.3.4.2). Should rotating start under this condition, permanent damages to the roller or to the entire machine could occur (up to make necessary roll replacement).

Another “high risk” situation occurs when completely lowering (till the mechanical stop) the central roller, and introducing a plate or profile between the rolls trying, consequently, to bend it moving another roller of the machine or introducing an over thickness between the plate and roller and starting the rotation (5.3.4.3). This extreme condition could cause serious damages to the rolls as well as to other machine components (bearings, pins, cylinders, gearbox, frame…).

Another dangerous condition that should never occur is to place the rollers under load between them, especially when rolling conical parts and therefore the rollers are not parallel between them. (5.3.4.4)

parts and therefore the rollers are not parallel between them. (5.3.4.4) 5.3.4.2 5.3.4.3 5.3.4.4 e5.3-A.eng.rev04.doc

5.3.4.2

parts and therefore the rollers are not parallel between them. (5.3.4.4) 5.3.4.2 5.3.4.3 5.3.4.4 e5.3-A.eng.rev04.doc

5.3.4.3

parts and therefore the rollers are not parallel between them. (5.3.4.4) 5.3.4.2 5.3.4.3 5.3.4.4 e5.3-A.eng.rev04.doc

5.3.4.4

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5.3.5

ENVIRONMENT

The machine must be installed in an appropriate working environment, the area surrounding the machine must always be kept clean, free from obstacles and well lit. The machine should not get in contact with water, oil and other liquids. The machine should not be stored or work in dirty and dusty rooms. Too high or too low environment temperatures, as well as too much humidity could influence the proper use of the machine. Soil, smoke, vapours could enter inside machine devices, causing damages, impeding the proper functioning and causing extreme wear of electric, electronic and hydraulic components. Waste disposal is the responsibility of the user, according to local regulations. Oils recovering and disposal must be done with the use of suction devices foreseen by the user.

5.3.6 HOT ROLLING

Use of hot plates is allowed ONLY AND EXCLUSIVELY if the machine is specifically designed for Hot Rolling. If it is not or if you have any doubt, immediately advise the manufacturer. On plate bending machines, which are specifically designed, following procedures must be respected:

Keep hot plate in machine for the shortest time possible (reduce to the shortest time the plate rolling cycle)

DO NOT let the plate sit/lay on rolls (once the rolling cycle is finished, IMMEDIATELY remove the can from the machine)

Frequently measure the temperature of the rolls surface, at least after each hot rolling process, with proper instrument (available on the market or as an optional tool from the manufacturer)

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Monitor the top roll, with special attention, as it is more affected by the heating. The plate rolls around the top roll and therefore it is where the most heat transmission is concentrated (the more the plate rolls around the top roll, the more it will warm).

Keep the temperature of the rolls, measured by the suitable instrument, within the MAXIMUM limit value, as indicated in the below table Such value, variable depending on the Hot Rolling package available on the machine, MUST NEVER be exceeded, to avoid permanent and serious damages of the rolls.

NO Protection

100 °C

212 °F

Warm Rolling Package

180 °C

356 °F

Basic Hot Rolling Package

380 °C

716 °F

Intensive Hot Rolling Package

500 °C

932 °F

Besides, to prevent the rolls from being permanently and seriously damaged, it is essential that the operator progressively reduces the machine force (hydraulic pressure of the rolls movement) at the increase of the temperature of the rolls according to the following table:

ROLLS TEMPERATURE

 

°C

°F

ROLLS MAX PRESSURE

Up to 100

Up to 212

100%

from 101 to 130

from 213 to 266

95%

from 131 to 170

from 267 to 338

90%

from 171 to 220

from 339 to 428

85%

from 221 to 300

from 429 to 572

80%

from 301 to 350

from 573 to 662

75%

from 351 to 400

from 663 to 752

70%

from 401 to 450

from 753 to 842

62%

from 451 to 500

from 843 to 932

55%

It is therefore necessary to constantly measure the temperature of the rolls, especially in the areas which are mostly in contact with the plate.

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In order to protect the Plate roll, special machine-temperature sensors can be provided; they will automatically reduce the max pressure on the rolls when pre-determined threshold temperatures are reached. In the event the machine temperature reaches the critical point, the machine STOPS. No further rolling can be done, operator MUST remove the plate from the machine, IMMEDIATELY AND IN THE SHORTEST TIME, (without leaving the plate stationary on the rolls) only using rolls and the yoke opening. This to prevent permanent serious damages on the rolls. Operational pressures must be reduced further more if the width of the plate is narrower than the rolls width (as described in the specific paragraph regarding reduction of pressures for narrow plates).

Never cool down rolls or other machine parts with water or other liquid coolants, to avoid permanent and serious damages on the rolls

It is peremptory to follow the above mentioned procedures in order to prevent rolls and other machine components to be permanently and irremediably damaged.

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5.4 ROLLS CAMBERING

The rolls are supplied with cambering in order to partially compensate the deflexion due to the load during rolling. The upper and lower rolls have a central cylindrical segment (whose length can change) and the remaining side parts shaped in two, four (or more) conical segments, in conformity with machine sizes and rolling applications (Fig 5.4.1). This operation is performed to avoid one of the most common defects on the plates after rolling: the BARREL defects of the edges (5.4.2).

A - The barrel defect makes the shell tightly closed at the ends and lightly opened in centre (5.4.2). This occurs because of the rolls deflexion, that makes the plate free and not pinched in the centre. This defect worsens when increasing the thickness (thick plates); to reduce it, the pinching pressure must be reduced (5.4.3). The rolls cambering could, on the other side, generate the opposite defect: the “reel” defect.

B - The reel defect makes the shell tightly closed in the centre and lightly opened at both ends (5.4.4). This occurs because of the rolls cambering that make the plate free and not pinched at the ends. This defect worsens by reducing the thickness (thin plates); to reduce it, the pinching pressure must be increased (5.4.5).

Cambering is designed for an average application within the machine capacity, between the “barrel” (on thick plates) and “reel” (on thin plates). Being the cambering calculated for an average application, a thick plate must be barrelled, as well as a thin one must be reeled, while rolling. It is however suggested to have an average cambering, in order to obtain acceptable results on a wider range of thicknesses. It is however possible, on pre-bending machines, to partially correct the defects due to the rolls cambering with pinching pressure.

