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DMP3xxC1

Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device

TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION Version 2.0

HNAC

Technology Co.,Ltd.

DMP3xxC1 Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device

TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION

Preface

Thanks for using DMP series microprocessor-based protection products developed by HNAC Technology Co.,Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as HNAC). This is the technical instruction for 6.3 kV (10 kV) Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device. If there are any mistakes or defects, please feel free to inform us. HNAC Technology Co.,Ltd. reserves the right to explain and modify this instruction. And the inconsistence between the product and the instruction owing to the production time or the product upgrading is subject to the product and it will not be further informed!

TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION

DMP3xxC1 Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device

Abbreviations

 1 P: Active power 2 Q: Reactive power 3 cos: Power factor 4 Pd: Active energy 5 Qd: Reactive energy 6 F: Frequency (Phase Ua) 7 Ia. Ib. Ic: Bus phase current 8 Ua. Ub. Uc: Bus phase voltage 9 Uab. Ubc. Uca: Bus line voltage 10 ∠: Angle 11 U0: Open-delta voltage 12 I0: Zero sequence channel current 13 3U0j: Calculate zero sequence voltage 14 3I0j: Calculate zero sequence current 15 U2: Bus negative sequence voltage 16 I2: Negative sequence current 17 T1: Reseved 18. T2: Reseved 19 Ia1, Ib1, Ic1: Generator terminal phase current 20 Ia2, Ib2, Ic2: Generator neutral point phase current 21 In: Protection CT rated secondary current 22 DI0: Generator zero sequence differential current 23 Harmonic voltage Ua2~Ua11 phase A 2~11 harmonic voltage 24 Harmonic current Ia2~Ia11 phase A 2~11 harmonic voltage 25 Ie1: Generator terminal rated secondary current 26 Ie2: Gnerator neutral point rated secondary current 27 DIa. DIb. DIc: Differential current of generator each phase 28 ZDIa. ZDIb. ZDIc: Braking current of generator each phase 29 XDIa. XDIb. XDIc: Secondary harmonic braking current of generator each phase 30 ∩: Intersection (AND gate, means and) 31 ∪: Union (OR gate, means or) 32 Kb: Times of over excitation 33 U03: Generator terminal open-delta third harmonic voltage 34 Un3: Generator neutral point third harmonic voltage

DMP3xxC1 Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device

TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION

35. K3: U03/Un3

36. Zx, Zy: Generator terminal computing impedance

37. UΦ2: Max. value of generator terminal phase voltage secondary harmonic

38. Ulc: Excitation voltage

39. Rg: Earth resistance

40. a: Rotor earthing position (to excitation voltage plus end)

41. Ux: System Voltage

42. Uz+Uz-Uzc: Positive, Reverse or Differential Voltage when Application the toggle

switch shifting principle

43. Uzc: Voltage of Internal gathering when Rotor earthing

TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION

DMP3xxC1 Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device

Contents

 Chapter 1 Overview 1 1.1 Main features 1 1.2 Measuring and control function 2 1.3 Protection function 2 Chapter 2 Technical parameter 4 2.1 AC work power 4 2.2 DC power 4 2.3 Ratings 4 2.3.1 Rated AC data 4 2.3.2 Power consumption 4 2.3.3 Overload capacity 4 2.3.4 Protection, measuring and OPTO I/P accuracy 5 2.3.5 Accurate working range 5 2.4 Output relay contact capacity 5 2.5 Insulation performance 5 2.6 Moisture and heat resistance performance 6 2.7 Vibration 6 2.8 Impact 6 2.9 Collision 6 2.10 Electrical interference resistance performance 6 2.11 Ambient conditions 7 Chapter 3 Hardware description 8 3.1 Hardware structure 8 3.2 AC input plug-in 8 3.3 CPU plug-in 8 3.4 Operation and relay output plug-in 9 3.5 Power plug-in 10 3.6 Man-machine interface 10 Chapter 4 Protection principle and configuration 12 4.1 Mutation starting component 12 4.2 Proportional differential protection 12 4.3 Differential quick-break protection 14

DMP3xxC1 Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device

TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION

 4.4 Zero sequence transverse differential protection 14 4.5 Over current protection 14 4.6 over current protection Zero sequence 16 4.7 Zero sequence over voltage protection 16 4.8 Stator earthing third harmonic ratio protection 16 4.9 Rotor one point earthing protection 17 4.10 Rotor two points earthing protection 18 4.11 Overload protection 19 4.12 Loss Excitation protection 20 4.13 Over frequency protection 25 4.14 Under frequency protection 25 4.15 Over Voltage protection 25 4.16 Under Voltage protection 25 4.17 Negative sequence over current protection 26 4.18 Inverse power protection 27 4.19 Pole Slipping protection 27 4.20 Over excitation protection 29 4.21 Low Impedance protection 31 4.22 Breaker Failure protection 34 4.23 OperatingMechanism Stuck 34 4.24 Non-electric protection and alarm 35 4.25 Abnormal operation alarm 35 4.25.1 Differential current over limit alarm 35 4.25.2 TA break detection 35 4.25.3 Control Loop break detection 35 4.25.4 TV abnormal detection 36 4.25.5 Other alarms 36 Chapter 5 Monitoring 38 5.1 Measuring function 38 5.2 Opto I/P collection 38 5.3 Control 39 5.4 SOE(Sequence of Event) record 40 5.5 RTU function 40 Chapter 6 Operation instruction 41

TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION

DMP3xxC1 Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device

 6.1 Real time data inquiry 44 6.2 Settings view and edit 44 6.2.1 System parameter 45 6.2.2 Protection settings 45 6.3 Device debug 48 6.4 Event report and inquiry 50 6.5 Version information 51 6.6 Print function 51 Chapter 7 Attached lists and figures 53 7.1 DMP320C1F generator differential protection device settings list 53 7.1.1 System parameter 53 7.1.2 Protection setting value 53 7.2 DMP321C1F generator backup protection device settings list 56 7.2.1 System Para 56 7.2.2 Protection setting value 57 7.3 Unit box overall dimension and opening size 62 7.4 Logic diagram 63 7.5 Back terminal diagram 65 Chapter 8 Debug 67 8.1 Check before external connection and energizing 67 8.1.1 External wiring check 67 8.1.2 Check before energizing 67 8.2 Energizing check 68 8.2.1 DC power energizing check 68 8.2.2 Energizing check for the whole machine 68 8.3 Insulation check 68 8.4 Clock setting, checking and version No. checking 69 8.5 Settings 69 8.6 Sampling accuracy correction and DI and DO check 70 8.7 Communication test 70 8.8 Power and electric degree test 71 8.9 Overall function test 71 8.9.1 DMP320C1F generator differential protection device 72 8.9.2 DMP321C1F generator backup protection device 73

DMP3xxC1 Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device

TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION

 Chapter 9 Precautions 87 Chapter 10 Storage 88 Chapter 11 Appendix 89

TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION

DMP3xxC1 Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device

Chapter 1 Overview

DMP300C1 series microprocessor-based generator protection devices, as a new generation of power plant integrated automatic products, is integrated with the advantage of domestic and overseas whole-set microprocessor-based protection, successful operation experiences of many power plants and the latest software and hardware technology. It is applicable for the protection, measuring and control for 6.3 (10) kV generator or below and 35kV generator-transformer unit or below. It is capable of being mounted in group panel or in the switch cubicle on site.

1.1 Main features

High performance and reliability It is provided with dual CPU structure----a piece of high performance 32-bit DSP (digital signal processor) to realize the main function like the computer protection; and another single-chip CPU to realize the display function. Both of CPUs are provided with the reliable embedded real-time multi-task operation system to ensure a real-time and quick calculation and an operable display. The device is designed with integral panels, reinforcing units and anti-strong interference and vibration performance, which makes it function normally in the bad work conditions. It adopts new back pluggable compound structure that separates the weak current and the strong current from each other. It leads the heavy current out from the plug directly, which ensures the high reliability for the device. It is designed with completely independent measuring and protection AI isolated sampling channels with special design for analog and digital filtering and highly accurate AC sampling techniques, which meets the requirement for the measuring accuracy and the protection action wide dynamic range. The protection algorithm is mature, perfect and reliable.

Comprehensive functional design It is provided with the modularized software design and flexibly-configurable protection functions to meet the requirement of different users. It is capable of storing 8 sets of setting values and designed with an easy settings modification and operation mode shifting. Provided with functions of the sequential accident recording and the accident recalling, it is capable of storing the latest 200 pieces of event records with time, fault current and voltage. Besides, it has the large-capacity fault wave-recording function that ensures the fault data will not be lost even at power loss. The wave-recording time is set by the user and the total wave-recording time can achieve 20s at maximum.

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DMP3xxC1 Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device

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It is embedded with the timing hardware self-checking function that will trigger the alarm once it detects any internal faults. The user is capable of defining the operation mode for 16 loops of DI and 12 loops of DO on line for different application purposes (like gas protection, temperature protection, craft intertripping, and craft blocking etc.); 12 loops of DO relay can be checked on line for an easy maintenance. Friendly user interface It is capable of displaying current, voltage, frequency, power, various events information and the wiring diagram in real-time. The display interface can be configured on line via RS-232 interface in the front panel. It is provided with the easy- to- operate press key, Chinese and English operation interface and multilevel user authority management, all of which eases the operation and the maintenance on site. High-accuracy clock It is integrated the high-accuracy hardware clock circuit with the network and GPS time setting to synchronize with the system clock. Diversified communication interface It is provided with high-speed Ethernet interface and RS-485 interface. The software supports MODBUS/RTU, 103 protocol /RTU, MODBUS/TCP, 103 protocol/ TCP protocol.

