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1.1

INTRODUCTION

The design of different reinforced concrete sections of beams will be considered in this chapter.

1.2 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS

The main task of a structural engineer is the analysis and design of structures. The two approaches of design and analysis will be used in this chapter:

Design of a section. This implies that the external ultimate moment is known, and it is required to compute the dimensions of an adequate concrete section and the amount of steel reinforcement. Concrete strength and yield of steel used are given.

Analysis of a section. This implies that the dimensions and steel used in the section (in addition to concrete and steel yield strengths) are given, and it is required to calculate the internal ultimate moment capacity of the section so that it can be compared with the applied external ultimate moment.

1.3 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS IN FLEXURE THEORY

Five basic assumptions are made:

1. Plane sections before bending remain plane after bending.

2. Strain in concrete is the same as in reinforcing bars at the same level, provided that the bond between the steel and

concrete is sufficient to keep them acting together under

two materials.

the different load stages i.e., no slip can occur between the

 3 The stress-strain curves for the steel and concrete are known. 4 The tensile strength of concrete may be neglected. 5 At ultimate strength, the maximum strain at the extreme compression fiber is assumed equal to 0.003, by the

Egyptian Code.

The assumption of plane sections remaining plane (Bernoulli's principle) means that strains above and below the neutral axis NA are proportional to the distance from the neutral axis, Fig. 1.1. Tests on reinforced concrete members have indicated that this assumption is very nearly correct at all stages of loading up to flexural failure, provided good bond exists between the concrete and steel. This assumption, however, does not hold for deep beams or in regions of high shear.

FIGURE 1.1. Single reinforced beam section with strain distribution.

1.4 BEHAVIOR OF A REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM SECTION LOADED TO FAILURE

To study the behavior of a reinforced concrete beam section under increasing moment, let us examine how strains and stresses progress at different stages of loading:

1.4.1 Noncracked, Linear Stage

As illustrated in Fig. 1.2, where moments are small, compressive stresses are very low and the maximum tensile stress of

concrete is less than its rupture strength, f

ctr

. In this stage the entire concrete section is effective, with the steel bars at the

tension side sustaining a strain equal to that of the surrounding concrete (

to that in the adjacent concrete multiplied by the modular ratio n. Utilizing the Transformed Area Concept, in which the

steel is transformed into an equivalent concrete area concrete" area in Fig. 1.2.

) but the stress in the steel bars is equal

, the conventional elastic theory may be used to analyze the "all

FIGURE 1.2. Transformed section for flexure before cracking.

This stage should be considered as the basis for calculating the cracking moment M , which produces tensile stresses

cr

at the bottom fibers equal to the modulus of rupture of concrete, Fig. 1.3. The Egyptian Code recommends the flexural formula M/Z to compute the flexural strength of the section:

(1.1a)

where

is the moment of inertia of gross concrete section about the centroidal axis, neglecting the reinforcement, y is

t

the distance from the centroidal axis of cross section, neglecting steel, to extreme fiber tension and f is the modulus of

ctr

rupture of concrete. The Egyptian code (ECCS) suggests an imperical formula relates the modulus of rupture of concrete to its compressive strength:

N/mm

2

(1.1b)

FIGURE 1.3. Transformed section for flexure just prior to cracking.

1.4.2 Cracked, Linear Stage

When the moment is increased beyond M , the tensile stresses in concrete at the tension zone increased until they were

cr

greater than the modulus of rupture f , and cracks will develop. The neutral axis shifts upward, and cracks extend close

ctr

to the level of the shifted neutral axis. Cracked concrete below the neutral axis is assumed to be not effective and the steel bars resist the entire tensile force. The stress-strain curve for concrete is approximately linear up to 0.40 f ; hence if

cu

the concrete stress does not exceed this value, the elastic (straight line) theory formula M/Z may be used to analyze the "all concrete" area in Fig. 1.4.

FIGURE 1.4. Transformed section for flexure somewhat after cracking.