5.4.4
5.4.4
5.4.1
5.4.1
defects due to the rolls cambering with pinching pressure. 5.4.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 bar 5.4.3 bar 5.4.5

5.4.2

defects due to the rolls cambering with pinching pressure. 5.4.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 bar 5.4.3 bar 5.4.5
defects due to the rolls cambering with pinching pressure. 5.4.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 bar 5.4.3 bar 5.4.5
defects due to the rolls cambering with pinching pressure. 5.4.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 bar 5.4.3 bar 5.4.5
defects due to the rolls cambering with pinching pressure. 5.4.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 bar 5.4.3 bar 5.4.5
bar
bar

5.4.3

bar
bar

5.4.5

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Cap. 6 – MAIN APPLICATIONS

6.1. Pre-bending

6.2. Rolling defects

6.3. Conical rolling

6.4. Profile rolling

6.1 PRE-BENDING

The following procedure is based on the feeding of the machine from the right side; in case of opposite feeding the procedure must be inverted.

6.1.1. CLOSING IN ONE PASS.

PHASE 1 - Feeding and squaring of the plate (6.1.1.1). The two central rolls are “opened” (The lower “P” roll is in its lower position) The right front roll “Y” is slightly higher, in order to obtain a slightly tilted plane where to feed the plate between the rolls. The left rear roll “X” is at a height so that the plate can touch the roll at approximately 25 mm below its horizontal axis. Feed the plate between the two central rolls pushing it against the rear roll “X” , obtaining a perfect squaring. (Should the plate be too narrow, don’t rely upon this squaring against the rear roll, but check the square of the plate on the longer side of the plate) Once the plate is squared, raise the lower central roll until it pinches the plate against the top roll at the desired pressure setting the pinching pressure (6.1.1.2).

You can set the desired pressure from the main page of the CN or, is some cases, from the hand wheel on the machine. You can read the desired pressure (once set) just pushing the lower roll against the plate. The plate pinching will be maintained for the whole rolling process, to have an optimal control of the feeding of the plate. After pinching, check that the plate is still in the squaring position. Then go to the following step. NOTE: The squaring is a very important phase: a non-correct squaring will give poor final results. The four rolls-machine is the most suitable machine for the squaring of the plate. Using the side roll as reference and keeping the two central rolls pinched, the squaring will be maintained for the whole rolling process.

6.1.1.1

6.1.1.1

6.1.1.2

6.1.1.2

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PHASE 2 – Return to the tangent point (6.1.1.3)

After squaring, keep the front roll “Y” at approximately the same height of the lower central roll “P”, to hold the plate horizontally. Feed the plate backwards to bring the plate to the nearest tangent point, at which the two central “S” and “P” rolls pinch the plate. WARNING: This phase is very important for a good pre- bending. The further the plate will be to the tangent point, the poorest the pre-bending and the long flat side will be. Nevertheless, the nearest the plate will be to the tangent point, the higher will be the risk of slipping or escaping of the plate from the rolls. FOR THIS REASON IT’S STRICTLY FORBIDDEN TO ANYONE TO STAND NEAR THE BENDING MACHINE DURING THE ROLLING PROCESS, FOR THE HIGH RISK OF SLIPPING AND FALLING OF THE PLATE. Furthermore it is suggested to always hold the plate by means of a crane or to support it on a feed table or a side support, to avoid dangerous and not desired collapses. It’s also suggested to protect the front area, to prevent the access of non-authorized personnel.

PHASE 3 – Pre-bending (6.1.1.4)

Lower completely the rear roll “X”, used for the squaring and not necessary in this phase. Lift the front roll “Y” up to the rolling position, to obtain the desired diameter. This position must be estimated by the operator or it can be found by trial. Go immediately to the following rolling phase, to avoid that the plate, if tilted, slips from the machine and falls.

WARNING: This phase must be executed with extreme care. If lifting too much the “Y” roll:

- The plate would bend excessively, thus requiring excessive torque during the following rolling process;

- Even if having the necessary torque, the diameter could be too close. (very difficult to correct)

WARNING -DANGER !! IT’S FORBIDDEN TO ANYONE TO STAND AT THE REAR OR UNDER THE PLATE IN THIS PHASE.

6.1.1.3

6.1.1.3

6.1.1.4

6.1.1.4

IT COULD HAPPEN THAT DURING THE LIFTING OF THE SIDE ROLL, THE PLATE SLIPS OUT FROM THE

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PINCHING POINT, BETWEEN THE TWO CENTRAL ROLLS.

This danger could be caused by a wrong manoeuvre of the

operator to feed the plate (verify carefully the feeding direction

by means of the arrows placed on the front console).

Moreover it’s suggested to keep the plate lifted with the crane (if

a feed table is missing) to avoid unwanted movements.

Therefore follow the plate during the feeding using the crane, allowing a good feeding of the plate and avoiding to keep it blocked. Should the machine have the side support, use it to always keep the plate lifted. The use of a feed table is strongly recommended to lift the plate and to protect the front area preventing the access to unauthorized personnel.

FASE 4 . Feeding (6.1.1.5).

Control the rolls rotation and feed the plate: WARNING! Pay attention to the sense of rotation, checking the rotation arrow on the front console.

If the rolls shouldn’t move, lower the front roll a bit (the one

used for the pre-bending), reducing the requested torque and allowing the plate feeding. The initial feeding must be short; the plate, tilted, could be subject to excessive stress and loads, increasing the concave or

convex defects. Usually the rotation is enabled until pre-bent edge reaches half

of the distance between the axis of the central rolls “S” and “P

and the rear roll “X”.

Nonetheless, the bent sheet must be touched by the rear roll “X

in order to go to the following phase.

PHASE 5 – Side roll change and rolling. (6.1.1.6).

Lower completely the front roll “Y” (until it reaches the “0” position.) (Should a feed table be present, stop the lowering of the front roll “Y” at the height of the central roll “P”, keeping the plate horizontal, just above the table).

6.1.1.5

6.1.1.5

6.1.1.6

6.1.1.6

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The plate, that now is tilted, will descend below the horizontal axis. The plate end already “pre-bent” will change position approaching the top roll. Lift the side roll “X” up to the position that will give the desired diameter to the shell. Obviously the right position will be found by the operator, but it will be always higher than the one of the Y” roll.

