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Chapter Chapter 5 5 Requirement Analysis & Documentation 1
Chapter Chapter 5 5 Requirement Analysis & Documentation 1
Chapter Chapter 5 5 Requirement Analysis & Documentation 1

ChapterChapter 55

Requirement Analysis & Documentation

Structure Structure Introduction Requirement Analysis & documentation Tasks to be performed Requirements
Structure Structure Introduction Requirement Analysis & documentation Tasks to be performed Requirements
Structure Structure Introduction Requirement Analysis & documentation Tasks to be performed Requirements

StructureStructure

Introduction Requirement Analysis & documentation Tasks to be performed Requirements Elicitation Story board/Screen flows A case on requirement analysis Summary

Introduction Introduction The Requirements of the business are what drive application design & development
Introduction Introduction The Requirements of the business are what drive application design & development
Introduction Introduction The Requirements of the business are what drive application design & development

IntroductionIntroduction

The Requirements of the business are what drive application design & development ,&it’s extremely important that these requirement are met in your design. The analysis of business requirement is not an exact science in all cases.

Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Documentation Documentation Requirement Analysis &
Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Documentation Documentation Requirement Analysis &
Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Documentation Documentation Requirement Analysis &

RequirementRequirement AnalysisAnalysis && DocumentationDocumentation

Requirement Analysis & documentation describes how stakeholders needs are analyzed, structured and specified for use in design & implementation of a solution. Deliverables from this process will be used by the project team to develop estimates for the time, resource & budget requirement

Inputs Inputs to to Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Documentation Documentation The business
Inputs Inputs to to Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Documentation Documentation The business
Inputs Inputs to to Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Documentation Documentation The business

InputsInputs toto RequirementRequirement AnalysisAnalysis && DocumentationDocumentation

The business analyst continues to refine the overall scope of the problem domain & scope of investigation. The business analyst and project team work with stakeholders to conduct requirement analysis.

Inputs Inputs to to Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Documentation Documentation The business
Inputs Inputs to to Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Documentation Documentation The business
Inputs Inputs to to Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Documentation Documentation The business

InputsInputs toto RequirementRequirement AnalysisAnalysis && DocumentationDocumentation

The business analyst has defined a set of deliverables that will be the outcome of requirements documentation . They include

Documentation Organizational assets Supplemental work record

Tasks Tasks to to be be performed performed For For Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis &
Tasks Tasks to to be be performed performed For For Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis &
Tasks Tasks to to be be performed performed For For Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis &

TasksTasks toto bebe performedperformed ForFor RequirementRequirement AnalysisAnalysis && DocumentationDocumentation

Documenting requirements Determining the assumptions and constraints. Structure requirements. Determine requirements attributes

Outputs Outputs of of Documentation Documentation Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Fully specified
Outputs Outputs of of Documentation Documentation Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Fully specified

OutputsOutputs ofof

DocumentationDocumentation

RequirementRequirement AnalysisAnalysis &&

Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Fully specified requirements are the primarily output of

Fully specified requirements are the primarily output of this area. They are stable enough to be implemented by project team.

Analysis Analysis techniques techniques for for Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Documentation
Analysis Analysis techniques techniques for for Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Documentation

AnalysisAnalysis techniquestechniques forfor RequirementRequirement AnalysisAnalysis && DocumentationDocumentation

There are three broad types of solution development techniques that BA use. Business process analysis Object-oriented analysis Structured analysis

development techniques that BA use. Business process analysis Object-oriented analysis Structured analysis 9
Analysis Analysis techniques techniques for for Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Documentation
Analysis Analysis techniques techniques for for Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Documentation

AnalysisAnalysis techniquestechniques forfor RequirementRequirement AnalysisAnalysis && DocumentationDocumentation

Analysis Analysis & & Documentation Documentation Business process analysis ◦ Business process analysis

Business process analysis

Business process analysis focuses on improving the processes of an enterprise in order to maximize the achievement of its business mission, objectives and priorities.

Business process analysis projects employ a model to describe both current process and recommended future process.

Analysis Analysis techniques techniques for for Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Documentation
Analysis Analysis techniques techniques for for Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Documentation

AnalysisAnalysis techniquestechniques forfor RequirementRequirement AnalysisAnalysis && DocumentationDocumentation

Analysis Analysis & & Documentation Documentation Object-oriented analysis Views a information as a

Object-oriented analysis Views a information as a collection of classes that pass messages to one another. Object-oriented modeling techniques are supported by Unified Modeling Language (UML)

Analysis Analysis techniques techniques for for Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Documentation
Analysis Analysis techniques techniques for for Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis & & Documentation

AnalysisAnalysis techniquestechniques forfor RequirementRequirement AnalysisAnalysis && DocumentationDocumentation

Analysis Analysis & & Documentation Documentation Structured analysis views primarily a collection of

Structured analysis views primarily a collection of following process

Structure requirements packages

Create business model

Analyze User requirements

Task1 Task1 Structure Structure Requirements Requirements Packages Packages The purpose of structuring requirements
Task1 Task1 Structure Structure Requirements Requirements Packages Packages The purpose of structuring requirements

Task1Task1 StructureStructure RequirementsRequirements PackagesPackages

Structure Requirements Requirements Packages Packages The purpose of structuring requirements into packages is to

The purpose of structuring requirements into packages is to refine the problem boundary and solution scope definitions developed in enterprise analysis. This iteration continues until the requirement have been structured.