1.4.3 Cracked, Nonlinear Stage

For moments greater than these producing stage 2, the maximum compressive stress in concrete exceeds 0.40 . However, concrete in compression has not crushed. Although strains are assumed to remain proportional to the distance from the neutral axis, stresses are not and, therefore, the flexural formula M/Z of the conventional elastic theory cannot be used to compute the flexural strength of the section. The Internal Couple Approach, instead, will be used to compute the section strength. This approach allows two equations for equilibrium, for the analysis and design of structural members, that are valid for any load and any section. As Fig. 1.5 indicates, the compressive force C should be equal to the tensile force T, otherwise the section will have a linear displacement plus rotation. Thus,

C = T

(1.2a)

The internal moment

is equal to either the tensile force T multiplied by its arm yct

multiplied by the same lever arm. Thus,

(1.2b)

or the compressive force C

FIGURE 1.5. Transformed section for flexure after cracking.

The resultant internal tensile force T is given by

(1.3)

is the steel stress. The resultant internal compressive force is obtained by integrating

the stress block over the area bc. Taking an infinitesimal strip dy of area dA equals b by dy, located at a distance y from

the neutral axis and subject to an assumed uniform compressive stress f and strain X the compressive force C is given by

where is the area of steel and

(1.4)

This stage may be considered as the basis for calculating the flexural strength of the section at first yield of the tension

steel (known as the yield moment ). When the tension steel first reaches the yield strain ( ), the strain in the extreme fiber of the concrete may be appreciably less than 0.003. If the steel reaches the yield strain and the concrete reaches the extreme fiber compression strain of 0.003, simultaneously, the yield moment occurs and equals the ultimate moment M . Otherwise, if the concrete crushed before the steel yields, the yield moment will never take place.

u

1.4.4 Ultimate Strength Stage

For the given section, when the moment is further increased, strains increased rapidly until the maximum carrying capacity of the beam was reached at ultimate moment M . The section will reach its ultimate flexural strength when the

u

concrete reaches an extreme fiber compression strain X of 0.003 and the tensile steel strain X cloud have any value

cu

s

higher or lower than the yield strain

.

As Fig. 1.6 indicates, the compressive forces C

1

and C

2

are obtained by integrating the parabolic and rectangular

stress blocks over the rectangular areas A and A

1

2

of

and

, respectively.

FIGURE 1.6. Single reinforced beam section with flexure at ultimate.

The corresponding lever arms y and y

1

2

are given by

The resultant force C is, then, computed from

(1.5)

The position of C is at a distance y from the top fiber where y is computed from

The distance between the resultant internal forces, known as the internal lever arm, is

y

ct

= d - 0.4 c

(1.6)

where d, the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the steel area, is known as the effective depth. The ultimate strength M is therefore

u

(1.7)

1.5 EQUIVALENT RECTANGULAR COMPRESSION STRESS BLOCK

As a means of simplification, the Egyptian Code has suggested the replacement of the actual shape of the concrete compressive stress block (a second-degree parabola up to 0.002 and a horizontal branch up to 0.003) by an equivalent rectangular stress block, Fig. 1.7.

FIGURE 1.7. Actual and equivalent stress distribution at failure.

A concrete stress of is assumed uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone bounded by

the edges of the cross section and a line parallel to the neutral axis at a distance from the fiber of maximum compressive strain, where c is the distance between the top of the compressive section and the neutral axis NA.

For the resultant compressive forces of the actual and equivalent stress blocks of Fig. 1.7, to have the same

magnitude and line of action, the average stress of the equivalent rectangular stress block and its depth are

and

where

strength M in Section 1.4.4.

u

and

. These values are as already derived when calculating the ultimate

The equivalent rectangular stress block applies, as the Egyptian Code permits, to rectangular, T and trapezoidal sections, Fig. 1.8.

FIGURE 1.8. Applicability of equivalent rectangular stress block to some sections.

For sections as shown in Fig. 1.9, stress distribution should be based on the actual stress-strain diagram. The above

procedure, however, can be implemented to obtain the parameters

and

that correspond to these sections.

FIGURE 1.9. Inapplicability of equivalent rectangular stress block to some sections.

1.6 TYPES OF FLEXURAL FAILURE

The types of flexural failure possible (tension, compression and balanced) and

the nominal (ideal) strength M

u

of the

beam section (a singly reinforced rectangular section) are discussed next.

1.6.1 Tension Failure

If the steel content of the section is small (an under-reinforced concrete section), the steel will reach its yield strength before the concrete reaches its maximum capacity. The flexural strength of the section is reached when the strain in the extreme compression fiber of the concrete is approximately 0.003, Fig. 1.10. With further increase in strain, the moment of resistance reduces, and crushing commences in the compressed region of the concrete. This type of failure, because it is initiated by yielding of the tension steel, could be referred to as a "primary tension failure," or simply "tension failure." The section then fails in a "ductile" fashion with adequate visible warning before failure.