WARNING: This phase must be executed with extreme care. If lifting too much the “X” roll:

- The plate would bend excessively, thus requiring excessive torque during the following rolling process;

- Even if having the necessary torque, the diameter could be too close. (very difficult to correct)

Having placed correctly the “X” roll, control the rotation of the upper roll, to feed the plate and obtain the correct diameter for the entire process (6.1 1.7)

PHASE 6 – Closing the shell (6.1.1.8).

6.1.1.7

6.1.1.7

WARNING: the approaching of the plate (near to finish the shell) to the central rolls is a delicate moment of the whole process, very important for the quality of the second pre- bending. The further the plate end will be from the tangent point, the poorest the second pre-bending and the long flat end will be.

Nevertheless, the nearest the plate end will be to the tangent point, the higher will be the risk of slipping out of the rolls. Should the plate not be completely closed, therefore “prisoner” around the upper roll, it could exit and fall from the machine.

IT’S ABSOLUTELY FORBIDDEN TO ANYBODY TO STAND NEAR THE MACHINE DURING ROLLING FOR THE HIGH RISK OF PLATE FALLING.

Moreover it’s suggested to keep the plate lifted using the crane to avoid unwanted movements. Should the machine have a vertical or side support, use it to keep the plate lifted.

WARNING: In case of closed shells, another risk is posed by the possible overlapping of the two edges of the plate (6.1.1.9). The first pre-bending (already rolled and swinging from the top), due to the weight of the shell that tightens the diameter,

6.1.1.8

6.1.1.8

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could overlap with the other, still flat edge, and enter, overlapped, inside the two central rolls.

AVOID IT CAREFULLY TO PREVENT DAMAGES TO THE MACHINE, TO THE ROLLS AND TO THE PLATE.

PHASE 7 – Plate Tac-Welding (6.1.1.10).

The machine has been designed and built only for plate rolling and not for plate welding (after rolling). Only tac-welding operations are allowed. Tac-welding operators can stay only on skidproof plates. All others positions are strictly forbidden, especially inside the shell.

If tac-welding is complicated along the longitudinal seam, is necessary tac-weld the two ends.

Warning: Turn off the machine rotating the key-switch to “0” (red light on console). Take out the key and keep it closer to the person to prevent that someone will move accidentally the machine. Connect the ground ONLY on the plate; Don’t connect ground cables on the machine’s frame to avoid electric shock on bearings and others parts.

PHASE 8 – Machine opening (6.1.1.11).

After having rolled a cylindrical shell, it will be necessary to “open” the machine to remove the shell.

- Check that the joint of the shell is in the lower position;

- lower the two side rolls, to release the pressure from the plate;

- Move the bottom roll down until its lower position (it will stop automatically);

- Hook the shell at the two ends;

- should the machine have a block for conical rolling, remove it.

- Open completely the end yoke using the lever on the console.

- Don’t lift the shell too much, but keep it lifted between the upper roll and the two side rolls, that could be used as guides on which to feed it;

- After shell removal, close the end yoke.

6.1.1.9
6.1.1.9
6.1.1.10

6.1.1.10

6.1.1.11

6.1.1.11

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WARNING: During the extraction process of the shell, with the yoke open, no additional load (than its own weight) must be weigh on the top roll in order not to damage the machine and the roll itself. After opened the yoke, tilt the top roll till the max inclination.

After the shell has been removed, bring the upper roll to its horizontal position, by keeping this command enabled for a few seconds, to lift the tilting cylinder. At this point it will be possible to close the end yoke. The machine must remain open for the time strictly necessary to extract the shell.

WARNING: On machines with the tilting upper roll, a safety device prevents erroneous operations.

The electric by-pass prevents:

- To tilt the upper roll with the end yoke in the closed position.

- To close the end yoke if the tilting cylinder isn’t completely lifted from the upper roll.

In case of maintenance activity, check that this electric by-pass (proximity or transducer) is placed exactly as at the beginning.

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There are two ways to round a plate into a rolling machine:

they are called Rolling and Prebending.

6.1-A ROLLING PROCESS

The “Rolling” process uses both side rolls of the machine, pushing against the plate, bending it around the top roll.

This condition has the benefit to add the power of both side rolls at the same time, at the same geometrical position.

To get this condition, the plate must be positioned above both side rolls, and pinching with the lower roll at one max pressure of 30/40 bar (6.1-A.1).

With this procedure, however, a flat edge remains straight, long almost the distance between the top and the side roll axis (6.1-A.1).

This flat edge remains straight also at the other end of the plate. This could be a problem for the geometry of the cylinder (6.1-A.2).

There are however some cases when the two long flat edges remained straight could not be a major problem, or could however be accepted on the rolled cylinder:

1) if a long flat edge should be required by the product geometry (buckets for excavators, U or oblong shapes, square tanks, and any eventual other part where a long flat edge should be required) 6.1-A.3.

2)

if a long flat does not disturb the geometry if the diameter of the cylinder should be very large.

6.1-A.1 6.1-A.2
6.1-A.1
6.1-A.2
6.1-A.3

6.1-A.3

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

When, instead, a more accurate roundness is required, the long flat ends could be corrected as follows:

(Prior to roll on the rolling machine)

a) to previously round the two edges on a press-brake by further bumping bending (6.1-A.4)

(after having rolled the cylinder)

b) cutting out the two long flats, and closing tighter the remained all round section of plate (6.1-A.5)

c) over-bending the ends at an “apple” shape and re- rolling after welding (6.1-A.6)

To make the re-rolling of the shell, move down the lower central roll bringing it to its lowest position. Select “REROLLING” so that the rotation dregging will be made by using the top roll only. For the complete procedure see cap 6.2.3.

6.1-A.4

6.1-A.4

6.1-A.5

6.1-A.5

6.1-A.6

6.1-A.6

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

6.2 ROLLING DEFECTS

First of all the rolling defects, or more precisely, the non compliance with the rolling tolerances (especially if very tight), are usually due to the operator experience, to the material and, very rarely, to the machine. The following is the list of the most common rolling defects.

6.2.1 CONCAVE OR CONVEX DEFECTS

These are the most common defects as regards the shells. They are very well known to the operators, because common to all the bending machines, depending on the physical roll deflexion. Experience suggests that both these defects occur mainly at the initial plate segment and less on the whole circumference. At 100-150 mm. (4"-6") from the edge the shell is usually quite straight. Also, these defects are more evident on the leading edge than on the final edge.