Predecessors Predecessors of of Task Task Structure Structure Requirements Requirements Packages Packages The
Predecessors Predecessors of of Task Task Structure Structure Requirements Requirements Packages Packages The

PredecessorsPredecessors ofof TaskTask StructureStructure RequirementsRequirements PackagesPackages

The Business Analyst has determined the scope of the problem domain as described in enterprise Analysis. The Business Analyst conducts the tasks defined in the requirements Elicitation area

in enterprise Analysis. The Business Analyst conducts the tasks defined in the requirements Elicitation area 14
Process Process & & Elements Elements of of Task Task Structure Structure Requirements Requirements
Process Process & & Elements Elements of of Task Task Structure Structure Requirements Requirements

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements ofof TaskTask StructureStructure RequirementsRequirements PackagesPackages

Structure Requirements Requirements Packages Packages Define Solution Boundary ◦ Where other actors interact

Define Solution Boundary

Where other actors interact

Where other systems provide

Where time initiates activities for solution

1 Process Process & & Elements Elements of of Task Task Structure Structure Requirements Requirements
1 Process Process & & Elements Elements of of Task Task Structure Structure Requirements Requirements
1 Process Process & & Elements Elements of of Task Task Structure Structure Requirements Requirements

1

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements ofof TaskTask StructureStructure RequirementsRequirements PackagesPackages

Goal Decomposition

Goals are developed by Stakeholders in the enterprise area.

Goals are prioritized during the planning and managing area.

Goals are business requirements

Process Process & & Elements Elements of of Task Task Structure Structure Requirements Requirements
Process Process & & Elements Elements of of Task Task Structure Structure Requirements Requirements

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements ofof TaskTask StructureStructure RequirementsRequirements PackagesPackages

Structure Requirements Requirements Packages Packages 2 Features List Decomposition ◦ Feature is a service that

2 Features List Decomposition

Feature is a service that the solution provides to fulfill one or more stakeholder needs.

Features can be textual or graphical

Process Process & & Elements Elements of of Task Task Structure Structure Requirements Requirements
Process Process & & Elements Elements of of Task Task Structure Structure Requirements Requirements

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements ofof TaskTask StructureStructure RequirementsRequirements PackagesPackages

Structure Requirements Requirements Packages Packages 3 Functional Decomposition ◦ Identifies the high-level

3 Functional Decomposition

Identifies the high-level functions of an organization and breaks down them into sub- processes and activities.

Models start from top level function ,continue to drill down into sub functions

Process Process & & Elements Elements of of Task Task Structure Structure Requirements Requirements
Process Process & & Elements Elements of of Task Task Structure Structure Requirements Requirements

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements ofof TaskTask StructureStructure RequirementsRequirements PackagesPackages

Structure Requirements Requirements Packages Packages 4 Solution Driven Decomposition In some projects ,the

4 Solution Driven Decomposition In some projects ,the solution architecture is determined at the time of project initiation. Stakeholders are impacted by analysis technique. The deliverables of this task is a documentation

Task Task 2 2 Create Create Business Business Domain Domain Model Model The purpose of
Task Task 2 2 Create Create Business Business Domain Domain Model Model The purpose of

TaskTask 22 CreateCreate BusinessBusiness DomainDomain ModelModel

Create Create Business Business Domain Domain Model Model The purpose of the ‘Create business domain model’

The purpose of the ‘Create business domain model’ task is to describe the current and future state of the enterprise. The objective is to create a complete description of existing & proposed organizational structure ,processes , and information used by the enterprise

Process Process to to Create Create Business Business Domain Domain Model Model Domain and User
Process Process to to Create Create Business Business Domain Domain Model Model Domain and User

ProcessProcess toto CreateCreate BusinessBusiness DomainDomain ModelModel

Create Create Business Business Domain Domain Model Model Domain and User Variation ◦ Multiple work units

Domain and User Variation

Multiple work units perform the same function.

Multiple users perform the same work

Resolution

The business analyst will document whether the to be solution will accommodate the inconsistencies in the current business model.

Task Task 3 3 Analyze Analyze User User Requirement Requirement The purpose of this task
Task Task 3 3 Analyze Analyze User User Requirement Requirement The purpose of this task

TaskTask 33 AnalyzeAnalyze UserUser RequirementRequirement

3 3 Analyze Analyze User User Requirement Requirement The purpose of this task is to capture

The purpose of this task is to capture and describe requirements that affect a particular user & insure that needs of stake holders are addressed by solution. They may be used to describe how a particular set of users of solutions will interact with it.