FIGURE 1.10. Single reinforced section when the tension failure is reached.

For a tension failure,

; for equilibrium, C = T. Hence from from

and

we have

which results in

(1.8)

The nominal strength M (which obtained from theory predicting the failure of the section on assumed section geometry and

u

specified materials strengths i.e.,

=

= 1.0), is

(1.9)

1.6.2

Compression Failure If the steel content of the section is large (an over-reinforced concrete section), the concrete may reach its maximum capacity before the steel yields. Again the flexural strength of the section is reached when the strain in the extreme compression fiber of the concrete is approximately 0.003, Fig. 1.11. The section then fails suddenly in a "brittle" fashion if the concrete is not confined and there may be little visible warning of failure.

FIGURE 1.11. Single reinforced section when the compression failure is reached.

For a compression failure,

as the steel remains in the elastic range. The steel stress may be determined in

terms of the neutral axis depth considering the similar triangles of the strain diagram of Fig. 1.11.

\

The steel stress is

or, since E = 200 kN/mm ,

s

2

For equilibrium, , hence

(1.10)

(1.11a)

(1.11b)

(1.12)

The above quadratic equation may be solved to find c and, on substituting a = 0.8c, the nominal strength is

1.6.3 Balanced Failure

(1.13)

At a particular steel content, the steel reaches the yield strength and the concrete reaches its extreme fiber compression

strain of 0.003, simultaneously, Fig. 1.12. Then,

and from the similar triangles of the strain diagram of Fig.

1.12

we can write

 (1.14) where = neutral axis depth for a balanced failure. Then (1.15)

or, on substituting

= 0.80

, Eq. 1.15 becomes

(1.16)

FIGURE 1.12. Single reinforced section when the balanced failure is reached.

For equilibrium, ; hence we have

(1.17)
which results in
(1.18)

where

is the balanced steel ratio.

The type of failure that occurs will depend on whether the steel ratio m (where m=

) is less than or greater than

. Figure 1.13 shows the strain profiles at a section at the flexural strength for three different steel contents. As Fig.

1.13 indicates, if for the section m is less than

, then c < c

b and

; hence a tension failure occurs. Similarly, if m

is greater than

, then c > c

b and

, and a compression failure occurs.

FIGURE 1.13. Strain profiles at the flexural strength of a section.

1.7 FLEXURAL DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE RECTANGULAR SECTIONS

The use of design equations, as well as design aids and tables, in designing reinforced concrete rectangular sections is presented next.

1.7.1 Design of Singly Reinforced Sections Compression failures are dangerous in practice because they occur suddenly, giving little visible warning and are brittle. Tension failures, however, are preceded by wide cracking of the concrete and have a ductile character. To ensure that all beams have adequate visible warning if failure is imminent, as well as reasonable ductility at failure, it is necessary to limit the area of tension steel in singly reinforced sections to a proportion of the balanced area because, as Eq. 1.18 indicates, if the yield strength of the steel is higher or the concrete strength is lower, a compression failure may occur in a beam that is loaded to the flexural strength.

In design, a dependable (design) strength of

reduction factor. Therefore, the balanced steel ratio

and, since g = 1.15 and g = 1.5, we can write

s

c

´ characteristic (nominal or ideal) strength is used, where g is the capacity

in Eq.1.18 becomes

(1.19)

(1.20)

The Egyptian Code (as compared to the ACI Code which limits the maximum allowable steel ratio m

the neutral axis depth c in singly reinforced beams not exceed two-thirds that for a balanced failure:

max

to 0.75

) recommends that

The maximum allowable steel ratio µ

max

is thus

(1.21)

As Fig. 1.14 indicates, for a tension failure,

(1.22)

, for equilibrium, C = T, we have

which results in a. The ultimate strength M

u

where

is then given by

and

(1.23)

(1.24)

(1.25)

(1.26)

FIGURE 1.14. Single reinforced section when the flexural strength is reached.

For a given concrete strength and steel yield strength, R is a function of µ. This means that R cannot be increased beyond the

u

u

value R

max

that correspond to µ

max

. Therefore, using µ

max

,

(1.27)

It should be mentioned that the design strength of a cross section is limited to the value that correspond to R

max

Therefore, using R

max

,

(1.28)

or simply

max

.