CORRECTION

The operators are aware about different correction procedures in order to limit such kind of defects. The following is a list of the most common:

A - SHORT DRIVING

Keep the first pre-bending as short as possible. The more the edge will be driven in this phase, the more the defect will dramatically increase. Pre-bend a section of plate corresponding to half the distance between the lower central roll and the roll opposite to one for pre-bending (sometimes even less)

(6.2.1.1)

Never roll a long section of plate during this initial phase of pre-bending. This is unnecessary and can only worsen the defect.

B - PINCHING PRESSURE

“CONCAVE” DEFECT The concave defect could be reduced by keeping the pinching pressure between the two central pinching rolls as low as possible by means of a proper valve (5.4.3), before the last sliding feed, to obtain the required diameter in multi-pass feed process or on the following plates of the same type: this manoeuvre will make a longer flat edge but will improve the concave defect.

S X Y P
S
X
Y
P
S Y P X
S
Y
P
X

6.2.1.1

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

If not sufficient, after having placed the plate at the tangent point with the pinching pressure at the minimum, drop slightly the lower central roll to further reduce the pressure.

“CONVEX” DEFECT The convex defect can be reduced by increasing the pinching pressure (5.4.5) between the two central rolls, before the last sliding feed to obtain the final diameter, or on the following plate of the same type. Being the convex defect more frequent on thin plates, pay attention to the risk of lamination and, eventually reduce the pinching pressure if needed. WARNING: To change the pinching pressure, the weight of the plate must be shifted on the roll. Therefore balance the weight, putting it in the central position and lower the side rolls so that that it does not weight on the lower central roll. Make sure that the plate doesn’t move out of control in this phase in which it will not be blocked by the pinching between the two central rolls. Having to increase the pinching pressure (to reduce the convex defect), raise the lower central roll and, while it’s pushing the plate against the upper roll, check the pressure on the pressure gauge, increasing it by rotating the regulation valve clockwise. To reduce the pressure, in order to reduce the concave defect, turn the valve counter clockwise, reducing the pre- load pressure before raising the lower roll, then raise the roll that, pinching the plate will allow to read the actual pressure. If too low, increase it by rotating the valve clockwise; if too high repeat the above procedure dropping the lower central roll.

C – ROLLING BEFORE PRE-BENDING Change the usual and quicker rolling procedure, therefore roll the central plate section first, and then form the two edges. This slows a bit the execution timing but gives 2 advantages:

- avoiding to start from pre-bending (reducing the defects); - the concave or convex defects are reduced because the already rolled central plate section offers more rigidity and resistance to the whole shell (the two ends as well).

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

D – SHIMMING

Insert the “shimming material” in the more opened areas (stripes of plate with 1, 2, 3 mm thickness, from 200mm to

500mm width and length) in order to create, in those areas,

a sort of artful “crowning” that will improve the final result (6.21.3.)

6.2.2 CONICAL DEFECT

It can sometimes occur that a shell is not cylindrical but

lightly conical (6.2.2.1). The diameters of both ends are different; tighter on one side and more open on the other side. This can be due to:

- A non perfect parallelism between the rolls (that must then to be correctly set);

- A harder or thicker plate on one of its sides.

CORRECTION:

The side rolls should be tilted (only one or eventually both

if necessary) raising them on the larger diameter in order

to tighten it slightly, till it is the same as the tightest

diamter (6.2.2.2). Being the side rolls inclinable ONLY if they raise near the end yoke, if the larger diameter is on the other side of the rolls (near the motor box), the shell must be removed and reintroduced after turning.

6.2.3 OUT OF ROUND (OVALIZATION)

It could occur that a shell is not rolled at a constant radius,

being instead ovalized (6.2.3.1).

CORRECTION

To make the radius uniform and avoid ovality defects, re- roll the plates (method well-known by skilled operators).

The maximum re-roll capacity is limited to 2/3 (65%)

of the maximum pre-bending thickness.

The shell should be removed by the machine and totally welded. Then the welding must be carefully cleaned by removing, inside and outside, all the dangerous, extremely hard and sharp parts, making them totally smooth.

CONCAVE DEFECT CONVEX DEFECT 6.2.1.3
CONCAVE DEFECT
CONVEX DEFECT
6.2.1.3
6.2.2.1
6.2.2.1
a 6.2.2.2
a
6.2.2.2
6.2.3.1
6.2.3.1
ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

Then the closed, rolled and welded shell can be reintroduced into the machine for the re-rolling. Bring the tightest diameter of the shell at the lowest position, just under the upper roll. Keeping both side rolls at the same position, raise them until they touch the shell. NB: The lower central roll it is in its lowest position. Then raise them more, for another short stroke, sufficient to deform the shell, bending it a little more, with a shape of a “pear” (6.2.3.2).

Select REROLLING mode, in order to excluded the top roll rotation (allowing the dragging of the plate to be rerolled by using the top roll ONLY)

Enable the rotation: the shell will start to rotate.

At each turn, slightly drop the side rolls, continuing to rotate the shell, always in the same direction (6.2.3.4).

After a few side rolls are lowered, alternated with complete rotations, the thrust of the rolls on the shell will be completely nullified and its position will be the one correspondent to the final right diameter.

WARNING: the re-rolling must be done using ONLY the upper roll and both the side rolls. THE LOWER CENTRAL ROLL MUST NOT BE USED (6.2.3.5)

6.2.4

LAMINATION

If a plate should be scratched or laminated, the pinching pressure must be reduced between the rolls, by means of the proper reducing pinching pressure valve (6.2.4) till the problem disappears.

6.2.3.2
6.2.3.2
6.2.3.4
6.2.3.4
reducing pinching pressure valve (6.2.4) till the problem disappears. 6.2.3.2 6.2.3.4 6.2.3.5 6.2.4 e6.2-A.eng.rev03.doc

6.2.3.5

reducing pinching pressure valve (6.2.4) till the problem disappears. 6.2.3.2 6.2.3.4 6.2.3.5 6.2.4 e6.2-A.eng.rev03.doc
reducing pinching pressure valve (6.2.4) till the problem disappears. 6.2.3.2 6.2.3.4 6.2.3.5 6.2.4 e6.2-A.eng.rev03.doc
6.2.4
6.2.4
reducing pinching pressure valve (6.2.4) till the problem disappears. 6.2.3.2 6.2.3.4 6.2.3.5 6.2.4 e6.2-A.eng.rev03.doc
ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

6.2.5 MISALIGNMENT

This defect (6.2.5.1) could depend on:

- plate with irregular shape (edges out of squaring);

- an incorrect plate placing on the machine (plate erroneously squared when placing it into the rolls);

- a non perfect rolls parallelism (which allows more driving where rolls are tighter).