1.2 Measuring and control function

Please refer to the chapter 5 Monitoring Function for detailed description.

1.3 Protection function

 Function Type DMP320C1F DMP321C1F Differential quick-break protection √ Proportion differential protection (with secondary harmonic brake) √ Zero sequence transversal differential protection √ 3 -seg. over current protection (with compound voltage, directional block and current memory) √ 2-seg. Zero sequence over current protection √ Zero sequence over voltage protection √ Stator Ground (third harmonic ratio) √ Rotor 1 point earthing √

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DMP3xxC1 Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device

 Rotor 2 points earthing √ 3-seg. Overload protection (the 3 rd can be set as the Inverse Time) √ Loss Excitation protection √ Pole Slipping Protection √ Over/Under frequency protection √ Over/Under voltage protection √ 2-seg. negative sequence over current protection √ Inverse Power protection √ 2-seg. Low Impedance protection √ 2-seg. Over Excitation protection √ Breaker Failure protection √ OperMech Stuck Protection √ √ Non-electrical protection √ √

Table1-1: Main functions of microprocessor-based generator protection devices

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Chapter 2 Technical parameter

2.1 AC work power

Rated voltage: Single phase 220V; Allowable tolerance: -20%+20%;

Waveform: The sine waveform distortion is not more than 5%; Frequency: 50Hz ± 1% or 60Hz ± 1%

2.2 DC power

Rated voltage: DC220V/DC110V (be specified at order); Allowable tolerance: -20%+15%;

Ripple factor: ≥5%.

2.3 Ratings

2.3.1 Rated AC data

Current (In): 5A or 1A or 2A (be specified at order);

Voltage (Un): 100V(100V/

Frequency (fn): 50Hz or 60Hz

3 ) or 110V(110V/

3 );

2.3.2 Power consumption

AC

current circuit: At In=5A, it is not more than 0.5VA/ phase;

At In=1A, it is not more than 0.2VA/ phase;

At In=2A, it is not more than 0.4VA/ phase;

AC

DC

voltage circuit: At rated voltage, it is not more than 0.2VA/phase;

power circuit: At normal work, it is not more than 15W, and 20W at maximum;

Measuring current input: Be capable of continuous work at 2 times of rated current;

Protection current: Be capable of continuous work at 2 times of rated current; Be capable of working for 10s at 10 times of rated current; Be capable of working for 1s at 40 times of rated current;

AC voltage input:

(The zero sequence voltage channels can achieve 200V at maximum);

Be capable of continuous work at 1.2 times of rated voltage

Be allowed to work for 10s at 1.4 times of rated voltage;

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2.3.4 Protection, measuring and OPTO I/P

accuracy

Monitoring analogue quantity accuracy: ≥ ±0.2% (not incl. main TA/TV error)

Fixed value error of current and voltage: < ±5% settings Time settings error: < ±1% setting time or + 35ms

OPTO I/P

resolution: 1ms

Voltage/current frequency: grade 0.2 2.3.5 Accurate working range

Current: 0.2In20In

Voltage: 1V120V

 Open-delta voltage: 2V～200V Frequency: 45Hz～55Hz or 55Hz～65Hz Time: 0.0～100.0s

2.4 Output relay contact capacity

Output tripping contact: In DC inductive load circuit whose voltage is not more than 250V and current not more than 1A and time constant L/R is 5±0.75ms, the contact is 50W in capacity and capable of letting through the current that is not more than 5A (8A at maximum). Other output contacts: In DC inductive load circuit whose voltage is not more than 250V and current not more than 0.5A and time constant L/R is 5±0.75ms, the contact is 20W in capacity and capable of letting through the current that is not more than 3A.

2.5 Insulation performance

Insulation resistance: It adopts the megger with 500V open circuit voltage to measure the insulation resistance among the energized and non-energized parts, enclosures and circuits without electrical connections. Under the normal test conditions, the circuit insulation resistance at all voltage levels is not less than 100MΩ. Dielectric strength: under the normal test atmospheric condition, the device can endure the power frequency voltage withstand test with 50Hz frequency and 2000V voltage for 1 minute but cause no flashover and components damage. Impulse voltage: under the normal test atmospheric condition, the power input circuit, AC circuit, output contact circuit to earth and among circuits can endure the impulse voltage test with 1.2/50us standard lightning wave and 5kV open-circuit test voltage at an appropriate time.

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2.6 Moisture and heat resistance performance

The device is capable of enduring the moisture test and the alternate moisture and

heat test of which the max. test temperature is +40and the maximum humidity 95%

and test time lasts for 2 periods (48h) according to the 20 th chapter of GB/T 7261-2000( eqv IEC60068-2-30:1980 ). 2 hours before finishing the test, the insulation resistance measured by the megger with 500V open-circuit voltage among all conductive circuits, exposed non-energized metal parts, enclosures and circuits without electrical connections is not less than 1.5MΩ, and the dielectric strength is not less than 1500V.

2.7 Vibration

The device is capable of enduring the vibration response test (severity level I) and the vibration endurance test (severity level I) according to the 16th chapter of GB/T 7261-2000( idt IEC 60255-21-1:1988 ).

2.8 Impact

The device is capable of enduring the impact response test (severity level I) and the impact endurance test (severity level I) according to the 17th chapter of GB/T 7261-2000( idt IEC 60255-21-2:1988 ).

2.9 Collision

The device is capable of enduring the collision test (severity level I) according to the 18th chapter of GB/T 7261-2000( idt IEC 60255-21-2:1988 ).

2.10 Electrical interference resistance performance

Static discharge interference resistance Have passed the static discharge interference resistance test (level IV) according to GB/T 14598.14 -1998 standard( idt IEC 60255-22-2:1996 ). Radiated radio-frequency electromagnetic field interference resistance Have passed the radiated radio-frequency electromagnetic field interference resistance test (level III) according to GB/T 14598.9-2002 standard( idt IEC 60255-22-3:2000 ). Electrical fast transient interference resistance Have passed the electrical fast transient interference resistance test (level A /IV) according to GB/T 14598.10-2007 standard( idt IEC 60255-22-4:2002 ). Surge impact interference resistance

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DMP3xxC1 Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device

Have passed the surge impact interference resistance test (level III) according to GB/T 14598.18-2007 standard ( idt IEC 60255-22-5:2002 ). The conduction interference of the radio-frequency field induction Have passed the conduction interference test (level III) of the radio-frequency field induction according to GB/T 14598.17-2005 standard( idt IEC 60255-22-6:2001 ). Power frequency magnetic field interference resistance Have passed the power frequency magnetic field interference resistance test (level A) according to GB/T 14598.19-2007 standard( idt IEC 60255-22-7:2003).

Oscillatory wave interference resistance

Have passed the oscillatory wave interference resistance test (level III) according to

GB/T 14598.13-2008 standard (idt

2.11 Ambient conditions

IEC 60255-22-1:2007 ).

Operation temperature: -10 +55 ;

Storage and transportation: -25 +70

, it is capable of

increasing energizing quantity and causing irreversible changes after the temperature recovers to the limit value. The location should be the rain/snow proof and surrounded no acidic, alkaline, corrosive and explosive air. Relative humidity ≥90%, and no condensation Atmosphere pressure: 80110kPa

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Chapter 3 Hardware description

3.1 Hardware structure

DMP300C1 series microprocessor-based protection devices is comprised of 6 functional standard plug-ins including AC input plug-in, DSP plug-in, relay plug-in, operation plug-in, power plug-in and man-machine interface parts (incl. LCD and press keys). The plug-in is replaceable in the same series, which eases the maintenance and reduces the spare parts. The plug installation position inside the machine case is as the following picture 3-1.

P 3-1: DMP300C1 microprocessor-based protection devices functional plug-ins installation positions (front view) It is provided with the back-plug structured machine case, imported connectors, rigorously screened and tested components to fulfill a stable, reliable and convenient operation and maintenance; the modularized and standardized functional plug-in to realize the compatibility and the interchangeability; and the embedded installation and the simple and back connection mode to ease the routine inspection and maintenance.

3.2 AC input plug-in

It converts the secondary signal of PT (TV) and CT (TA) into the weak current signal needed by the devices firstly, and isolates the signal in the meanwhile, and then filters the signal to enhance the anti-interference performance.