, 10% is redistributed

The values of

,

and

for all grades of steel are given in Table 1.1. Table 1.2 is used if a fraction of the moments

TABLE 1.1. Values of

,
,

and

- No moment redistribution.

 Type of steel 240/350 0.742 0.50 8.56 ´ 10 -4 f cu 0.214 280/450 0.711 0.48 7.00 ´ 10 -4 f cu 0.208 360/520 0.657 0.44 5.00 ´ 10 -4 f cu 0.194 400/600 0.633 0.42 4.31 ´ 10 -4 f cu 0.187 450/520 0.605 0.40 3.65 ´ 10 -4 f cu 0.180

*

Apply only to rectangular sections with

only and

2

in N/mm .

 TABLE 1.2. Values of , , and - Moment redistribution = ±10%. Type of steel 240/350 0.597 0.40 6.85 ´ 10 -4 f cu 0.180 280/450 0.567 0.38 5.58 ´ 10 -4 f cu 0.173 360/520 0.507 0.34 10 -4 f cu 0.157 400/600 0.477 0.32 3.29 ´ 10 -4 f cu 0.150 450/520 0.447 0.30 2.74 ´ 10 -4 f cu 0.142

*

Apply only to rectangular sections with

only and

2

in N/mm .

In design, the variables in Eq. 1.24 can be b, d and A . It is evident that there is a range of satisfactory sections having the same

s

strength, and before a solution can be obtained the designer must assume the value for one or more of these variables.

a) Minimum Effective Depth with Maximum Steel

In this case, when b is given or assumed and the effective depth d is unknown, the section may be designed to have a minimum

depth by putting . Such a design requires

a very high steel content. Unless a very shallow depth is essential, use

of is not economical and it is better to use a deep section with less steel. Also, the deflections of a beam with the minimum possible depth may be excessive and may need to be checked.

FIGURE 1.15. Single reinforced section with minimum effective depth and maximum steel.

Design Equations:

As Fig. 1.15 indicates, the depth will be a minimum, d =

and

from

Design Aids:

The ultimate design moment M is given by

u

Or

and on substituting

and

Eqs. 1.31a and 1.31b become

, if

v is the maximum allowed,

(1.29)

(1.30)

(1.31a)

(1.31b)

. First calculate

from

and

(1.32)

(1.33)

Table A.1

gives values for

and

for a range of commonly used steel yield and concrete strengths. Enter Table A.1

with the known values of

values of

and

to be used.

and

. Traverse vertically to the

value, then horizontally to the

value and

finally obtain the

Example 1.1:

A 250 mm wide, single reinforced rectangular section is to carry an Mu of 200 kNm. Using design the section for minimum depth.

Solution:

Design Equations:

From Table 1.1, we have

Calculate

from

0.208 and

7 ´ 10

-4

f

cu

\ = 480 mm

Calculate

from

Design Aids:

2100 mm

2

(Use 7 f 20)

= 25 N/mm2 and steel 280/450,

Enter Table A.1 with

= 0.534

Then, calculate

and

= 25 N/mm and

2

= 196.7

and

as follows:

= 280 N/mm and obtain

2

2

cm

mm

(Use 7 f 20)

The Egyptian Code specifies that the compression steel

b) Great Effective Depth with less Steel

be not less than 0.10

. Therefore,

2.17 cm

2

(Use 2 f 12).

Here, both the width b and the effective depth d are known. If d is assumed to be greater than d

min

adequate without compression reinforcement. This implies also that

will be less than

.

; therefore, the section is

FIGURE 1.16. Single reinforced section with great effective depth and less steel.

Design Equations:

First calculate

from

If d is greater than = T, hence from

, therefore, the section is adequate without compression steel. As Fig. 1.16 indicates, for equilibrium, C

and

we have

The ultimate design moment is thus

(1.34)

The above quadratic equation may be solved to find

Design Aids:

.

The ultimate design moment is given by

Or

and on substituting

and

Eqs. 1.36a and 1.36b become

and

(1.37)

(1.38)

(1.35)

Tables B.1 through B.5 give values for

and

for all grades of steel and a range of commonly used concrete strengths. First,

calculate K from Eq. 1.37. Then, with the known value of , determine the design table that corresponds (Tables B.1 through

1

B.5). Traverse vertically to the K value, then horizontally to the f value, and finally obtain the value of K to be used. Calculate

1

cu

2

from Eq. 1.38.