CORRECTION

Defect not correctable if depending on a plate with irregular shape. In the other cases the machine could help by tilting the side rolls one opposite to the other (6.2.5.2), raising them alternatively in correspondence with the plate side. By enabling the rotation by a few revolutions, the defect will be reduced.

6.2.6

PRE-BENDING

The value of the flat end (pre-bending) of a shell depends on several factors. The bending machines are designed to obtain a flat, non- rolled end, of 1,5 to 2,5 times the sheet nominal thickness value, considering: the sheet maximum loading equal to 450 N/mm2 and Yield equal to 280 N/mm2 (40,000 Psi), its length equal to the length of the rolls, an inside diameter of 1,5 times the upper roll diameter, and as thickness, approximately 50-60% of the nominal rolling thickness of the machine.

If only one of these data should change, the flat end obtained could immediately change.

The machines are usually rated as nominal capacities for the capability to bend a plate, on the whole rolls length, with a max rolling (without pre-bending) thickness on a diameter 5 times larger that the upper roll diameter, in materials with 280 N/mm2 (40,000 Psi) yield and in a multi-sliding feed procedure (therefore using the max available machine force and load). It results that the best theoretical pre-bending capacity is approximately 50-60% of the nominal rated rolling thickness of the machine (as indicated by the capacity charts). It’s obviously possible to pre-bend thicker plates, but on larger diameters or on shorter width or, moreover, with longer flat ends.

6.2.5.1
6.2.5.1
6.2.5.2
6.2.5.2
ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

A longer pre-bending procedure is often due to light sheets

rolled on machines of bigger size, (it is difficult to reach 2 mm. flat on a 1 mm. plate rolled on a 30. mm sized

machine).

Another flat ends lengthening factor is the plate flame cut (it hardens the edges). This condition makes more rigid the edge, harder to be bent and consequentially, lengthens the flat ends.

For safety reasons, flat ends are often worsened: the further the sheet end is from the tangent point (with central rolls), the longer the straight end will be (6.2.6.1). Getting too close to the tangent point increases the risk of sheet slipping and, for this reason, the operator often prefers to keep the sheet end more inside the machine, thus lengthening the flat end.

Obviously, to obtain the best pre-bending results according to these standards, the cambering of the rolls should be done for the specific considered shell.

By cambering the rolls to a medium value, this perfection

is hard to obtain, in favour of wider machine flexibility

(wider range of thicknesses quality acceptable).

Upon becoming familiar with the machine and upon reaching a good training level, the operator can obtain an excellent pre-bending result, even less than 2 times the thickness (especially on short plates).

WARNING: The flat end must be measured with a radius-template INSIDE (and not outside) the shell and NOT at the edge of it, but at app. 100-200 mm (4- 8") inward (6.2.6.2).

NOT at the edge of it, but at app. 100-200 mm (4- 8") inward (6.2.6.2). 6.2.6.1

6.2.6.1

OK 6.2.6.2
OK
6.2.6.2
ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

6.3 CONICAL ROLLING

The most common machine optional application (besides the cylindrical) is the conical rolling. This is the most difficult application of the machine, being an irregular work, requiring a very high experience, special care and however very long execution times, with rare good final results.

The conical rolling depends exclusively on the operator skills and experience and very little on the machine.

For this reason, the standards and the tolerances of this application MUST necessarily be kept wider than on cylindrical applications.

The plate must pass through the rolls with a variable surface: shorter at the front and longer at the back (because of the two different cone diameters).

Therefore the plate must slip on the surface of the rolls: an irregular condition, which cannot be guaranteed by the machine, because no controllable by driving. In fact, the plate often slips in an unwanted way, assuming a wrong position among the rolls and must be repositioned carefully and patiently.

WARNING: Concentrating the maximum strength near the end yoke (the side of the small cone diameter) on all the bending machines, the cone thickness must not exceed 50% of the nominal thickness of the machine. This occurs by using the same material and type of work (rolling, pre-bending and diameters, considering the smallest diameter of the cone when comparing with cylindrical rolling). In practise, the type of

material to be rolled must be evaluated, as well as its small diameter, comparing it with the capacity chart of the machine, and the maximum thickness must be obtained from the chart and for conical rolling, never exceed 50% of the length of the rolls. The length of the conical plate MUST NEVER exceed 50% of the length of the rolls. If sometime it is exceeded, a safety rule could be the following:

- using from one half to three quarters of the length of the rolls, the thickness must never exceed 40% of the nominal thickness on the chart;

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

- when exceeding the three quarter of the length of the rolls, never exceed 30% of the nominal capacity on the diagram.

6.3.1. PRELIMINARY OPERATIONS

The first compulsory condition for conical rolling is to prepare the plate as follows:

A - accurate plate edges grinding to remove all the flash

and slag (very difficult because flame cut) till they are perfectly smooth as if lightly bevelled. B - Surface cleaning (sandblasting, if necessary)

WARNING: This perfect plate cleaning is absolutely necessary to avoid high risks of serious and permanent scratches on the rolls surface because of the very high friction and the frequent and hard slips that conical rolling irregular driving requires by the plate.

C - (further suggestion) Tracing on the plate a certain

number of cone generatrix (6.3.1.1) to keep under control the correct plate perpendicular squaring during the conical forming on the machine.

D - prepare some templates, built based on the final

required diameters (6.3.1.2).

6.3.2 THE CONTRAST GUIDING

The contrast guiding is a solid element against which the plate edge (by the side of the smallest diameter) should slip or roll during the driving. It is the task to maintain the longitudinal shift of the cone on the machine, to block the shifting of the plate (on the smallest diameter), to have a suitable position of the cone generatrix during the rotation.

The friction between the plate and the guide, in fact, contributes to stop the plate, slowing its speed in correspondence with the smallest diameter, while the bigger diameter must rotate at a higher speed.

6.3.1.1

6.3.1.1

6.3.1.2

6.3.1.2

with the smallest diameter, while the bigger diameter must rotate at a higher speed. 6.3.1.1 6.3.1.2
ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

Pay attention to not damage the contrast guide, not to bevel the edge of the plate which pushes against the contrast die.