Predecessor Predecessor Task Task The process of analyzing and specifying user requirement is identical to
Predecessor Predecessor Task Task The process of analyzing and specifying user requirement is identical to

PredecessorPredecessor TaskTask

Predecessor Predecessor Task Task The process of analyzing and specifying user requirement is identical to the

The process of analyzing and specifying user requirement is identical to the processes used to Analyze Functional requirements, quality of service requirements and constraints. The business analyst and other stakeholders will be concerned with ensuring that conflicts between sets of user requirements can be resolved.

Task Task 4 4 Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement The functional requirements are analyzed
Task Task 4 4 Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement The functional requirements are analyzed

TaskTask 44 AnalyzeAnalyze FunctionalFunctional RequirementRequirement

Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement The functional requirements are analyzed to describe the

The functional requirements are analyzed to describe the desired behavior of a solution. Functional requirements describe the behavior that the solution will manage.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto AnalyzeAnalyze FunctionalFunctional RequirementRequirement

The following are guiding principles in analyzing functional requirement. 1. Textual Documentation Some requirements are best stated in simple textual sentences , for example business rules 1) Expressed as a verb or verb phrase 2) Avoid complex conditional clauses ……cont

, for example business rules 1) Expressed as a verb or verb phrase 2) Avoid complex
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto AnalyzeAnalyze FunctionalFunctional RequirementRequirement

Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement Well formatted requirements A well-formed textual

Well formatted requirements A well-formed textual requirement must describe capabilities of the solution . Each of following elements is considered

Event /Condition

Subject Action Verb

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement 2.
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement 2.

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto AnalyzeAnalyze FunctionalFunctional RequirementRequirement

2. Matrix documentation Table is a simplex form of metrics A more complex matrix will also express information in the rows of the table.

Table is a simplex form of metrics A more complex matrix will also express information in
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement 3.
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement 3.

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto AnalyzeAnalyze FunctionalFunctional RequirementRequirement

3. Diagrams Diagrams are effective for showing the relationship between items of information in a requirement specification . Diagrams that are intend to show a hierarchical relationship between elements of the diagram should place most important elements at top.

to show a hierarchical relationship between elements of the diagram should place most important elements at
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement 4.
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement 4.

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto AnalyzeAnalyze FunctionalFunctional RequirementRequirement

4. Models The template for expressing the requirements that may combine textual elements, matrices, and diagrams is called as Model. Business Analyst may choose to rule out modeling when the problem domain is well known.

called as Model. Business Analyst may choose to rule out modeling when the problem domain is

Cont…

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement As
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement As

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto AnalyzeAnalyze FunctionalFunctional RequirementRequirement

Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement As the complexity of a solution increases, communication

As the complexity of a solution increases, communication needs dictate modeling. The benefits of using modeling techniques are

A model is simplification of reality.

Help us to understand & describe complex system

Models may easily translate into a solution design

… cont

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement A
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement A

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto AnalyzeAnalyze FunctionalFunctional RequirementRequirement

Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement A model may be Formal , highly structured and detailed or

A model may be Formal , highly structured and detailed or informal and general. Model view points

Out of the most commonly used sets of viewpoints the development of separate Physical and logical model is the in use.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement 5.
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement 5.

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto AnalyzeAnalyze FunctionalFunctional RequirementRequirement

5. Related Task The Business analyst should execute determine requirement attributes and structure requirements for traceability in parallel with this task. When analyzing a desired future state of solution ,the products of the analysis efforts must be validated with the project team.

a desired future state of solution ,the products of the analysis efforts must be validated with
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze Functional Functional Requirement Requirement

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto AnalyzeAnalyze FunctionalFunctional RequirementRequirement

Task 5. Analyze Quality of service Requirement Quality of service requirements captures the Environmental conditions under which the solution remains effective. Quality of service requirements are most often used to describe some of the attributes of the system.

effective. Quality of service requirements are most often used to describe some of the attributes of
1. Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements
1. Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements
1. Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements

1.

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto AnalyzeAnalyze QOSQOS RequirementsRequirements

Environmental Requirements Environmental constraints imposed by the atmosphere outside of the system boundaries. Audit information define information that the process or system does not need in normal course of events.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements 2.
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements 2.

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto AnalyzeAnalyze QOSQOS RequirementsRequirements

2. Interface Requirements Interface requirement define the interactions between computer systems. Hardware interface describes characteristics of each interface between system & hardware component. Software interface describes to other component

of each interface between system & hardware component. Software interface describes to other component 35
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements 3.
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements 3.

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto AnalyzeAnalyze QOSQOS RequirementsRequirements

to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements 3. Glossary Glossary is used by Project Team

3. Glossary Glossary is used by Project Team to consistently use the terminology.

It provide definitions of common problem domain terms to other project team members

4. 5. Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements
4. 5. Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements
4. 5. Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements

4.

5.

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto AnalyzeAnalyze QOSQOS RequirementsRequirements

Operational Requirement Operational Requirement define how the system will run and interact with operators. Performance Requirement It provide for various system component indicate how much information the system must be capable of processing in given period of time.

6. 7. Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements
6. 7. Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements
6. 7. Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements

6.

7.