3.3 CPU plug-in

As the core of the device, the CPU plug-in is provided with the multilayer printed board and SMT (surface mount technology) and various electromagnetic interference means and excellent EMC performance. With the analysis on the application object and the system design and the aim to fulfill the advancement of the technology, the generality of the hardware and the software and the reliability of the system, the CPU plug-in adopts the high-performance 32-digit DSP

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(digital signal processor) as the basic hardware platform and realizes functions as data collection, protection, measuring, I/O, control and communication in the veneer; besides, it has the independent A/D sampling conversion and isolates the protection from the measuring in channels and A/D sampling conversion completely and thus meets the requirement of protection and measuring in feature and accuracy, therefore, is applicable for various protection and measuring devices; it is provided with 3 independent and isolated communication port, 3 communication modes including Ethernet, RS485 and CAN (optional) to fulfill the monitor and the remote communication and 1 printer port output (optional). The OPTO I/P function is capable of collecting 31 loops of OPTO I/P quantity (viz. the digital quantity, 15 of which are for internal application), 2 loops of impulse (capable of being set by the software) and external signals (after the photoelectric isolated filtering). The hardware structure diagram of DMP300C1 microprocessor-based protection devices is as the following 3-2:

P 3-2: The hardware structure diagram of DMP300C1 microprocessor-based protection devices

3.4 Operation and relay output plug-in

It is provided with 12 relay outputs, 10 of which are provided with N.O. contacts only for output and another 2 with both N.O. contacts and N.C. contacts. It equips with the

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imported strong-current high-speed relay to realize the protection trip and other automatic functions through programming and 1 protection reset relay to output. The drive of each relay is isolated by the CPU plug-in. Each protection action outlet relay is capable of setting 1 or several combinations corresponding to 12 relays in the software and provided with 3 kinds of Outleut Modes. 1) Impulse output: capable of setting the relay impulse output time and auto resetting the relay once it reaches the defined time; 2) Tracking signal output: capable of tracking the accident signal output and auto resetting the relay at the signal reset; 3) Holding output: the relay stays in the output status until the external reset signal or manual reset signal is reset. It is equipped with a start relay in the DO circuit to avoid the unwanted operation arising out of the breakdown by driving the photoelectric isolation in the CPU plug-in; and another fault blocking relay to switch off the outlet relay’s power and block the outlet circuit to avoid the relay false output when the device operates abnormally. The device is provided with the integral operation circuit including the closing holding circuits, tripping holding circuits, tripping/closing position monitoring circuits, anti-tripping circuits and electrical functions for a part of signal (spring not stored energy, and low pressure, etc.) to operate the mechanism directly. Being adaptive (0.5~8A), the tripping/closing current has 2 tripping output terminals, 1 of which is provided with the internal anti-tripping circuit output and another has not. The device can utilize the external operation box (to be specified at order).

3.5 Power plug-in

The input power voltage is DC 220V/110V (to be indicated at order) or AC 220V. The output voltage is+5V, ±9V and 2 groups of +24V, all of which are not common-ground. 1) +5V: applicable for DSP or displaying CPU; 2) ±9V: applicable for the analog circuit; 3) +24V: a group is applicable for driving the outlet relay and another is outputted outside for the external connection. It has been provided with the power-loss alarm function.

3.6 Man-machine interface

It is comprised of 240×128 graphic LCD and the 7-key-combined keyboard to fulfill the display and the man-machine dialogue. It is provided with information display in Chinese/English and the menu operation interface. When runs normally, it displays information including real-time measured values,

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DMP3xxC1 Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device

clock; when runs abnormally and activates the protection action, it prompts the event message and turns on the indicator lamp. View measured values, protection and operation values and harmonic quantity, etc; View the history report record; View the settings of the setting device; View the setting protection value, switching link and the output control; Set up the password and the time; View the DI status; View the version information and the operation description; Debug via RS-232 interface. Please refer to the corresponding Operation Manual for the detailed description.

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Chapter 4 Protection principle and configuration

4.1 Mutation starting component

The current protection of all the devices is provided with the mutation starting components. The starting mode is as follows:

Iø > Iqd

Ø: Phase A, B, C; Iqd: mutation current starting setting values

4.2 Proportional differential protection

The proportional differential protection adopts the two polyline proportional differential principle. Its action equation is as below:

DIø > Icdmk

DIø Icdmk > Kbl * (ZDIø Izdmk)

Icdmk: the differential threshold; Izdmk: the restraint threshold; Kbl: the proportional restraint coefficient;

DI

ø

= I

|

ø1*

Ie 2

Ie 1

+

I ø2 |

KphIe2/Ie1

 Ie 2 ZDI ø = (| I ø1* | + | I ø2 |) / 2 Ie 1

DIø: the differential current; ZDIø: the restraint current (ø=a, b, c); Ie1: the secondary rated current of the motor end; Ie2: the secondary rated current of the motor neutral side. (le, the differential calculation and the corresponding settings adopt the generator neutral side as the datum). The action curve is as below:

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Second harmonic restraint

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DMP3xxC1 Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device

The proportional differential protection utilizes the second harmonic as the criterion of the excitation surge blocking. The blocking action equation is as below:

XDIø > Kxb * DIø

XDIø: second harmonic restraint current (the calculation method is identical with DIø); DIø: the fundamental wave of the corresponding 3-phase differential (ø=a, b, c); Kxb: the second harmonic restraint coefficient; The protection adopts the independent harmonic blocking technique. The second harmonic restraint function can be OFF/ON through the soft link. TA break blocking and alarm

a. Delay TA break alarm

Trigger the delay TA break alarm that is processed in the alarm fault program when the following 2 requirements have been fulfilled for over 10s and resulted in no proportional differential protection blocking, which can also be applied for the self-check of

the protection device AC sampling circuit. It can be triggered or quitted in the Device

a) The current in one phase is less than the no-current settings 0.04In;

b) The no-voltage phase difference is larger than 0.12 In.

When all the above requirements are fulfilled, trigger Delay TA Break alarming signal

after 10s delay and then send Delay TA Break recover alarming signal after 10s recovery.

b. Instantaneous TA break blocking

The instantaneous TA break blocking is processed in the proportional differential protection program. It can enter the instantaneous TA break discrimination program only after starting the proportional differential components, which avoids blocking the instantaneous TA break mistakenly. When the TA break discrimination is not initiated due

to any requirements in the below, the instantaneous TA break blocking function can be

a) The max. phase current in all sides is less than 0.2le before the starting;

b) The max. phase current in all sides is less than 1.2le after the starting;

c) The current in any side is larger than its counterpart before the starting (the increment is more than the settings IbIbs). TA break has happened when the above requirement not available but the following

is (It blocks the proportional differential protection instantaneously firstly, triggers the instantaneous TA break alarm subsequently and then the Instantaneous TA Break Recover alarm after 10s delay behind the current resuming normal):

a) Any phase current is less than the no-current settings 0.04In;

b) The current in the other 2 phases are equal to their counterparts before the starting (the variation is within the settings Iblbs);

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Iblbs: the proportional differential blocking setting value

4.3 Differential quick-break protection

When the differential current in any phase is larger than the differential quick-break setting value, it acts on the outlet relay instantly. Its action equation is as below:

DIø > Icdsd

DIø: the differential current (ø=a, b, c); Icdsd: the differential quick-break setting value; Ie2 (the secondary rated current in the generator neutral point) and Kph (TA balance

coefficient) can be set up among the setting value:

Ie 1 =

Ie 2

Kph

4.4 Zero sequence transverse differential protection

When the generator transverse differential current is more than the transverse differential setting value, it acts on the outlet relay after delaying the setting time. The action equation is as below:

DI 0 > Ihcdz

DI0: zero sequence transverse differential current; Ihcdz: zero sequence transverse differential value.

4.5 Over current protection

It is provided with the compound voltage starting and directional blocking over current protection as the backup protection for the generator, generator and transformer unit and the adjacent component. It is equipped with 3-segment over current protection which can be OFF/ON through Link Setupmenu . The settings of current and time can be set

separately. Compound voltage starting component It is comprised of negative sequence voltage and Under voltage component. The negative sequence voltage reflects the unbalanced fault while Under voltage reflects the balance fault. After input the corresponding compound voltage blocking link, activate the compound voltage and the corresponding protection. The action criterion is as below:

a. U 2 > U 2dz

U2dz: the negative sequence voltage setting value; U2: the negative sequence voltage calculation value;

b. Uφφ < Udy

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Udy: the Under voltage setting value;

Uøø: the minimum of 3 line voltages;

Over current component When any phase current meet the below condition, the over current component starts action. The action criterion is as below:

Iφ > Ixdz

Ixdz (x=1, 2, 3): Over current protection setting value; Iø: any phase current;

Interphase power directional component The software of directional components adopt 90° wiring mode (la: Ubc; Ib: Uca; Ic:

Uab;); when TV line breaks, The protection directional component or the protection can be quitted through TV Break Exit Protectioncontrol bit. The action criterion is as below

(take Ia, Ib as examples):

90

° <

arg  

Ia

Ubc

*

e

jα

< 

90

°

α: Over current directional sensitive angle and can be set to 45° and 30°.

At serving as the generator-transformer unit backup protection, it acts in forward direction at meeting the above criterion. Over Current Power Directiondefines “Bus To

ward Transformer” as the positive direction and “Transformer Toward Bus” as the negative; At serving as the generator backup protection, “Bus to Transformer” stands for “To Generator”. Action range is as below:

The over current directional component is provided with the memory function to guard against the directivity loss of outlet short circuit over current protection. Current memory function

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For the self shunt excitation, the current memory function of 3 segments over current can be OFF/ON separately. The memory time can be set up.

4.6 Zero sequence over current protection

For the Under voltage network comprising of the generator, the neutral point is designed to be unearthed and the stator is earthed in single phase arising out of insulation damage. The zero sequence current is capacitance current, therefore, it recommends the self zero sequence current special TA for the protection zero sequence current. It is equipped with 2 segments zero sequence over current protection, each of which can be set independently and be OFF/ON throughLink Setupmenu.