6.3.3. LOCKING THE END YOKE

On some machines, BEFORE conical rolling, it is necessary to lock the end yoke with the specific “S” rod (6.3.3.1). The “D” nuts should just lean on the rod (to keep it in its correct position) but not be tighten (to avoid further problems to open the end yoke, if it is pressed and locked too tightly by the nuts).

6.3.4 CONE ROLLING PROCEDURE

CONE ROLLING DOES NOT ALLOW PRE-BENDING

Since it is not possible to pinch the plate edge while rolling cones, it is not possible to shorten the flat end significantly, as achievable on cylindrical applications.

The simplest procedure (remaining within 50% of the thickness and 50% of the length) is the following:

Before inserting the plate into the machine, in case of fix sliding type guide, it is necessary to prepare the contrast guide by greasing it to facilitate the sliding and turning while it is conically formed and rolled.

- Preset the pinching pressure with its valve at its lowest just to let the roll raise (NEVER exceed 50 bars - 700 Psi), and tilt the lower central roll raising it at the rear, pinching the plate on its long side (large cone diameter);

This condition has two advantages:

- a precise space where the plate is forced to move, avoiding wrong movements and erroneous positioning among the rolls;

- help the driving, because pinching lightly the plate on its rear long edge (large cone diameter) helps it moving as regularly as possible, fastens its speed (because pinched between the driving rolls), opposed to the slipping brake of the contrast guiding on the front short edge (tight cone diameter) of the plate.

S D 6.3.3.1
S
D
6.3.3.1
ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

To move easily, the plate must be lightly pinched ONLY ON THE REAR EDGE, only for a small segment, at the large cone diameter (6.3.4.1). Pinching a too long segment of plate, serious damages can occur to the machine and to the plate.

- The plate has to be placed with its tight diameter edge frontally, near the end yoke, in contact with the contrast guiding. (6.3.4.2);

- place the short plate in contact with the contrast guide;

- keep the plate edge parallel to the axis of the two central rolls and let it project out of the vertical axis of the two central rolls 3 to 6 times its thickness;

- raise the lower central roll till it touches (due to its tilting), and lightly pinches the plate on its long side (large diameter);

- lightly tilt the front roll, above which the plate is leaned (the tilting angle should be found only by trial and error, as no suggested tilting indications are available). The side rolls must be tilted as the cone, raising frontally (near the end yoke);

- control the raise of the front roll (tilted) that will bend the plate (6.3.4.3);

- control the raising of this front side roll (tilted) which will bend the plate (6.3.4.4);

This procedure reminds the initial pre-bending of a plate with the cylindrical procedure. Obviously, in case of conical rolling, the remaining flat end will be much longer than when pre-bending cylindrically.

- When the front roll reaches a position considered to be sufficient to give the plate the required diameter (this research has to be made by trial and error, as no suggested positioning indications are available), control the rolls rotation, to drag the plate forward (6.3.4.4).

Be very careful to move correctly the rotation joystick driving the plate forward, as operating backwards the rotation the plate can cause it to slip-out and fall down from the machine. THEREFORE IT IS ABSOLUTELY FORBIDDEN TO ANYBODY TO STAND BEHIND THE PLATE WHILE ROLLING, BECAUSE OF THE HIGH RISK OF PLATE SLIPPING OUT AND FALLING DOWN FROM THE MACHINE.

WARNING: check constantly in this phase that the front end of the plate (corresponding to the small

6.3.4.1

6.3.4.1

6.3.4.2

6.3.4.2

6.3.4.3

6.3.4.3

6.3.4.4

6.3.4.4

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

diameter)

contrast guide.

remains

perfectly

in

contact

with

the

This allows the cone to move into the machine following its generatrix (this does not occur if the plate looses contact with the contrast guide or it moves out of axis; therefore stop the rotation and correctly reposition the plate, changing the rolls parameters as probably erroneously set.

- As soon as the leading edge of the plate (just bent) reaches the rear roll position (actually down), stop the rotation and change the rolls positioning;

- Reset the horizontal and the front roll previously tilted and lower it, to its lowest position;

- the leading part of the plate, actually bent, changes position approaching the upper roll;

- lightly tilt the rear roll, actually below the leading edge of the plate already bent; this tilting must be made only by trial and error, as no suggested tilting indications are available. A help is given by the actual position of the plate, that allows contact with the plate all along its width;

- raise the rear roll (tilted), which will bend the plate;

- when the rear roll reaches a position considered to be sufficient to give the plate the required diameter (this research has to be made by trial and error, as no suggested positioning indications are available), control the rolls rotation, to drag the plate forward.

This procedure reminds the calendaring and final pre- bending of a plate with the cylindrical procedure. Obviously, in case of conical rolling, the remaining flat end will be much longer than when pre-bending cylindrically.

WARNING: continue to check constantly, while the plate is inside the machine, that the short edge of the plate (corresponding to the small diameter) remains perfectly and constantly in contact with the contrast guide. This makes the cone turn lightly on its generatrix, while moving.

After having driven the entire plate surface, the cone will be formed.

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

In case the diameter is not as tight as required, and in case

it is desired to obtain the final diameter by multi-pass feed procedures, (if the power of the machine was not sufficient

to close the cone in single-sliding feed procedure), once

arrived at the end of the above mentioned procedure, repeat the whole cycle, from the opposite direction, tightening the diameter by further side rolls raising.

If the machine is supplied with the re-rolling device (that cuts the oil feeding to the lower roll, letting only the upper roll powered), it is possible to enable it in case of difficulties in dragging or risks of a too high friction between the plate edge and the rolls, thus avoiding to use the lower central roll (except when the plate is blocked, a light pinching is needed). Basically, in this situation, the machine is operated as a three- rolls machine.

A good improvement of the cone quality is obtained by

performing the cone calibration (as well as the cylindrical shells). Then remove the cone from the machine, weld it totally and strongly. Then the welding must be carefully cleaned by removing, inside and outside, all the dangerous, hard, and sharp elements, making the surface totally smooth. Re-insert the welded and smoothed cone inside the machine, tilt the rolls as they are in contact with the whole cone length, then press it and start to turn the rolls, dragging and rotating the cone applying the calibrating procedure as mentioned above.