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto AnalyzeAnalyze QOSQOS RequirementsRequirements

Privacy Privacy requirements restrict the distribution of personal information. These may be in some cases be expressed through business rules Quality Requirement Quality Requirement describe the design ability,reliability,usability,testabilty. …… Cont

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements Key
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements Key

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto AnalyzeAnalyze QOSQOS RequirementsRequirements

Key quality requirements.

Failure and Disaster Recovery describes how the system is to be secured against catastrophic failure.

Maintainability requirement describe how likely future changes the solution are and what should be done to facilitate those future changes in the present.

Scalability requirement describe the likely growth

8. Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements
8. Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements
8. Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements

8.

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto AnalyzeAnalyze QOSQOS RequirementsRequirements

Safety requirements.

Safety requirements specify those requirements that are concerned with possible loss ,damage, or harm that could result from the use of system. 9. Security requirement Security requirement are important when the nature of data that is traded is sensitive ,or access to the information must be either monitored.

8. Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements
8. Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements
8. Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements

8.

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto AnalyzeAnalyze QOSQOS RequirementsRequirements

Safety requirements.

Safety requirements specify those requirements that are concerned with possible loss ,damage, or harm that could result from the use of system.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements 10.
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements 10.
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Analyze Analyze QOS QOS Requirements Requirements 10.

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto AnalyzeAnalyze QOSQOS RequirementsRequirements

10. Training requirement.

Training requirements describes the educational needs of stakeholders who will interact with the solution.

They describe the types of stakeholders affected.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Determine Determine Assumptions Assumptions & &
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Determine Determine Assumptions Assumptions & &

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto DetermineDetermine AssumptionsAssumptions && constraintsconstraints

Task 6. Determine Assumptions & constraints . Assumptions & constraints identify aspects of problem domain that are not functional requirements of a solution. Constraints are limitation or restriction on solution.

are not functional requirements of a solution. Constraints are limitation or restriction on solution. ……Cont 43

……Cont

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Determine Determine Assumptions Assumptions & &
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Determine Determine Assumptions Assumptions & &

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto DetermineDetermine AssumptionsAssumptions && constraintsconstraints

There are two type of the constraints which describes the limitations on the projects flexibility 1) Technical constraints 2) Business constraint Assumptions are used to document two types of issues relevant to the project.

constraints 2) Business constraint Assumptions are used to document two types of issues relevant to the
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Determine Determine Requirement Requirement Attribute Attribute
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Determine Determine Requirement Requirement Attribute Attribute

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto DetermineDetermine RequirementRequirement AttributeAttribute

Task 7. Requirement Attribute provide information about Requirement ,such as the source of Requirement and other metadata. Predecessor Task Which attribute that should be documentated will be determined during requirement planning.

Task Which attribute that should be documentated will be determined during requirement planning. ……Cont 45

……Cont

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Determine Determine Requirement Requirement Attribute Attribute
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Determine Determine Requirement Requirement Attribute Attribute

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto DetermineDetermine RequirementRequirement AttributeAttribute

Determine Requirement Requirement Attribute Attribute 1. Process ◦ During Requirement Elicitation ,the Business

1. Process

During Requirement Elicitation ,the Business Analyst must record any information supplied by stakeholders

2. Use of Imperatives

The Business Analyst may use imperatives to describe the priority of each requirement

……… Cont

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Determine Determine Requirement Requirement Attribute Attribute
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to Determine Determine Requirement Requirement Attribute Attribute

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto DetermineDetermine RequirementRequirement AttributeAttribute

3. Elements Some common requirement attributes includes. 1) Urgency 2) Scalability 3) Complexity 4) Ownership 5) Status

Some common requirement attributes includes. 1) Urgency 2) Scalability 3) Complexity 4) Ownership 5) Status 47
Document Document Requirements Requirements Task 8. The Business Analyst must create a requirements document to
Document Document Requirements Requirements Task 8. The Business Analyst must create a requirements document to

DocumentDocument RequirementsRequirements

Document Document Requirements Requirements Task 8. The Business Analyst must create a requirements document to

Task 8. The Business Analyst must create a requirements document to facilitate a common understanding of the requirements. Predecessor Task Requirement documentation requires the requirements Elicitation and analysis activities. ……Cont

Document Document Requirements Requirements Process Process & & Elements Elements 1. Selecting & Document
Document Document Requirements Requirements Process Process & & Elements Elements 1. Selecting & Document

DocumentDocument RequirementsRequirements ProcessProcess && ElementsElements

1.