It is provided with zero sequence channel 3I0 for TA. The action criterion is as below:

3I 0 > I 0xdz

I0xdz (x=1, 2): zero sequence over current protection setting value; 3I0: zero sequence current

4.7 Zero sequence over voltage protection

Serving as the generator stator circuit single phase earthing fault protection, any point of the running generator stator is earthed in single phase and the generator zero sequence voltage (TV open delta voltage) is larger than the stator protection earthing protection setting value, when it is judged to be the stator earthing fault after setting up the delay. Protection principle: the fundamental wave zero sequence voltage is fed from the generator terminal TV open delta voltage, and 85%~95% of stator winding from the protection generator terminal are single phase earthed. It selects 5~10v. The zero sequence and time settings can be set independently and the zero sequence over voltage protection can be OFF/ON throughLink Setupmenu.

The action criterion is as below:

3u0>U0dz

U0dz: zero sequence voltage protection setting value; 3U0: open delta voltage;

4.8 Stator earthing third harmonic ratio protection

The stator earthing third harmonic ratio protection together with the zero sequence over voltage form 100stator earthing protection.

To fulfill the function, it is required to collect the voltage of the stator winding neutral point and applicable for the condition that the voltage transformer locates in the generator

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neutral point side. 100% stator earthing protection is comprised of the fundamental wave zero sequence voltage protection and the third harmonic voltage protection. The fundamental zero sequence voltage is fed from the generator terminal. The third harmonic ratio protection is judged according to the ratio of the generator terminal TV open-delta winding third harmonic voltage and the neutral point TV third harmonic voltage. About 90% of the stator winding earthing is protected by the fundamental wave zero sequence voltage and another 10% is responsible by the third harmonic voltage. The third harmonic ratio settings and the time settings can be set separately and the zero sequence over voltage protection can be OFF/ON throughLink Setupmenu.

The action criterion is as below:

a. at running state;

b. k3>XB3dz

K3=U03/UN3 (U03: the generator TV open-delta third harmonic voltage; Un3: the neutral TV third harmonic voltage ;) XB3dz: the third harmonic ration setting value;

XB3 dzK*a1;

K: the reliability coefficient, and adopt 1.31.5 in this device;

a1: the ratio of 3 maximum harmonic voltage measured at running;

4.9 Rotor one point earthing protection

It is provided with the toggle switch shifting principle to monitor the generator excitation circuit earth insulation protection; the protection voltage is fed from the rotor voltage and applicable for the generator excitation circuit except all the rotating excitation modes and the generator adopting the brushless excitation and leading the rotor voltage from no slip ring. When one point is earthed besides the rotor, 2 points form the circuit and generates the earthing current (Please refer P5-5, in which the rotor excitation power is not indicated). It can acquire 2 different groups of earthing current data through the making

S

1

and

S

2

.

It can

foresaid data and the

measured rotor voltage to judge whether the rotor circuit is earthed or not. The rotor one point earthing protection acts on the signal after delay. When the protection operates, check the excitation circuit at sending Rotor One Point Earthing signal.

and breaking of electric switches

utilize the

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P 5-5 Rotor earthing check shifting principle Rotor one point earthing settings and time can be set independently and the rotor one point earthing can be OFF/ON throughLink Setupmenu.

The action criterion is as below:

a. at running state (with current and CB is closed);

b. ULC>10.00v

c. Rg<ZZ1Ddz

ULC: measured excitation voltage; Rg: measured earthing resistance; ZZ1 Ddz: Rotor one point earthing setting value

4.10 Rotor two points earthing protection

The generator excitation circuit is earthed fault in one point and causes no damage to the generator. But if the rotor two points earthing happened, it will seriously threaten the safety of generator. After rotor one point earth fault protection acted, if the earth point variation and the secondary harmonic of generator terminal voltage exceed the settings, the protection can be set OFF/ON viaRotor two points earthing secondary harmonic criterion.

The rotor two points earth setting and time setting can be set separately. You can set the OFF/ON mode of rotor two points earth fault protection via Link setupmenu.

The operating equation is as follows:

a. The device is in operation (there is flow and CB is not on trip position)

b. Rotor one-point earthing protection acted

c. a>ZZ2wc

d. uΦ2>ZZ2u2

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DMP3xxC1 Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device

a is the variation value of earthing point; uΦ2 is the maximum value of secondary harmonic voltage in generator terminal phase voltage; ZZ2wc generally adopts 5~10%;

ZZ2wc is rotor two points earthing position difference setting; ZZ2u2 is rotor two points earthing secondary harmonic setting, the setting range is

0-10V;

ZZ2u2=k*Ubpn

Ubpn is the measured value of secondary harmonic voltage under rated load; K is the reliability coefficient, it is usually 2.5~3.

The stator overload protection reflects the average heating condition of generator stator winding. The equipment is provided with 3 segments overload protection and each segment of current and time setting can be set independently. Of which the third segment can select definite time or inverse time. When it is used for generator-transformer unit protection, the segment 1 and segment 2 are used as blocking on-load tap changing, starting air cooling. When it is used for generator protection, segment 1 and 2 are coordinating with segment 3 inverse time. The definite time delay operation criterion is as follows:

Iφ > IFxdz

IFxdz (x=1, 2) is overload protection setting; Iø is any phase current. The overload segment 3 protection is equipped with starting current as per inverse time operation characteristic curve. When the current is greater than the starting current, the generator starts heat accumulation.

The characteristic curve of stator winding inverse time overload protection is shown in above picture. Iqd2 is inverse time starting current setting, namelyOverload 3 setand

this value should be set no less than generator rated current.Overload 3 delaysetting is

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used as the minimum time delay of inverse time action. When inverse time calculated delay value less than the minimum value, it will act when it reaches the minimum delay. According to the algorithm, when fault current value is 2 *Iqd2, the inverse time action time is one third of stator winding thermal capacity constant. The computing formula for inverse time protection delay “t” is:

T =

K 1

(

I

Ie

)

2

A 1 2

Where:

K1: generatorStator winding thermal capacity constant;

Iqd2: starting current, namelyOverload 3 set;

Overload 3 delaysetting is used as the delay lower limit of inverse time protection;

Ie is generator rated current. The inverse time action criterion is as follows:

a. The heat accumulation value is larger thanStator winding thermal capacity

constant

b. IΦmax> Iqd2 IΦmax is maximum value of phase current.

4.12 Loss Excitation protection

The failure of generator excitation system will cause excitation decrease or excitation total loss, thus lead to the generator and system out of step, which will cause damage to the generator unit and electric power system. Therefore, it is really important to equip with loss-of-excitation protection for large and medium sized generators. The loss-of-field protection is formed by generator terminal measuring impedance criterion, rotor Under voltage criterion, transformer high voltage side Under voltage criterion and load reducing criterion. The loss-of-field protection is put into operation under operating condition (non-trip position and there is flow). The logic diagram is as follows:

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Following we will take static stability boundary criterion for example to illustrate the loss-of-field protection principle:

If rotor Under voltage criterion or static stability boundary criterion is satisfied, it sends low excitation voltage or un-stability signal and outputs excitation switchover command (outlet 4) after t6 delay. This can predict the generator un-stability caused by Loss Excitation, thus taking steps (excitation switchover) to avoid failure propagation before the un-stability condition. When rotor Under voltage criterion refuses to act in loss-of-excitation condition (like the rotor voltage test point to rotor winding is broke), the un-stability signal is produced by static stability boundary criterion. For the system without enough reactive power, when the generator loss of excitation happened, the high voltage side voltage could reach the system breakdown value before the generator loss of static and stability. So when rotor Under voltage criterion and high voltage side Under voltage criterion are met, the generator loss of excitation is already posed a threat to the safety operation of electric power system. It will send tripping command to cut off generator (outlet 1) after t1 delay. For the turbine generator, the generator can maintain operation with certain active power (like 40%) of rated power for some time (2~15 min) after generator loss of excitation and this will not cause the instability of system. So if the generator loss of excitation is found, the protection will send active power decrease command to made

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the active power lower than setting, that is to send trip command (outlet 3) after t3 delay. The operator will have enough time to remove the failure and resume the excitation during t2, and this saved the system from tripping. If the fault can not remove during t2 acting, the impedance criterion will send tripping command (outlet 2) to protect the generator. The asynchronous operation is not allowed for hydraulic turbines, so is will send tripping command (outlet 2) after t2 delay when the generator is loss of stability. The protection principle shows the following principle:

Cut off the faulty generator when the electric power system or generator is threatened by loss of excitation. When the generator excitation losses but it hasn’t poses a threat to the electric power system or generator yet (in short term), it will postpone the generator shutdown and make enough time for operator to remove the failure as far as possible and avoid tripping. The criterions for Loss Excitation protection are detailed as following:

Impedance criteria:

The boundary can be set to static stability boundary circle or asynchronous
impedance circle, or other shapes.
jX
0
R
r
A

When generator should be phase advance operated, if static stability boundary circle can not meet with the requirements, we can avoid phase advance operational area with following two ways:

a) Shift down impedance circle and set as per asynchronous boundary;

b) Switch on reverse reactive power block (can be set OFF/ON)

reverse reactive power settingis set beyond the range of generator

allowable phase advance operating reactive power. Qfxwgdz = K*Qjx

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In the formula:

K is reliability coefficient, it is usually 1.11.3;

Qjx is the maximum allowable phase advance reactive power of generator. Negative sequence voltage block can be used to help the device out of abnormal operation mode. Negative sequence voltage block settingis set according to the

minimum negative sequence voltage of installation area of device . The setting range is 6%~8%Ue. The impedance value is computed by Uab and Iab. TV line-break will block the impedance criterion. The impedance criterion settings includesImpedance circle centerand

Impedance circle radius. The units are Ω.