Note:

It is also necessary to provide a minimum reinforcement ratio that should always be exceeded. This is recommended because if the

reinforcement ratio is very small, the computed flexural strength as a reinforced concrete section becomes less than the cracking

moment M , and on cracking, failure is sudden and brittle. To prevent this, the Egyptian Code specifies that the area of steel in

cr

beams be not less than the minimum area of steel A that should be provided. The minimum area of steel, according to the

Egyptian Code, equals the least of:

smin

(units

are in N and mm)

(1.39)

 and 1.30 ( = area of steel required by the analysis) (1.40)

Provided that A

smin

should be not less than

0.25% bd

and

0.15% bd

(for normal mild steel)

(for high grade steel)

(1.41)

(1.42)

In T-shaped and L-shaped sections where the web is in tension, the minimum steel ratio is computed using the web width b.

Example 1.2:

A 250 mm wide, singly reinforced rectangular section is to carry an M of 200 kNm. Using 280/450, design the section for an effective depth d of 550 mm.

u

Solution:

= 25 N/mm and steel

2

Design Equations:

First calculate

from

\

= 480 mm

because d is greater than

, therefore, the section is adequate without compression steel. Calculate

from

= 1730 mm

2

Design Aids:

First calculate

(Use 2 f 22 + 2 f 25)

from

Assume that d is greater than

from

K

2

= 210. Calculate

which results in K = 0.6166.

1

and enter Table B.2 with K = 0.6166, then traverse horizontally to

1

= 25, and finally obtain

mm

2

(Use 2 f 22 + 2 f 25)

A smin

= the least of:

540 mm

2

1.3

= 1.3 x 1731.6 = 2251 mm

2

But not less than

2406 mm

2

344 mm

2

A

smin

2

= 540 mm

A

smax

2

= 2406 mm

Here,

= 1731.6 mm which is greater than A

2

= 173.0 mm

2

(Use 2f 12)

smin

and less than

.

1.7.2 Design of Doubly Reinforced Sections

When a beam of shallow depth is used, the flexural design strength obtained that is allowed for the section as singly reinforced

0) may be insufficient. The design moment capacity may be increased by placing compression steel

M umax

( if

and

and additional tension steel. In addition, to increasing the section strength when its depth is limited, compression steel may be required in design for the following reasons:

1. Compression steel may be used in design to increase the ductility of the section at the

flexural strength.

2. Compression steel may be used to reduce deflection of beams at the service load.

Compression steel also reduces the long-

term deflections of beams due to creep.

Curvatures due to shrinkage of concrete are also reduced by compression steel.

3. For the beams of continuous frames under gravity and lateral loading, consideration of

possible combinations of external

loading reveal that the bending moment can change sign. Such members require reinforcement near both faces to carry the possible

tensile forces and

therefore act as doubly reinforced members.

4. Compression steel provides hangers for stirrups.

When designing double reinforced concrete sections, the Egyptian Code specifies that the maximum spacing s between stirrups should not be greater than 15 times the diameter of the compression steel. This helps to prevent buckling.

Design Equations:

First calculate

from

If d is less than

(1.43)

, therefore, compression steel is required. As Fig. 1.17 indicates,

and

(1.45)

(1.44)

FIGURE 1.17. Double reinforced section when the flexural strength is reached.

The difference in moment M

u2

is given by

which results in

and

If

, we can write

. Of course,

and

(1.47)

(1.46)

Otherwise; if the compression steel is not yielding, the stress in it may be found in terms of c

and thus,

(1.50)

(1.49)

max

(1.48)

, using the strain diagram of Fig. 1.18:

FIGURE 1.18. Double reinforced section when the flexural strength is reached.

Design Aids:

With reference to Fig. 1.18, taking the moments of forces about T, C and C each a time:

c

s

(1.51a)

(1.51b)

and on substituting

(1.51c)

,

,

and

Equations 1.51a, 1.51b and 1.51c give

and

(1.52)

(1.53)

(1.54)

First, calculate K from Eq. 1.52. Then, with the known value of , determine the design table that corresponds (Tables

1

C.1 through C.3). Traverse vertically to the and f values, then horizontally to the K value, and finally obtain the values of K

cu

1

2

and a to be used. In so doing, calculate A from Eq. 1.53 and from Eq. 1.54. In addition, the Egyptian Code states that

s

if:

Table 1.4

Steel

240/350

0.20

360/520

0.15

450/520

0.10

Example 1.3:

A 250 mm wide, single reinforced rectangular section is to carry an M of 200 kNm. Using 280/450, design the section for an effective depth of 450 mm.

u

= 25 N/mm and steel

2

Solution:

Design Equations:

First calculate

from

because d is less than

, compression steel is required.

and

The difference in moment M

u2

is given by

\ = 480 mm

kNm

175.5 kNm

1968.75 mm

2

which results in

= 251.6 mm

2

(

= 0.11 which is less than 0.20; \

= 1968.75 + 251.6 = 2220.35 mm

2

Design Aids:

First, calculate K

1

from

)

which results in K = 0.503. Enter Table B.2, the first value of K (that corresponds to f

1

1

cu

25 N/mm ) is 0.534 which is greater than 0.503. This implies that compression steel is required.

2

Enter Table C.3 (where

0.10) and obtain K = 199 and a= 0.10.

2

2233.4 mm

2

(Use 6 f 22)

=

223.34 mm

2

(Use 2 f 12)

2010 mm

2

A smin

= the least of:

442 mm

2

1.3 = 1.3 x 1968.75 = 2559.4 mm

2

But not less than

2

mm

A smin

= 442 mm

2

Here,

1968.75 mm which is greater than A

2

smin

.

251.6 mm which is greater than 0.10 A .

2

s

[1] 1

"Design Aids For Limit States Design," Third Edition, 2002, Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby.

1.8 SPACING OF REINFORCEMENT AND CONCRETE COVER

The spacing of reinforcement and the concrete cover should be sufficient to make concreting more easier; consequently, the concrete surrounding the reinforcement can be efficiently vibrated, resulting in a dense concrete cover which provides suitable protection of the reinforcement against corrosion.

1.8.1 Spacing of Reinforcement

Figure 1.19 shows two reinforced concrete sections. The bars are placed such that the clear spacing s shall be at least

equal to the maximum diameter of the bars, or 25 mm, or 1.50 times maximum size of aggregate, whichever is greatest,

according to the Egyptian Code. Vertical clear spacing between bars, in more than one layer, shall not be less than 25

mm.

FIGURE 1.19 Spacing of steel bars (a) in one row or (b) in two rows.

1.8.2 Concrete Cover

The specified minimum concrete cover for different structural members, according to their degree of exposure, is given in the Egyptian Code, Table 4-13. Concrete cover for beams is equal to 25 mm for main bars and 20 mm for stirrups and that for slabs is equal to 15 mm, when concrete is not exposed to weather or in contact with ground.

1.8.3 Number of Steel Layers and Overall depth of Concrete Section

The general equation for the required width of a concrete section

(1.55)

is as follows:

The total depth t is equal to the effective depth d plus the distance from the centroid of the tension reinforcement to the extreme tension concrete fibers, which depends on the number of layers of the steel bars. In application to the section shown in Fig. 1.19a,

(1.56)

for one row of steel bars and

(1.57)

for two layers of steel bars, Fig. 1.19b. The overall depth t shall be increased to the nearest 5 cm. If No. 8 (25 mm) or smaller bars are used, a practical estimate of the overall depth can be made as follows:

 t = d + 50 mm, for one layer of steel bars t = d + 75 mm, for two layers of steel bars

Example 1.4:

For the cantilever beam shown in Fig. 1.20, if DL = 13.5 kN/m' (including own weight) and LL = 35 kN, it is required to:

a. Design the beam section for a minimum depth when b = 250 mm.

b. Design the beam section for a minimum depth when b = 120 mm.

c. Design the beam section for an effective depth d = 450 m when b = 250 mm.

d. Design the beam section for an overall depth t = 700 m when b = 120 mm.

Given:

= 25 N/mm and

2

= 280 N/mm .

2

FIGURE 1.20 Example 1.4.

Solution:

The ultimate moment

as specified by the Egyptian Code (where

moments, respectively) is to be:

and

are the dead and live service

150 kNm.