Selecting & Document Format The format of the requirements document is likely to be determined by the methodology and process adopted by the enterprise. 2. Common Document format There are many terms for required documents. There are some common formats used for particular software development

…….Cont

Document Document Requirements Requirements Process Process & & Elements Elements Common Document format
Document Document Requirements Requirements Process Process & & Elements Elements Common Document format

DocumentDocument RequirementsRequirements ProcessProcess && ElementsElements

Common Document format Vision Business Process Description Business Requirements Document Request for proposal Software Requirements specification

Business Process Description Business Requirements Document Request for proposal Software Requirements specification 50
Document Document Requirements Requirements Process Process & & Elements Elements Task 9 Validate Requirements
Document Document Requirements Requirements Process Process & & Elements Elements Task 9 Validate Requirements

DocumentDocument RequirementsRequirements ProcessProcess && ElementsElements

Task 9 Validate Requirements The purpose of this task is to ensure that the stated requirements are correctly and fully implement the Business Requirements as defined during Enterprise analysis. Task 10 Verify Requirements Requirements verification ensures that Requirements are defined clearly enough to allow solution design

Requirements Requirements verification ensures that Requirements are defined clearly enough to allow solution design 51
Document Document Requirements Requirements Process Process & & Elements Elements Predecessor Task Validation
Document Document Requirements Requirements Process Process & & Elements Elements Predecessor Task Validation

DocumentDocument RequirementsRequirements ProcessProcess && ElementsElements

Process Process & & Elements Elements Predecessor Task Validation represents a final check by the

Predecessor Task Validation represents a final check by the Business Analyst to determine that the Requirements analysis has correctly performed. Process and Elements to verify Requirements The Business Analyst must verify that Requirements have been specified uniquely in well- written statements.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements 1.Criterion for Accessing
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements 1.Criterion for Accessing

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements 1.Criterion for Accessing requirements Quality 1) A

1.Criterion for Accessing requirements Quality 1) A locatable 2) Complete 3) Attainable 4) Feasible 5) Traceable 6) Prioritized 7) Correct 8) Necessary

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements 2. Check lists
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements 2. Check lists

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements 2. Check lists Checklists are useful as a quality

2. Check lists Checklists are useful as a quality control technique. The Business Analyst ,in conjunction with the solution delivery team ,will have the primarily responsibility for determine this task has been completed

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Technique: Data and
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Technique: Data and

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Technique: Data and Behavior Models Data and Behavior models

Technique: Data and Behavior Models

Data and Behavior models may be referred to as Static models . The statement that defines some aspect of the business is called as Business Rule. A Business rule is a statement that defines or constraints some part of business

……

cont

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Textual Rules :
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Textual Rules :

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Textual Rules : Common type of textual rules include

Textual Rules :

Common type of textual rules include 1) Term 2) Derivation 3) Assertions 4) Action enabler 5) Fact

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Decision Tables :
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Decision Tables :

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Decision Tables : Decision tables are used to structure

Decision Tables :

Decision tables are used to structure the presentation of series of closely related Business rules . Decision tables may also be used when multiple rules may apply to solutions.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Decision Tables Example
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Decision Tables Example

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Decision Tables Example : Decision tables for the policy

Decision Tables Example :

Decision tables for the policy followed by a company in giving discount to its customer. Transaction in credit Transaction in cash Discount offered

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements User Considerations :
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements User Considerations :

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements User Considerations : The Business Rules Management may be

User Considerations :

The Business Rules Management may be used whenever it is necessary to ensure that the policies that constraint and direct the operation of a business are well understood & correctly implemented. The strength of Business Rules Management is that it provides a structured rigorous approach.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary and
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary and

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary and alternative Technique : The Business

Complementary and alternative Technique :

The Business Rules may be encapsulated in Process/Flow models ,a Metadata Definition or in a Use case Description. Class model :The purpose of class diagram is to show the entities relevant to the solution ,along with each entities internal structure.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of Class model : The format &

Key features of Class model :

The format & element of the class diagram are defined in UML standard. A logical class model also makes it easier to build and design system architecture is main strength of class model. Class models result from a object oriented analysis and design approach may not be useful for non OO solutions

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Examples of Class
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Examples of Class

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Examples of Class model : Bicycle Objects Bicycle Class

Examples of Class model :

Bicycle Objects

Bicycle Class

Attributes Frame size Color Gears Create a class called “Bank account” Attributes Account No, Name, Current balance

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements CRUD Matrix :
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements CRUD Matrix :

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements CRUD Matrix : The CRUD (Create, Read, Use ,

CRUD Matrix :

The CRUD (Create, Read, Use , Delete ) technique is used to define different levels of access rights to data store within a software. For each data element ,it states which user groups are allowed to create ,read , use , delete entities.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process to develop
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process to develop

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process to develop CRUD Matrix : The CRUD (Create,

Process to develop CRUD Matrix :

The CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete ) matrix requires that the Business analyst identify sets of user who have different access rights to the data stored in the system. The CRUD matrix also requires that a detailed data model be defined for system.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of CRUD Matrix : Create : new

Key features of CRUD Matrix :

Create: new instances of data element. Read : View data stored Update : change data stored. Delete : Delete instances of Data

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage considerations of
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage considerations of

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage considerations of CRUD Matrix : The CRUD Matrix

Usage considerations of CRUD Matrix :

The CRUD Matrix is intended for use in software development projects and is unlikely to be much value in Business Process Analysis. The Business Analyst must be careful to keep the CRUD matrix consistent with user group. The information expressed in a CRUD Matrix is also be captured in use case or in Business rules.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Data directory :
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Data directory :

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Data directory : The data directory define the data

Data directory :

The data directory define the data that is recorded or used by an organization. It relates to the solution ,including both primitive data elements & more complex data structure