For high precision cones, in case a very short flat end is required, it is necessary to pre-bend the two edges with a folding press, parallel to the generatrix, that execute irregular bending, determining a cone shape. After pre- bending, the plate can be formed, in its central section, conically, into the plate roll.

When approaching the max capacities of the machine, in order to avoid high stresses at the contrast guiding and at the roll bearings, it is suggested to pre-bend the plate roll,

by “further bumping” procedure.

This procedure must be performed ONLY by highly experienced operators and it allows to pre-bend edges on the machine, as in a folding press.

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

The two edges must be formed not rolling them but folding them, rounding the edges by further bends, as if made by a folding press, as follows:

1 - Keeping the lower central roll parallel to the upper roll and set the pinching pressure the same as for the cylindrical rolling; place the plate edge to be formed, making the rolls axis parallel with the traced plate generatrix (6.3.5.5-A). Tilt the side roll and raise it, bending the plate (6.3.4.5- B).

2 - After pressing the plate, instead of driving the rolls rotation to drag the plate, stop the process, lower the side roll and open the pinching. Move the plate by hand (if light) or by means of a crane, and place it on the following generatrix repeating completely the previous phase 1. Execute various “bumped presses” until obtaining a long edge (6.3.5.5-C), longer than the distance between the central pinching rolls and the side roll. The plate roll must operate similarly to a folding machine.

WARNING: in that phase the plate MUST NOT ABSOLUTELY BE in contact with the contrast guiding, but placed at the rolls centre.

3 - Check the radii with the templates.

WARNING: while checking, keep carefully tilted the templates of a half cone angle (6.3.4.6).

4 - Repeat the same sequence for the opposite edge of the plate (6.3.4.7).

5 -The cone can be completed by rolling its central section. This must be done using the upper roll and the two side rolls.

Both side rolls must be tilted and raised ALWAYS AT THE SAME POSITION, in contact with the plate.

6.3.4.5

6.3.4.5

6.3.4.6

6.3.4.6

6.3.4.7

6.3.4.7

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

6 - Place the plate with the tighter diameter edge in contact with the contrast guide(6.3.4.8)

7 - Control the rolls rotation, to drag the plate forward and

backwards, for the entire surface (except the two, already bent, ends). After each sliding feed, lightly raise both side rolls, to obtain the final diameter (keep the rolls always at the same position).

8 - The top roll could slip, or stop against the plate surface

and not be able to drag it. Try to lower lightly the two side

bending rolls, increasing the number of sliding feeds to form the cone and, eventually, use also the lower central roll, tilting it, and pinching the plate ONLY on its longer side (large diameter, 6.3.4.9-B) with a minimum pinching pressure (NEVER over 50 Bars - 700 Psi).

For the safety of the machine, it is COMPULSORY to operate strictly as follows:

The pinching pressure (raising the lower central roll) MUST BE KEPT AS LOW AS POSSIBLE (NEVER EXCEED 50 BARS - 700 Psi).

A - (WRONG) If the pinching segment is too long

(6.3.4.9-A), the plate slipping and turning, while driving, is not allowed. This generates very serious and

dangerous stresses on the plate, on the rolls, on the contrast guiding with very high risks of serious damages.

B - (RIGHT) If, while rolling cones, the plate is not

driven by the only upper roll, the lower central roll MUST be tilted (up near the motor box, opposite to the side rolls tilting) to touch the plate ONLY on a very short segment of its rear edge, near its large diameter

(6.3.4.9-B).

WARNING: IT’S ABSOLUTELY FORBIDDEN TO CALENDER CONES WITH THE CENTRAL ROLL HORIZONTAL AND PARALLEL TO THE UPPER ROLL. THE LOWER CENTRAL ROLL MUST BE TILTED.

6.3.4 6.3.4.8
6.3.4
6.3.4.8
6.3.4.9

6.3.4.9

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

Appendix 1 - Simplified Cone Rolling

If the small diameter is however large enough, and depending on the end yoke geometry, a different procedure could be applied, to allow an excellent pre- bending of the edges without any prior pre-bending on a folding press or by further bumping on the plate roll. It works as follows:

- segments to be cut off after rolling (6.3.4.10-A).

1

Trace the cone

surface on the plate leaving two

2 - Roll the plate with the previous 5-6-7-8 procedure and

form the B sections to the final diameters, leaving the C segment formed to a much wider diameter (6.3.4.10- B and C).

3 - Remove the plate from the machine; cut off the two A edges, clean perfectly the two cut edges.

4 - Reposition the plate into the machine and close the

cone tightening the “C” section to the final diameters (same as the “B”sections).

A A B 6.3.4.10 C
A
A
B
6.3.4.10
C

B

WARNING:

By keeping the bottom rolls at the same bending position while rolling cones, it is possible to obtain the plate horizontal position in its contact point with the contrast guiding.

If this does not occur, if the bottom rolls are not at the same position, the plate could tilt and touch the contrast guiding.

If the plate moves from the bottom to the top when raising, the friction against the contrast guiding could make it raise from its correct position and the plate could pass through, below.

Less disturbing is the opposite case, when the plate slips against the contrast guiding, moving from top to bottom.

Then follow these instructions:

.

Keep as long as possible the plate HORIZONTAL while it slips against the contrast guiding.

In case of tilted cone rolling, check constantly the correct contact between the front surface (tight diameter) of the plate and the contrast guiding. A slip of the plate WHILE RAISING, against the contrast guiding, could make it raise,

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

and the plate could pass through below, with risks of damage. If the above mentioned instructions are not followed, and if using incorrect rolls positions, problems related to the quality of the plates and damages to the machine could occur.

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

6.4 PROFILE ROLLING

As the plate bending roll is primarily designed to roll plates, the level of precision in rolling profiles is generally poor; however never as accurate as on a specific profile rolling machine, which is also provided with a lot of adjustable guiding, to correct the material twist defects.

The more experienced the operator will get in rolling profiles, the more the result will be acceptable, even in this ancillary application.

When profiles are rolled, a minimum rolling diameter is difficult to be estimated, depending not only on the machine power and by the shaft resistance, but it depends mainly on the profile rigidity.

By tightening the diameter too small, the profile is permanently damaged, seriously twisted and impossible to be used. A generic rule is to limit the diameter to be rolled between 20 to 40 times the height (vertical edge), of the profile; below such diameters, and according to the profile, a deformation could be obtained.