For static stability impedance circle:

Impedance circle centeris (Xs-(Xd+Xd’/2))/2 (setting are set to positive value)

Impedance circle radiusis (Xs+(Xd+Xd’/2))/2

Of which, Xd’ and Xd are the transient reactance and synchronous reactance of generator and adopt unsaturated values; Xs is the associated reactance (including between step-up transformer impedance) between generator and system, its unit is Ω. For asynchronous impedance circle:

Impedance circle centeris -(Xd+Xd’)/2 (setting are set to positive value);

Impedance circle radiusis Xd/2

Of which, Xd’ and Xd are the transient reactance and synchronous reactance of generator and adopt unsaturated values; The unit is Ω. Rotor voltage criterion (can be set OFF/ON separately) For there is no excitation voltage collection, you can select quitting rotor voltage criterion. The generator is forced to decrease excitation when it is under over voltage condition, like sudden load rejection. The Ulc falls and it may cause rotor voltage criterion misoperation. You can select generator terminal over voltage block (can be set OFF/ON separately), generator terminal over voltage criterion delayed t4 (4~6s) return after operation block measures to prevent Loss Excitation protection misoperation.

Where,

Ug≥Ugdgydz

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Ugdgydz isGenerator terminal over voltage block setting, usually use

(1.1~1.25)Ugn,

Ugn is rated voltage of generator terminal.

a) Excitation Under voltage criterion:

Ulcdy< Ulcdydz

Where,

Ulcdydz is setting valueExcitation Under voltage setting;

Ulcdydz= K*Ufd0, K is reliability coefficient, which is usually 0.200.50;

fd0 is generator no-load rated excitation voltage. b) Excitation voltage change criterion:

The generator in parallel operation with system is corresponding to a certain active power P. And there should be excitation voltage to maintain the steady state stability limit. The operation criterion is:

Of which,

Ulcdy<K(P-Pt)

P is the measured secondary side power;

Pt isGenerator salient-pole powersetting, the unit is W.

Pt

=

0.5*

Se

*

1

xq

+

xs

1

xd + xs

Se: The 2nd rated apparent power

K isExcitation Under voltage coefficient

K = K1*(Xs+Xd)*Ufd0/Sn K1 is reliability coefficient, it is usually 0.70.85;

Xd and Xs are generator synchronous reactance per unit and system associated impedance per unit respectively (based on generator ratings); fd0 is generator no-load rated excitation voltage; Sn is generator rated secondary power. System Under voltage criterion:

It generally adopts system side busbar voltage. The criterion is mainly used for preventing the system voltage collapse caused by generator loss of excitation failure. The system voltage line broken will block the system Under voltage criterion. U x < Uxtdydz Uxtdydz isSystem Under voltage setting;

Uxtdydz = K * Uhmin Where,

K is reliability coefficient, adopts 0.850.90;

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Uhmin is minimum line voltage for normal operating of high voltage side system. Load reducing criterion:

It is set according to the allowable active power for turbine generator loss of excitation (about 15min). It is generally set according to 40~50% of unit rated capacity.

4.13 Over frequency protection

The criterion for over frequency protection is as below:

a. frequency > over frequency setting;

b. Ua>10V

c. The device is in operation (there is flow and CB is not on trip position)

4.14 Under frequency protection

The criterion for Under frequency protection is as below:

a. The frequency < Under frequency setting;

b. Ua>10V

c. The device is in operation (there is flow and CB is not on trip position)

4.15 Over Voltage protection

The over voltage is the line voltage of 3 phases. The protection voltage is OFF/ON through Link Setup, and the criterion is as below:

Uφφ > Ugydz

Ugydz: over voltage setting value Uøø: the max. among 3 line voltages

4.16 Under Voltage protection

The criterion is as below:

a) Uφφ < Udydz

b) At running (be with-current and the switch is closed);

c) TV break and TV no-voltage requirements are not met;

Udydz: the Under voltage setting value Uøø: the max. among 3 line voltages

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4.17 Negative sequence over current protection

The protection is used to protect the generator rotor surface overheat caused by negative sequence current when the generator is asymmetric operating or has asymmetric fault. It is also used as the backup protection of system asymmetric fault. The negative sequence over current protection is divided into two segments. The Under voltage protection OFF/ON is controlled byLink Setup. The definite time or inverse time

of negative sequence over current 2 segments protection is set viaNegative sequence

over current 2 segments mode, and the delay can be set separately.

The negative sequence over current protection 2 segments have the starting current (viz. negative sequence over current 2 segments settings) when they are set according to inverse time operation characteristic curve. When the current is larger than starting current, the generator starts heat accumulation. The starting value is set no less than long-term allowable negative sequence current.

The inverse time negative sequence over current protection characteristic curve is as above. In the figure, Iqd2 is inverse time starting current setting, namelyNegative sequence over current

2 segments setting;

T2max is inverse time minimum operation time, namelyNegative sequence over

current 2 segments delaysetting.

The inverse time protection delay t calculation formula:

T=

K 2

(

I 2

Ie

)

2

(

A 2

Ie

)

2

(I2>Iqd2)

Where, A2: allowable negative sequence current for generator operation, namelyLong-term

allowable negative sequence current;

K2: generatorNegative sequence rotor heat constant, which is provided by

generator manufacturer;

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Iqd2:Negative sequence over current 2 segments settings, which are determined

by generator negative sequence inverse time starting current and rotor surface negative sequence overload capacity. Definite time operation criterion is as below:

I 2 > I 2xdz

Of which, I2xdz (x=1, 2) is negative sequence over current protection setting; I2 is negative sequence current. Inverse time operation criterion is as below:

a. Heat accumulation >Negative sequence rotor heat constant

b. I2> Iqd2

4.18 Inverse power protection

The inverse power protection is used for the abnormal conditions when there is active power inversed in turbine generator, which made the generator a motor. The OFF/ON of inverse power protection is set viaLink Setupmenu.

The operation criterion is as below:

a. P < −Ngldz

b. At running (be with-current and the switch is closed);

c. TV break and TV no-voltage requirements are not met;

Ngldz:Inverse Power Setting Value, the power setting is secondary value.

Ngldz calculation:

Ngldz=Krel (P1 + P2)

Where, Krel: reliability coefficient, it is usually 0.5~0.8; P1: min. power consumption of steam turbine during inverse power operation, usually adopts 3~4% of rated power; P2: max. power consumption of generator during inverse power operation, usually adopts 1~1.5% of rated power.

4.19 Pole Slipping protection

The pole slipping or Out-of-Stepprotection only be action on the condition of a

generator fall out of step with other power system sources.The EMS will take measures for step out ,electric braking and fast closing according to the situation after the protection is action.Only when the swing center inside of the generator\step-up transfomer or last for a too long time and threat to the generator,the protection will be action in trip.Moreover,the

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break must be trip when the phase difference of both sides of the electromotive forces less

than

consists of three parts as shown in the R/X diagram below,The first part is a lenticular(lens)

characteristic impedance component Z1;The second is a blinder straight line impedance component Z2,and the third is a reactance component Z3.Where Z1 and Z2 split the R/X diagram into zoneⅠ、zoneⅡ、zoneand zone. zoneⅠ、zoneare outside of the

90

lest breaker interrupting capacity is too large.The pole slipping characteristic

lens，and zoneⅢ、zoneⅢ inside of the lens.
jx
Z2
Za
α
Zc
Z3
Z1
0 φ
R
Zb

Figures of out-of-step impedance characteristic

When a generator is out of step with the system ,the viewed impedance locus is expected to traverse from right to left across the zone IIIIIIIV in turnand then back

to zone I.It’s indicate that the swing center happens to lie inside of the generator/step-up transformer rigion when the locus over the line of Z3,and if the locus below the line of Z3,the swing center will be outside of the region.Otherwise,the variety of impedance locus on the condition of swing is more slowly than the variety on the condition of short circuit.For the mentioned above,we can distinguish short circuit and out of step via set the lens’s internal angle and count the time of the impedance locus across the lens.thereby,once the viewed impedance has traversed zone IIIIIIIV in turn, then back

to zone I,and the time of locus stayed on every zone more than the setting value,a pole slip is confirmed. In addition,in the process of pole slip counting,the counter will be reset if have no new pole slip arrival or the locus stays on the lens all the time in a cetain

time(20s).

PSliping Impedance ZA】：

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Z a = X

s

*

U

gn

2

*n

a

S

gn

*n

v

TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION

DMP3xxC1 Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device

PSliping Impedance ZB】：

PSliping Impedance ZC】：

Z

Z

c

b

=

=X

d

0.9*

X

c

*

*

U gn

2 *n

a

S

U

gn

gn

*n

v

2

*n

a

S

gn

*n

v

Where

X d tansient reactance of the generator;

X

X

U

S

s

c

gn

gn

reactance of the power system connected to the generator unit;

reactance of the main transfomer P.U.;

rated voltage of the generator;

rated apparent power of the generator;

n a

\

n

v is equal to the transformation ratio of current and voltage respectively.