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process to Create
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process to Create

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process to Create Data directory : The data directory

Process to Create Data directory :

The data directory is collected throughout the requirement Elicitation process by collecting by definitions of terms. Key features of Data directory

Primitive data elements

Name

Alias

Values

Description

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Composite Data Elements
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Composite Data Elements

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Composite Data Elements The Composite data is assembled

Composite Data Elements The Composite data is assembled from primitive data element. Composite Data Elements structure includes:

Sequence

Repetitions

Optional Elements

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage considerations
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage considerations

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage considerations The Data Dictionary is useful for

Usage considerations The Data Dictionary is useful for ensuring that all stakeholders in a solution in agreement on the format and content of information. The Business Analyst may choose to capture business rules governing the data while the data dictionary is complied.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements The Data Dictionary
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements The Data Dictionary

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements The Data Dictionary Example Sample Data Dictionary Entry

The Data Dictionary Example

Sample Data Dictionary Entry for data element emp_code Data element : emp_ code Description : A unique code to employee Type : Char Range: 0001to 9999

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements The Data Transformation
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements The Data Transformation

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements The Data Transformation and Mapping The Data

The Data Transformation and Mapping The Data Transformation and Mapping is used on application development projects that require use of existing business data records.

Variants on include:

Data Transformation and Mapping

Extraction

Transformation

Loading

……….cont

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements The Data Transformation
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements The Data Transformation

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements The Data Transformation and Mapping The Data

The Data Transformation and Mapping The Data Transformation and Mapping provides a way for a project to understand several data challenges like :

Different places : The data may lie in heterogeneous systems at different places. Different definition : The data may be defined differently. Varying level of quality :

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process for Data
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process for Data

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process for Data Transformation and Mapping This process

Process for Data Transformation and Mapping

This process covers requirement planning activities. High level data modeling. Data analysis. Iterative Review of analysis model. Enterprise data model

……. cont

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process for Data
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process for Data

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process for Data Transformation and Mapping No matter what

Process for Data Transformation and Mapping No matter what metrology is used, this process must include following :

High level data modeling. Data Business rules. Data cleansing plan Environment plan business data categories

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage consideration This
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage consideration This

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage consideration This is the early analysis phase of

Usage consideration This is the early analysis phase of a project process that allows a enterprise to develop analysis that supports the plan to Move data from multiple sources. Reformat and cleanse it. Load to another database.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary &
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary &

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary & Alternative Technique Data

Complementary & Alternative Technique Data Transformation and mapping process has no alternative ,if data needs to be moved from source system to target business system. There may be tailoring of the project depends upon size of the project. Entity Relationship Diagram is a visual representation of a data structure. Business analyst use ER diagram to communicate data requirements.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process to Develop
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process to Develop

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process to Develop Entity Relationship Diagram Identify

Process to Develop Entity Relationship Diagram Identify what appears to be the things of significance. Identify attributes of each entity & relationship between them. Decide unique identifier for each entity. Validate model with Business analyst

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of Entity Relationship Diagram An ER diagram

Key features of Entity Relationship Diagram An ER diagram has four main components. Entities Attributes Unique Identifier Relationship

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Entity Relationship
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Entity Relationship

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Entity Relationship Diagram

verify Requirements Requirements Entity Relationship Diagram Customer Order Places Is ordered Order Item Product 80

Customer

Order

Places

Is ordered

Is ordered

Is ordered

Order Item

Product

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage Considerations
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage Considerations

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage Considerations Logical ER diagram can be used by

Usage Considerations Logical ER diagram can be used by a Business analyst to :

Develop and document an understanding of the entities of significance to business. At high level ,simplify and clarify complex problem. Document the data requirements.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Strengths of ER
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Strengths of ER

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Strengths of ER diagram Flexibility , in that they

Strengths of ER diagram Flexibility , in that they can be used at a high level. Rigor , in that they are based on mathematical concept. Weakness of ER diagram Complexity Data centric

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary &
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary &

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary & Alternative Technique Entity

Complementary & Alternative Technique Entity Relationship Diagram should be supported by business rules and metadata. ER diagram may be replaced with

Textual documents

Object role model

Class diagrams

Variations - Logical Data Models

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Entity Relationship
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Entity Relationship

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Entity Relationship Diagram Example Roll No Name T No

Entity Relationship Diagram Example

Roll No Name T No Name Teaches Teacher Student Address v Salary Class Name MarksName
Roll No
Name
T No
Name
Teaches
Teacher
Student
Address
v
Salary
Class Name
MarksName
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Metadata Definition
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Metadata Definition

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Metadata Definition Metadata is information about data

Metadata Definition Metadata is information about data used by a solution that helps Business analyst to explain the context in which data is used. The capture of metadata is normally a byproduct of functioning of system. Usage Considerations Metadata must eventually be recorded within the solution to be of any value.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary &
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary &

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary & Alternative Technique Metadata includes

Complementary & Alternative Technique

Metadata includes information that Business Analyst is likely to capture in particular.