6.4

6.4

However this final tightest diameter is reached in several sliding feed procedures, reducing it progressively in order to smoothly roll the material at its final round shape. The best result and the lowest deformation is obtained on the symmetrical profiles as T, flat on edge, square, channels and beams (these last two with special dies).

In case of asymmetrical profiles as angles or T on edge is useful and common among the operators, to improve the result, limiting the deformations and material twist and making the final shape acceptable, to join two profiles together to obtain a final new symmetric profile (6.4-C). In many cases this is the only way to roll acceptable angles.

Joining together two angles to obtain a T profile some welding tacks are performed on both up and low material faces (6.4-C). A perfect cleaning must be done to avoid the welding sharpness (very hard on surface) to damage the dies.

After rolling (6.4-D) the two parts of the composed profile are separated, removing the welding (6.4-E). Two rolled angles, pretty similar, are then available (6.4-F). Profile rolling can be done either OUTBOARD (when extended shafts are supplied) or INBOARD (on predisposed machines, with special rolls) On both cases a set of special DAVI dies is required.

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

6.4.1

OUTBOARD

The machine has to be ordered with the extended shafts, and with a set of three dies to be applied on, outboard. These dies are made in harden steel. Profile rolling dies could be machined in fixing configuration (with a groove where to set the profile to be rolled, of fixed type) or could be adjustable to receive a wide range of different profiles to be rolled (adjustable type). With reference to (6.4.1), they are composed in both cases of a main frame “A”, internally drilled to allow to set on the roll shaft “B”. The die set on the powered roll has to be fixed by a key “D”, to drag the material. After setting the dies on the shafts, fix them by the relative blocking flange “F” and bolt “V1”. On the adjustable type, it is necessary to create the groove “H” (adjusting the ring “B”) where to insert the profile to be rolled. A convenient clearance must be left, to avoid side friction while rolling. After releasing the blocking screws “V2”, turn counter- clockwise the adjustable ring “B”. When the groove “H” is fine, fix it by locking the position with the screws “V2”. WARNING: to keep fixed the position of the adjustable ring “B” the locking flange “C” must be lightly spaced and NEVER in contact (otherwise no locking is made). Therefore leave between “B” and “C” a little space “S” of about 5-10 mm). To lock them strongly, turn tightly the screws “V2”.

6.4.1

6.4.1

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

6.4.2

INBOARD

Upon request, setting on the rolls special rings, the inboard profile rolling can be performed on the machines, by the following special configuration:

- 4 rings are set on the side rolls (2 on each roll) - (6.4.2.1), (6.4.2.2), (6.4.2.3);

- on some models with a too small passage between the rolls, the final section of the upper roll, near the end yoke, a sleeve must be removed to create a wider gap with the other rolls

(6.4.2.1).

The rings are made in hardened steel; assemblable in two halves by screws, and they are axially adjustable to create the convenient groove to accept a wide range of profiles. Then guide the profiles while rolling keeping perfectly orthogonal in relation to the rolls axis. It’s necessary to leave a small clearance between the rolls and the profiles, to limit the friction. It’s also possible to roll square and rectangular sections, solid or void, flat on edge, angles, etc. Upon request, very rarely, a further couple of dies could be added on the top roll, to better guide the profile.

Some examples of INBOARD profile rolling are shown on (6.4.2.4). It’s also possible to roll square and rectangular sections, solid or void, flat on edge, angles, etc. Upon request, very rarely, a further couple of dies could be added on the top roll, to better guide the profile.

ROLLING COMPULSORY REQUIREMENTS WARNING:

Profile dies have to be set on the rolls ONLY when profile rolling has to be performed and MUST be removed immediately after finishing to avoid damages to the machine, and rolling plates.

WARNING: A very high risk of permanent damages impose the highest care in using profile rolling (especially with the outboard dies). The rolls extended shafts are not strong enough to hold all the hydraulic pressure of the machine. If the operator will supply all the pressure while rolling profile, the extended shafts WILL be permanently bent (or break) requiring the roll replacement. (not covered by warranty).

6.4.2.1

6.4.2.1

6.4.2.2

6.4.2.2

6.4.2.3

6.4.2.3

6.4.2.4

6.4.2.4

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

ROLLING SUGGESTIONS

To roll profiles safely, follow this procedure:

PROFILE ROLLING HAS TO BE ALWAYS DONE WITHOUT PRE-BENDING. THEREFORE THE TWO SIDE ROLLS MUST BE ALWAYS MOVED AT THE SAME POSITION (6.4.2.5).

The best suggestion is to raise lightly, very lightly, both side rolls, bringing them at the same position, and then drive completely the full profile development, from one edge to the other. Then raise a little more both side rolls and perform sliding feed. And so on, alternating light raising with whole sliding feeds, deforming progressively and smoothly the material. During the rotation, stop the drag BEFORE exceeding the previously bent end. Over passing it, forming a still flat section, a sudden and high load raise could permanently damage the rolls shaft (and over-rolling the profile diameter, worsens its shape). Raising too much the side roll at one step, the profile is bent too much, making the further driving by rotation difficult (if not impossible). On the 4 roll machines to roll profiles pinch the two central rolls or the set of the re-rolling device, to help the upper roll to transmit sufficient torque. It could occur that profile drag is difficult and the driving rolls slip on it, because the light structure of the profile does not allow the transmission of a too high torque. In this case the driving must be helped by pushing the profile by hand, or by other device outside the machine.

6.4.2.5

6.4.2.5

IT IS ALWAYS FORBIDDEN TO PRE-BEND PROFILES. SIDE ROLLS MUST BE ALWAYS KEPT AT THE SAME POSITION. NEVER PINCH PROFILES WITH ONE SIDE ROLL AND THEN BEND IT WITH THE OTHER. THIS WILL BEND OR BREAK THE EXTENDED SHAFTS.

- While rolling profiles the manometer pressure gauge MUST be always kept under control by the operator. While raising the side rolls the hydraulic pressure MUST NEVER exceed 40 bars (600 PSI). This is the safety limit and exceeding it will damage the rolls shaft. To help movement and limit the scratches between materials because of the high friction, it is necessary to grease the profile surface and the dies concerned (side) areas. To limit the flat ends on the final ring it is suggested to cut them after rolling.

ONLY ON OUTBOARD: If more than one ring is required, it is suggested to roll the profile in spiral (if possible). Then removing the two ends affecting only the first and the last ring allows to save on costs and improve the result.