PSliping Blinder Angle】：Φ is the system impedance angal adopts 80~ 85°

PSliping Lens LimitAngle】：

a

=

°

180 2*arctan

2 Z

r

Z

a

+

Z

b

where

Z

r

R L. min

1.3

R

L.min

is equal to minimum load impedanceit's recommonded to

PSliping Trip Allow Curr】：The device tripped automaticly when the current become

smaller,this setting valua is a assistant criterion.according to the allow interrupt capacity of the relay. PSlip(Outside) Slip Count】：When the swing center is outside of the zone,the

protection action on sending signal,PSlip(Outside) Slip CountSlippery setting 2 ~ 15

times;the protection action on trip.PSlip(Outside) Slip Countthe setting value is equal or

greater than 15 times.PSlip(Inside) Slip Countgeneral set 2 times.

4.20 Over excitation protection

The over-excitation protection is used to prevent the damage caused by the iron core over heat due to the over-excitation. When the generator and the main transformer shares the same over-excitation protection and has no breaker between them, the fixed value is set according to the lower over-excitation requirement of the generator and the transformer. When there are no breakers between the generator and the transformer and configured with the over-excitation protection respectively, the fixed value is set respectively according to different over-excitation multiples allowed by the generator and the transformer.

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The calculation expression of the over-excitation multiples:

Kb=B/Be=(U/f)/(Ue/fe); There-into: U is the bus voltage, and f is the system frequency; Ue is the rated bus voltage, and fe is the system rated frequency; Kb is the over-excitation multiple. The frequency range of the protection is 45.50~69.50Hz; within the frequency range, the measurement of the over-excitation multiple is not affected by the frequency change.

In the expression: U,f is the operating voltage and frequency; Ugn and fgn is the rated voltage and frequency of the generator; U*,f* is the U*,f* are the nominal of the voltage and the frequency; and B, and Bn is the magnetic flux and the rated magnetic flux. It can switch OFF/ON the protection via the selection of “Definite-time

protection” or “inverse time over-excitation protection”; the Definite-time

over-excitation protection delay is acted in the signal and decreases the generator excitation current; and the inverse-time over-excitation carries on the linear processing via the given inverse-time limit action characteristic curve and then calculate the corresponding action time via the piecewise linear interpolation to reverse the time limit. After the linear processing via the given inverse-time action characteristic curve, the inverse-time over-excitation limit calculate the over-excitation multiplying factor, and then calculate the corresponding action time via the piecewise linear interpolation to reverse the time limit. The inverse-time over-excitation protection has been provided with the accumulating and cooling functions. The given inverse-time action characteristic curve is got from the input 8 groups of the fixed value. The setting value of the over-excitation multiplying factor is ranged 1.05~2.0, and the time delay can achieve 600s at most. The inverse time over-excitation action curve is as follows:

over-excitation

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DMP3xxC1 Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device

Figure of inverse time over-excitation action curve 8 groups of the fixed value of the inverse time over-excitation action characteristic curve meets the following requirement:

1Factor setting: N i+1 N i ； （2Time setting : T i+1 T i Otherwise Unit will alarm , display “IT OverExci Set Error”.

The over excitation protection setting and time setting can be set independently, and the protection OFF/ON is set viaLink Setup.

4.21 Low Impedance protection

Low impedance protection (including generator, transformer) The low impedance protection for generator and transformer is mainly used as the backup protection for generator and transformer phase fault. Sometimes, it also used as the backup protection for the phase fault of adjacent devices (busbar, line, etc.). Protection constitution principle The protecton is composed of three interphase impedance elements. The voltage and current of impedance elements are fed from generator terminal TV and TA secondary side, and also it can fed from the main transformer HV side or MV side TV and TA secondary side. The operating characteristic of low impedance protection on impedance complex plane is a directional impedance circle with maximum sensitivity angle of 85°, which is

shown as below. When the mesauring impedance is in the circle, the impedance protection is acted.

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Operating characteristic of low impedance elements

In above figure, ZF is the low impedance protection forward impedance setting; ZB is the low impedance protection backward impedance setting. Seeing from the figure: Set up the different value for ZF and ZB, you will get different impedance circle characteristic. When ZF= ZB, it is the full impedance circle; when ZB =0 or ZF =0, it is the directional impedance circle crossing the origin of coordinate; when ZB<>0 and ZF<>0, it is the directional impedance circle with a certain drift rate. To improve the reliability of high impedance protection action, TV break criterion is equipped. In addition, the current and negative sequence current starting elements are equipped. The impedance protection has two stages. The operating conditions are as below:

zab or zbc or zca is inside above impedance circle; IΦmax> zqd or I2> zqd2. Of which, zab = Uab/Iab; zbc = Ubc/Ibc; zca = Uca/Ica; Uab, Iab, Ubc, Ibc, Uca, Ica are line voltage, current vector value. IΦmax is maximum value of phase current, zqd isLowImpedance Start Curr

I2 is negative sequence current value, zqd2 isLowImpedanceStartNegCurr

Setting reference:

The generator, transformer interphase fault backup protection can adopt impedance protection when current, voltage protections can’t meet the sensitivity requirement, or required by network protection coordination. According to different impedance protection configuration and different impedance relay characteristics, there are following conditions for settings calculation.

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(1) Setting calculation of step-up transformer low voltage side full impedance relay

a. When HV busbar short-circuit meet with sensitivity requirement

Zop = Ksen*Zt

In the formula,

Ksen is the sensitivity coefficient of impedance protection, adopt 1.3; Zt is transformer

impedance (secondary value).

b. When related HV side outgoing line distance protection segments coordination

Zop = 0.7Zt + 0.8Kinf*Z

In the formula,

Kinf is infeed coefficient, adopt the minimum value under all kinds of operating modes;

Z is the related HV side outgoing line distance protection segments action impedance

(secondary value).

c. Sensitivity coefficient HV busbar three phase short-circuit is verified as below:

Ksen = Zop / Zt Ksen1.3

(2) Setting calculation of step-up transformer 220500kV side full impedance relay

a. Action impedance calculation of impedance relay

When the full impedance relay is equipped on 220500kV transformer HV side, the action value of impedance relay and the related outgoing line impedance protection segment are coordinated, the value can be calculated as below:

Zop = krel*Kinf*Z

In the formula,

Kinf is infeed coefficient, adopt the minimum value under all kinds of operating modes;

Z is the related HV side outgoing line distance protection segments action impedance

(secondary value); krel is reliability coefficient, adopt 0.8.

b. Sensitivity coefficient is verified according to below formula:

Ksen = Zop / Z

 In the formula, Z is the related impedance (secondary value) of defined protection zone, Ksen≥1.3.

(3) The directional impedance relay has an offset characteristic. When forward direction pointed to transformer, the direction impedance action value is set according to generator terminal fault as above formula. The negative impedance is 5%10% of forward direction, and the setting should be less than the on-side busbar outgoing line impedance protection segment I action value. (4) Delay setting of impedance protection Segment I acted on tripping the bus coupler, segment II acted on system disconnection and field extinction. The impedance protection did not equip with power oscillation blocking function, and the delay setting should not misoperate during oscillation, 1.5s delay at least is preferable.

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(5)LowImpedance Start Curr

It is set according to avoid the max. load current of generator or transformer.

It usually use (1.1 ~ 1.15) Ie

(6)LowImpedanceStartNegCurr

(Ie: rated current of generator or transformer)

It is set according to avoid the max. unbalance negative sequence current during normal operation. It usually use (0.1 ~ 0.2) Ie.

4.22 Breaker Failure protection

Although the protected objects are provided with the protection action exits, the current still passes through the circuit breaker. And the circuit breaker is still on the switch-on state, and rejects to switch off as the breaker failure, and thus start the failure protection. The reason to start the breaker failure protection: phase current, zero sequence current, negative sequence current , the breaker auxiliary contacts and the normal-open contact of the protection outlet relay. The criterion of zero sequence or negative sequence current can be started by Other Protectionrelated setting（【ZS Curr Start

BreakFail】、【NS Curr Start BreakFail】）.

The protection ON/OFF is set viaLink Setupwith action equoation below:

1Iø>Slbhdz

Slbhdz is Breaker Failure protection O/C start set

 or I2> QFSli2dz & the Link for 【NSCurr Start BreakFail】is on （QFSli2dz is NS Curr Start Set, I2 is Negative Sequence Current） Note: The criterion of NS Curr set does not work once TA breaks. or I0> QFSli0dz & the Link for 【ZSCurr Start BreakFail】is on

QFSli0dz is ZS Curr Start Set, I0 is Zero Sequence Current

Note: I0 can select Chanel or Calculation(set at Earting Protection), the

calculation3I0j=Ia+Ib+Ic; If use the calculation zero sequence, it will

block the protection instantly once TA breaks.

2CB on the switch-on state

3Access protection trip signal on the operation panel DB-9

4.23 OperatingMechanism Stuck

For prevention of circuit breaker operating mechanism stuck and coil burned up, you can put OperMech Stuck Protection into use. (required a statement to OperMech Stuck Protection when ordering, because the device must be connected to an external

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TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION

DMP3xxC1 Microprocessor-based Generator Protection Device

DC intermediate relay, to cut off the power of operating circuit for CB); Action Criterion is as follows:

If operations (such as manual or remote control, protection tripping, or reclosing operation) are performed through the operation board of Unit box / Control box ,but after setting time circuit breaker position is not changed , OperMech Stuck Protection will act.