The structure of the primitive data element .

Ownership of the access to data element .

Business Rules

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Technique :Process/Flow
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Technique :Process/Flow

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Technique :Process/Flow models The process /flow model may

Technique :Process/Flow models

The process /flow model may also be described as dynamic model. These models show how the system behaves over the course of time.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Activity Diagram The
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Activity Diagram The

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Activity Diagram The purpose of Activity Diagram is to

Activity Diagram

The purpose of Activity Diagram is to graphically represent the flow of a sequence of activities Activity Diagram is useful whenever it is necessary to communicate complex process. Standard: The format & elements of Activity Diagram are defined by the UML standards.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process to Make
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process to Make

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process to Make Activity Diagram Completion of an Activity

Process to Make Activity Diagram Completion of an Activity Diagram is generally accomplished by Deciding boundaries Determining details of activities Completing Diagram Preparing textual description

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of an Activity Diagram An Activity Diagram

Key features of an Activity Diagram An Activity Diagram has following components. Activities represented by rounded rectangles Sequential flow of activities by arrow The start point by filled circle End point by bounded filled circle

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage Considerations
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage Considerations

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage Considerations Activity Diagram can be used

Usage Considerations Activity Diagram can be used Analyze and describe a complex Use case Analyze and document Business Work flow. Describe complex sequence of activities

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Strengths of Activity
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Strengths of Activity

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Strengths of Activity diagram Ability to visualize

Strengths of Activity diagram Ability to visualize complex flows . Easy to develop & understand by most users. Weakness of Activity diagram Complex sequence of Activities ,difficult to organize

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary &
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary &

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary & Alternative Technique There are number

Complementary & Alternative Technique

There are number of other diagramming conventions that serve similar purpose to activity diagram. These include

The IDEF3diagram developed by U.S department. Flowcharts

Workflow models

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Activity diagram for
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Activity diagram for

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Activity diagram for order processing system The solid

Activity diagram for order processing system The solid circle represents start of process. Rounded rectangle different activities. Arrows represents the triggers or events The horizontal bar represents activities which occur in parallel

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Data flow Diagram
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Data flow Diagram

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Data flow Diagram To show how information is input

Data flow Diagram To show how information is input , processed , stored and output from a system is the purpose of DFD External entities that provide data to or receive data from , a system The process of the system that transform data. Data store & flows to external entities.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process of Data
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process of Data

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process of Data flow Diagram Data flow Diagrams are

Process of Data flow Diagram Data flow Diagrams are prepared by successive decomposition of a process. Key Elements in DFD External entities represented as rectangle

Data store represented as two parallel lines Data Process diagonal rectangle Data flow as arrows

as rectangle Data store represented as two parallel lines Data Process diagonal rectangle Data flow as
as rectangle Data store represented as two parallel lines Data Process diagonal rectangle Data flow as
as rectangle Data store represented as two parallel lines Data Process diagonal rectangle Data flow as
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage Considerations
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage Considerations

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage Considerations Data Flow Diagram can be used DFDs

Usage Considerations Data Flow Diagram can be used DFDs are used as a part of Structured analysis approach. They are used to get an understanding of range of data within domain.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Strengths of DFD
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Strengths of DFD

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Strengths of DFD May be used as discovery technique

Strengths of DFD May be used as discovery technique for process of data. Most users find easy to understand. Weakness of DFD May not be the most useful analysis to developers in a structured programming environment. Complementary technique The DFD conveys similar information to that found in Activity Diagram ,Work flow diagrams

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Context Diagram for
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Context Diagram for

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Context Diagram for payroll System Bank Employees Payroll

Context Diagram for payroll System

Bank Employees Payroll system Accounts Department
Bank
Employees
Payroll
system
Accounts Department
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Example case Railway
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Example case Railway

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Example case Railway Reservation System Reservation Booking

Example case Railway Reservation System

Reservation Booking Clerk Passenger Tickets System Accounts Department
Reservation
Booking Clerk
Passenger
Tickets
System
Accounts Department
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Event Identification
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Event Identification

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Event Identification Event identification technique

Event Identification Event identification technique facilitates the discovery of the processes. External events are initiated by an entity that is external to the system. Temporal events are initiated by Passage of time. Internal events are initiated within the system.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process for Event
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process for Event

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process for Event Identification Event identification

Process for Event Identification Event identification technique usually completed by interviewing individuals. Through these interviews ,the vents ,and the processes required to fully respond to them

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements When to use
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements When to use

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements When to use Event Identification Event identification

When to use Event Identification Event identification technique can be used as initial approach to any type of process. Business area expert find it easy to this approach. Top down process decomposition. Complementary Technique Data flow diagram ,Use case analysis ,work flow modeling are few alternative.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Flow chart Flow
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Flow chart Flow

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Flow chart Flow charts are visual representation of

Flow chart Flow charts are visual representation of sequential flow & control logic. Graphically represent the flow of activities. Made up of no of graphical symbols. A flow chart may be used by Business analyst to communicate details to developer

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process to draw
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process to draw

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process to draw Flow chart Completion of Flow charts

Process to draw Flow chart Completion of Flow charts is generally accomplished by :

Deciding boundaries of the flow of activities. Determining details of activities by using no of graphical symbols. Completing the diagram

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Flow chart Components
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Flow chart Components

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Flow chart Components Flow charts is generally accomplished

Flow chart Components Flow charts is generally accomplished by :

Activities ,represented by rectangles. Flow of activities ,represented by arrow headed line. Start point by rounded rectangle. End point by rounded rectangle.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage Considerations
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage Considerations

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage Considerations Flow Charts can be used for :

Usage Considerations Flow Charts can be used for :

Analyze and describe complex use case. Analyze and document business workflows. Describe any complex sequence of activities. Document activities together.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Strengths of Flowchart
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Strengths of Flowchart

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Strengths of Flowchart Ability to visually represent

Strengths of Flowchart Ability to visually represent complex flows with multiple decision points. Most users find easy to develop & understand. Weakness of Flowchart Does not explicitly support of “swim-lanes” to identify responsibility for execution of process. Complementary technique The DFD conveys similar information to that found in Activity Diagram ,Work flow diagrams

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary Technique
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary Technique

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary Technique There are number of similar

Complementary Technique There are number of similar diagrammatic conventions that found that serve as standard flowchart these include Activity Diagram Work flow Diagrams The IDEF3 Diagrams Sequence Diagram Are used to model the logic of usage scenarios.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of Sequence Diagram The Sequence Diagram

Key features of Sequence Diagram The Sequence Diagram shows particular instances of each class. It shows the stimuli flowing between objects. There are two types of objects.

A passive object

Active object

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage Considerations
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage Considerations

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage Considerations Sequence Diagram is most commonly used

Usage Considerations Sequence Diagram is most commonly used to validate the domain model in preparation for solution design. The Sequence Diagrams may be used during analysis to validate the Class Diagram against Use Case description.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary Technique
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary Technique

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Complementary Technique There are number of similar

Complementary Technique There are number of similar diagrammatic conventions that found that serve as Sequence Diagrams Activity Diagram Work flow Diagrams The IDEF3 Diagrams Sequence Diagrams can be used to model interaction with the user interface of software system.

.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements State Machine Diagram
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements State Machine Diagram

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements State Machine Diagram A number of software intensive

State Machine Diagram A number of software intensive systems just like thermostat. A network router runs continuously ,a cell phone works on demand. You model the dynamic aspects of a system by using state machines

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process of State
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process of State

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process of State Machine Diagram A State machine diagram

Process of State Machine Diagram A State machine diagram specifies a sequence of states that an object goes through its lifetime. There may be policy and legal implication to impose a specific state and transition . Emphasis is on tractability from element to requirement, but also the other related requirement

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of State Machine Diagram A State machine

Key features of State Machine Diagram A State machine diagram helps detail the life of object using three main elements. The possible sates are depicted by boxes with round corners The transition that show how the object moves between states is by line with direction arrow.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Workflow models A
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Workflow models A

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Workflow models A workflow model is a visual

Workflow models A workflow model is a visual representation of the flow of work. Workflow model are used to document how work processes are carried out. Workflow model represents :

Business activities

Sequential flow of activities

The person who perform work

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process of Workflow
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process of Workflow

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process of Workflow models Completion of a process model

Process of Workflow models Completion of a process model where the current & future states are both modeled generally proceeds as follows. Establish scope of the process. Understand the current process, its strength , weakness Identify opportunities for process improvement.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of Workflow models A workflow model has

Key features of Workflow models A workflow model has following components. Activities /Tasks Sequential flow Decision points parallel flow Swim –Lanes Terminal

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage considerations of
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage considerations of

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Usage considerations of Workflow models A workflow model

Usage considerations of Workflow models A workflow model can be used by a business analyst when it is necessary to define how & when the business process is carried out. This may be to :

Develop and document an understanding of the current work flows in business area. Identify opportunities for business. Understand and communicate complex business logic.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Strengths of Flowchart
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Strengths of Flowchart

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Strengths of Flowchart Ability to visually represent

Strengths of Flowchart Ability to visually represent complex flows with multiple decision points and parallel flows. Most users find easy to develop & understand. Weakness of Flowchart Multiple sets of diagramming conventions. Complementary technique Use cases are sometimes used to document business process.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Prototyping A prototype
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Prototyping A prototype

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Prototyping A prototype is a simplified representation of

Prototyping A prototype is a simplified representation of the user interface of a proposed software application . They allow more visual representation of user interaction with the system. Variants on prototyping includes

Throwaway prototyping

Rapid prototyping

Evolutionary prototyping

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process to Make
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process to Make

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements

Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Process to Make Prototype The Business Analyst begins by

Process to Make Prototype The Business Analyst begins by identifying requirement that will be used to build the prototype. Project team decides what project elements contribute to risk. Align the choice of prototype process with development lifecycle.

Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of
Process Process & & Elements Elements to to verify verify Requirements Requirements Key features of

ProcessProcess && ElementsElements toto verifyverify RequirementsRequirements