4.24 Non-electric protection and alarm

Collect various non-electric signals through the OPTO I/P signal alarm or the action output.

circuit for the sound

The OPTO I/P

5~16 can be set up as trip or alarm. Please refer to the chapter 6.22

Protection Settings for detailed description.

4.25 Abnormal operation alarm

4.25.1 Differential current over limit alarm

Delay the alarm when the differential current of any phase is larger than the differential over setting alarming setting value. The action equation is as below:

XDIø > Iclyx

DIø: the differential current (ø=a, b, c) Iclyx: the differential over limit settings When the above requirements are met, enable Differential Over Setting Alarm

after 5s delay and sendDifferential Over Setting Recover alarm signal after the

differential has been recovered for 5s.

4.25.2 TA break detection

DMP320C1F--TA break detection criterion is as below:

a) The current in one phase is less than the no-current settings

b) The no-voltage phase difference is larger than 0.12 In.

0.04In;

DMP321C1F--TA break detection criterion is as below:

a) Any phase current is lower than 0.04In;

b) Any phase current is larger than 0.08In;

When the above requirements are met, activateTA Break Alarmafter 10s

delay and send TA Break Recoveryalarm signal after the current has been

recovered for 10s.

4.25.3 Control Loop break detection

The Control Loop break detection criterion is as below: at normal running, both the tripping position relay and the closing position relay do not act.

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When the above requirements are met, activate Control Loop Break alarm

after 10s delay and Control Loop Break Recoveryalarm signal after the current

has been recovered for 10s. 4.25.4 TV abnormal detection TV abnormal detection criterion is as below:

TV break detection criterion:

a) The negative sequence voltage U2 is above 8V and any voltage difference between 2 lines is larger than 18V

b) Be used to detect the break for 1or 2 phases;

3-phase no-voltage criterion:

a) 3-phase voltage are lower than 8V, and a phase current is larger than 0.04In;

b) Be used to detect 3-phase no-voltage;

When the above requirements are met, activate TV Break alarm or TV

No-voltage alarm after 10s delay and TV Break Recoveryor TV No-voltage

Recoveryalarm signal after the current has been recovered for 10s and re-activate

the related protection. 4.25.5 Other alarms 1) The tripping position relay is abnormal: when the tripping position relay

operates with current, enable Tripping Position Relay Abnormalalarm after 10s

delay and Tripping Position Relay Recoveryalarm signal after the tripping

position relay has been recovered for 10s.

2) Bus frequency measurement circuit abnormal: collect the frequency through

the bus voltage Ua channel; when the frequency measurement circuit is abnormal,

activate Bus Frequency MeasurIing Circuit Abnormalalarm after 10s delay and

Bus Frequency Measuring Circuit Recoveryalarm signal after the frequency has

been recovered for 10s.

3) Operation circuit abnormal blocking: access–KM signal from the outside to

fulfill functions including Spring Unstored Energy/ Low Pressure Blocking

Closed, Tripping Pressure Low Blocking Open, and Low / Abnormal Pressure

General Blocking; when it has detected the corresponding external signal, block the

hardware circuit automatically and activate Unstored Energy / Low Closed

Pressure Actalarm after 20s delay and thenSpring Unstored Energy/ Low

Pressure Blocking Closed Reset, Low Tripping Pressure Blocking Resetand

Low / Abnormal Pressure Blocking alarm after another 20s.

4) Internal self-check abnormal: include the settings self –check, RAM check,

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EEPROM self-check, outlet optical isolation open circuit self-check, starting relay optical isolation open circuit self-check, faulted relay optical open circuit self-check and alarming relay optical isolation open circuit self-check.

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Chapter 5 Monitoring

It is provided with the independent AC measuring circuit to fulfill the basic measuring and control function instead of an additional measuring unit (if no special requirements).

5.1 Measuring function

Use the independent TA circuit for current measurement, TV circuit for voltage measurement and protection and a special frequency collection channel for the frequency collection. Current, voltage, power, power factor and frequency, etc can be measured accurately by auto frequency tracking and precise algorithm and be displayed in the LCD in real time and sent to the background monitoring system and the remote dispatching end via the communication network.

DMP320C1F:

Protection: temperature T1, T2 (optional), Ia1, Ib1, Ic1, Ia2, Ib2, Ic2, D10; Measuring: Frequency F, active electrical degree Pd and reactive electrical degree

Qd;

Harmonic: 12 loops of current, 2~11 subharmonic; OPTO I/P : 16 loops of OPTO I/P DI collection (2 of which can be used as the impulse input);

DMP321C1F:

Protection: UA, UB, UC, 3U0, Ux, Un, IA, IB, IC, 3I0, Ulc and Rg; Measuring: Ua, Ub, Uc, Uab, Ubc, Uca, Ia, Ib, Ic, Frequency F, P, Q, COSф, active electrical degree Pd, reactive electrical degree Qd; Harmonic: 3-phase voltage, 3-phase current 2~11 sub harmonic; OPTO I/P : 16 loops of OPTO I/P DI collection (2 of which can be used as the impulse input);

5.2 Opto I/P collection

It is capable of collecting 16 channels of digital quantity (Opto I/P quantity), which are firstly connected with external contacts and subsequently processed by lightning proof, filter and photoelectric isolation and then converted to the Opto I/P data after DSP collection. The real time Opto I/P data can be viewed through Real Time Dataand

OPTO I/P Statusand sent to the background monitoring system and the remote

dispatching system via the communication network. The Opto I/P quantity can be defined as the ordinary Opto I/P or the digital quantity change record OPTO I/P . Please refer to the Operation Manual for the detailed description about setting up the name and type of the digital quantity variation record OPTO I/P .

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Partial opto I/P are fixed as the below table:

 No. Application Remarks 1 ExtRecorder Start The starting fault wave record has been fixed and not allowed for other purposes at inputting; 2 RemoOperSignal The blocking background remote operation has been fixed and not allowed for other purposes at inputting; 3 Disconnector 1 Be fixed and not allowed for other purposes. 4 Disconnector 2 Be fixed and not allowed for other purposes. 17 UnstoredEng/ The internal OPTO I/P quantity from the operation panel is to fix the block closing only. （Eng—Energy，CP—Closing Pressure） CP Low 18 ClosePosRelay The internal OPTO I/P quantity and closing signal from the operation panel have been fixed and not allowed for other purposes. 19 Trip PosRelay The internal OPTO I/P quantity and tripping signal from the operation panel have been fixed and not allowed for other purposes. 20 PosAfterClosed The internal OPTO I/P quantity and after-closed position signal from the operation panel have been fixed and not allowed for other purposes. 21 PressureLowBlock The internal OPTO I/P quantity from the operation panel has fixed the block tripping/closing and not allowed for other purposes. 22 Trip Pressure The internal OPTO I/P quantity from the operation panel has fixed the block tripping/closing and not allowed for other purposes. 23 Signal Reset The keyboard button or the external reset OPTO I/P has fixed the reset signal relay and the alarming indication lamp, etc.

5.3 Control

The unit can realize the control and the signal collection for the circuit breaker through

Close, Open, and Remote/Local button.

The Closing and Opening operation mode of the circuit breaker:

At Local position, switch OFF/ON the circuit breaker by “Close” or “Open” button

directly and meanwhile block the remote closing and opening function.

ThroughRelay Contact Test underDevice Debugmenu, set up the action

or reset of the outlet relay 1 and 2, and meanwhile initiate the closing, opening or

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resetting signal. (! Note: this function is only available under the debugging status and permitted during the operation, otherwise, it will result in the circuit breaker unwanted operation.) At Remote position, set up the parameter as On through Remote Control

Function of Parameter Editunder Device Parametermenu in the unit box and

then receive the background machine / remote operation command to remote control the switching OFF/ON of the circuit breaker.

5.4 SOE(Sequence of Event) record

When the status of the protection action or the monitored switch changes, the device will record the event time, fault information and data, and the latest 200 events before power off automatically. It can send the SOE(Sequence of Event) record to the background machine for storage and processing via the communication network.

5.5 RTU function

The event record, Opto I/P quantity, pulse quantity, settings, measured data, circuit breaker operation will be sent to the dispatching center to fulfill RTU function after being converted to the dispatching standard communication protocol through the communication controller or the background machine.

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Chapter 6 Operation instruction

The MMI is designed with the graphic menu featuring on-line configuration and a straight-forward operation. The menu structure is as below:

Measured Data
Protection Data
Real
Harmonic Voltage
Time
Data
Harmonic Current
Opto I/P Status
Protection
Event
Opto I/P
Reports
Other
All
Group 1
Protect Type 1
Setting
Group 2
View
Group 3
M
Group 4
Protect Type n
a
i
Group 5
N
Group 6
Trip Setup
Setting
Edit
Group 7
Opto I/P Setup
M
e
Group 8
Relay Setup
n
u
Time
Device
Para
View
Edit
SamplingAccuracyCalibrate
Device
CalibratedSettingInquiry
Debug
Relay Contact Test
Clear Debugging Record
Clear DSP Record
Version Info
Instruction

PressEnterkey in the main picture to log in the main menu and then move the cursor to

Operation Manual by pressingUp,Dn,LeftandRightand then pressEnter

for the MMI operation description.

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< Note: Description of the display the date like this: each for month/day/yearabove the image(Main screen) for exampleJanuary 9, 2000>

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Pop up the new accident picture automatically as below after returning to the original main picture at new accidents or alarms in the system. According to the order, No. 001 is the latest event. PressUpandDnto select the event andEnterto view the event

detailed description. ! Note: When operates via the menu, the new event won’t be poped up until returning to the original main picture manually at new event happening. After 180s no key-press operation, the device will log in the original main picture and turn the backlight automatically.

After the new event picture popping up, if it is operated by the menu, press Exit

key firstly to reset the new event picture, when the device will pop up the below picture. PressEnterkey to reset the event picture andExitto cancel it.

During the hardware reset for the whole system, press Reset key and the

corresponding picture as below will pop up after returning to the original main picture. PressEnterkey to reset all the status flag in the protection software, the fault relay, alarm

and action lamp. And pressExitto cancel the reset.

! Note: After the treatment of protection events, alarms, internal self-check

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self-check mistake will drive the fault relay to block all

OPTO O/P relays) or finishing debugging, press Reset key to reset or

mistakes (e.g. the settings

re-energize the device to operate correctly in the initial status.

6.1 Real time data inquiry

SelectReal Time Datain the main menu to inquire the real-time data.

Measured Datacapable of inquiring data including the primary voltage, secondary

measured current, active/reactive power, and active/reactive electrical degree, etc. Protection Datacapable of inquiring data including the secondary protection

current, voltage, etc; Harmonic Voltage capable of inquiring the secondary measurement 2~11

sub-harmonic phase voltage; Harmonic Current capable of inquiring the secondary measurement 2~11

sub-harmonic phase current; Opto I/P Statuscapable of inquiring the present DI status.

6.2 Settings view and edit

The system is provided with the settings self-check function. When it detects any fault, it starts operating the fault relay, turning on the alarming lamp and blocking every outlet relay, and then revises the error code manually or remotely. After the completion of the reset, pressResetkey to reset all the status indication lamp in the protection software,

the fault relay, alarm and action lamp. The error code is as below:

Error=32: the system data self-check error Error=33: the calibration settings self-check error Error=1~10: the protection settings self-check error (corresponding to the current settings interface, e.g. 6.22 the Protection Setting Value: Over Current Protectionis

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corresponding to 1, Over Voltage Protectionto 2 and Under voltage Protectionto

3, and so on )

6.2.1 System parameter View and revise the parameter through Viewand Editunder Device

Parameter. Password is required at parameter edition.

Time be set manually or synchronized with the device through the

communication. Password set up the password for parameter edit in case that the

non-operator revises the data; The user can set the password (8888 as the default) by themselves before the operation. Editinclude setting up the protection setting value, parameter related to the

communication, the primary device data, and various fault detection data, etc.

Print Para"Print parameters" include print-related parameters settings:

print, Print Baudrate, Print Address , and more.

6.2.2 Protection settings

View and revise the parameter through Viewand Edit. Password is

required for the setting edition. There are 8 groups of settings in total. The protection setting group no. is edited underSettings Group No.of EditunderDevice

Parameter.

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Protection Settings: It is to set the action value, operation delay time, starting and blocking conditions for various protections.

Link Setup: It is to switch OFF/ON of the soft link of various protections.

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Trip Setup: It is to set the outlet relay for the protection trip according to the

binary mode. The outlet relay J1~J12 are displayed from right to left and their outlet mode are defined byRelay Setupmenu. For example: the over current.I outlet is set

as “0101 0000 0100” and after the over current protection.I acted, the relay J3, J9 and J11 start operation.

Opto I/P Link: It can be set to fulfill the Opto I/P deflection, alarm and trip.

When it is set as “Off”, it is only allowed for the Opto I/P change; when set as “On”, it is for alarm and trip. The related setting is as below:

Opto I/P Trigger: It can set the sudden change mode for the DI alarm and trip.

When set as “Open -> Close”, delay the start-up when the external DI signal is changed to 1 from 0 suddenly; and when set as “Close -> Open”, delay the start-up when the external DI signal is changed to 0 from 1 suddenly. Opto I/P Delay: It can set the DIsignal sudden-changing delay action time.

When DI signal has fulfilled the sudden-changing condition for the statusd time, the corresponding DI activates the alarm or the trip. Opto I/P Outlet: It can set the outlet relay for DIalarm or trip. Please refer to

Trip Setup.

Relay Setup: It is to define the Outleut Mode for J1~J12 outlet relays

separately. 1) Pulse output: It can set the pulse output time to reset the relay automatically.

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The relay action time is the defined pulse output time; 2) Follow signal output: It can follow the accident signal output to reset the relay automatically once the signal resets. The relay action time is the holding time of the fault signal; 3) Hold output: The relay will be kept under the output status until the external reset signal or manual reset signal reset. ! Note:

When J1 and J2 are set as “On” by [Remote Control Function] underEdit

menu, it is only for remote controlling the closing and opening but invalid in other outlet seting up. J9 and J10 are only allowed for “Accident Alarm” and “Alarm Sound”. The alarming mode and Outleut Mode can be set in the corresponding protection output setting up. The relay alarm time can be set inO/P Relay Setup.

6.3 Device debug

Device Debug: It is for the debugging personnel’s operation.

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Sampling Accuracy Calibrationis to calibrate AC and DC channel collection

quantity. The AC channel calibration should be done before delivery and become unnecessary under normal conditions. Adopt a highly-accurate calibration instrument and add AC and DC signal in the corresponding AC and DC channel. And the menu gives the defaulted amplitude of addition quantity. After fulfill the above condition, pressEnterkey

and then operate according to the prompt. The entry password of Sampling Accuracy

Calibrationmenu is highly confidential and known only by the debugging personnel.

Calibrated Settings Inquiry: It is to check whether AC and DC channel sampling

quantity is calibrated. The AC channel calibration should be done before delivery and become unnecessary under normal conditions. The channel is displayed as -1 before the calibration and a positive number subsequently. Relay contact Testis to test the outlet relay. Select the to-be-tested relay in this

menu and pressEnterkey to select Action, and then re-pressEnterkey to process the

following step, which ensures the relay under the output status. And clickResetto stop

the relay output. The entry password of Relay contact Testmenu is highly confidential

and known only by the debugging personnel.

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! Note:

Ensure the outlet relay under the reset status in the duration of the relay

contact test; otherwise, the corresponding relay will be kept under the action

status.

Clear Debug Recordis to clear the event record at debugging.

Clear DSP Recordis to clear all the event record in the device.

! Note: Be cautious! For the cleared event record can not be recovered.

Event Upload Testis to upload all the event to the background monitoring system,

which is easy for testing communication at on-site debug.

6.4 Event report and inquiry

When the new event report pops up at alarm occurring, pressEnterkey for the

detailed information including the action time, action value, etc.

At that time, pressExitkey to reset the event picture and then back to the main

picture. In the next step, pressResetkey to reset the corresponding accident signal

including action, alarming relay and alarming lamp, etc.

Protection: It includes the detailed information of all the protection action.

Opto I/P: It includes the detailed information of all the OPTO I/P actions and alarming events Others: It includes the detailed information of all the internal fault, external fault

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and other alarming events. All: It includes the detailed information of all events.

6.5 Version information

Check the type, type code, hardware version no., and protection and displaying

software version no. in the Version Informationmenu.

If the type code of the displaying software is consistent with the protection software,

the device will pop up the message of “DSP and MMI do not match!” automatically. Please

re-write the matched displaying program and protection program.

When CPU plus are loose contacted or the communication between the display and

the protection is faulted, the device will pop up the message of “Communication Fault”

automatically.

6.6 Print function

Except for main screen, in all other data screen, parameters screen, SOE screen, Press "Confirm" + Right key combinations at the same time you can start printing tasks. When a new SOE event generated print task can also be started automatically this feature is available in the "Print Parameters" screen. Device use a standard printing protocol Printing Protocol ,support Chinese / English mixed print, each line 32 English characters or 16 Chinese characters. Devices and printer can be connected in two ways: RS232 and RS485, the way has to be determined when the order. In RS232 mode, each device has a mini printer via RS232 network; in RS485 mode, multiple devices can share a mini-printer via RS485 network; , access network printer by RS232/RS485 converter, allows up to 8 devices to share a printer. Before you do print, be sure to first set the following parameters according to the actual situation (This parameter can only be viewed and modified on the unit box):

 No. Name Code Range Step Remarks 1 Print Type PMODE RS485/RS232 2 Print Comm Baudrate PBAUD 1200-9600 3 Printer Address PADR 1～8 1 4 Print Rate PV 0.3-3.0 l/s 5 AutoType OptoI/P EventRep. PSOEYX OFF/ON

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 6 AutoType Other EventRep. PSOEO OFF/ON 7 AutoType Prot EventRep. PSOEP OFF/ON

Print method: RS232/RS485, according to the actual application of choice; Print communication rate: 960 bpsdefault, according to the printer's baudrate

for choice; Print Address: 1-8, for RS485 printing mode, be sure that set the only address in the same printing network; Print speed: default 0.8 lines / s, this value is based on the actual speed of the printer, the speed can be set slightly smaller than the actual speed .

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Chapter 7 Attached lists and figures

7.1 DMP320C1F generator differential protection device settings list

7.1.1 System parameter

 No. Name Code Setting range</