Part a:

Enter Table A.1 with f

cu

= 25 N/mm and

2

= 0.534 and

Then, calculate

= 196.7

and

as follows:

= 280 N/mm

2

and obtain

414 mm

2

mm

For

= 1842 mm , different choices of steel bars may be selected as follows:

2

 Steel Bars Area of steel, mm 2 6 f 20 1884 4 f 25 1960 5 f 22 1960 9 f 16 1800 2 f 25 + 2 f 22 1740

The area of steel bars must be closest to the required steel area. If 2 f 25 plus 2 f 22 are chosen, A = 1740 mm ,

s

2

which is 102 mm less than the required area of 1842 mm . But since the overall depth t may be increased a fraction of

50 mm, the actual effective depth will be a little greater than the calculated d

2

2

, consequently reducing the required A .

s

min

The 2 f 25 plus 2 f 22

would have to be placed in one row

required width to place 2 f 25 plus 2 f 22 in one layer:

as 250 mm width is sufficient. Calculating the

= 2 (f

25

+ 22f

22

) + 3s + 2f

+ 2c

str

= 2 (25 + 22) + 3 ´ 25 + 2 ´ 8 + 2 ´ 25 = 235 mm

which is less than b = 250 mm. The overall depth t, is then computed from:

t = d + 0.5f

25

+f

str

+ c

= 414 + 0.5 ´ 25 + 8 + 25 = 461.5 mm; say 500 mm

The actual effective depth d = 500 - 50 = 450 mm

which is greater than the calculated d of 414 mm. Because of the small variation, reduction in the required steel area can

be approximated by the ratio of the calculated d to the actual d.

A

s actually needed is as follows

1693 mm

2

which is less than 1740 mm (2 f 25 plus 2 f 22) provided, Fig. 1.21.

2

FIGURE 1.21 Example 1.4, part a.

Part b:

The minimum effective depth that correspond to b = 120 mm equals 597.5 mm. The area of steel A

A

placed in one row:

smax

2

s

2

2

2

s required equals

or 1276 mm . If 4 f 20 is chosen, A = 1256 mm , which is 20 mm less than 1276 mm . If the steel bars are

= 4 ´ 20 + 3 ´ 25 + 2 ´ 8 + 2 ´ 25 = 211 mm

which is greater than b = 120 mm, therefore, the steel bars have to be placed in two rows as 120 mm width is not sufficient. The overall depth t is thus,

t = 597.5 + 25 + 8 + 20 + 0.5 ´ 25 = 663 cm ; say 700 mm

The actual d = 700 - 75 = 625 mm

FIGURE 1.22 Example 1.4, part b.

Part c:

First calculate K

1

from:

which results in K = 0.581.

1

Enter Table B.2 with K = 0.581, then traverse horizontally to

1

= 25, and finally obtain

K
= 208. Then,
1630 mm
2
(Use 3 f 22 + 3 f 19)
2
A
= the least of :
smin

442 mm

2

2

mm

1.3

= 1.3 ´

But not less than

1630 = 2119 mm

2

2

mm

A

smin

= 442 mm

2

A

smax

= 1968.75 mm

2

Here,

1630 mm which is greater than A

2

163 mm

2

(Use 2 f 12)

Part d:

smin

and less than

.

If steel is assumed to be placed in two layers as 120 mm width is not sufficient.

d = 600 -

First calculate K

75 = 525 mm

1

from:

which results in K = 0.468.

1

Enter Table B.2 with K = 0.468, the first value of K

1

1

(that correspond to

= 25) is 0.534 which is greater than

0.468. This implies that

is required. Enter Table C.3 (where

0.10) and obtain K = 201.8 and a = 0.225.

2

Since

is less than 0.20,

1416 mm

2

319 mm

2

\

.

1.9 FLANGED SECTIONS

Concrete floor slabs and beams are normally tied together by means of stirrups and bent-up bars if any and then are cast form one mass of concrete. Such a monolithic system will act integrally i.e., it is allowed to assume that part of the slab acts with the beam and they form what is known as a flanged beam, Fig. 1.23.

FIGURE 1.23 Slab-beam floor system.

The part of the slab acting with the beam is called the flange, and it is indicated in Fig. 1.24a by the area Bt . The rest of

s

the section confining the area (t-t )b is called the stem or web. As Fig. 1.24b indicates, in an I-section there are two

s

flanges, a compression flange, which is actually effective, and a tension flange, which is ineffective as it lies below the neutral axis and is thus neglected completely. Therefore, the design of an I-section is similar to that of a T-section.

1.9.1 Effective Flange Width, B

FIGURE 1.24 (a) T-section and (b) I-section.

As Fig. 1.25 indicates, the compressive stresses, in a T-section, are at a maximum value at points adjacent to the beam and decrease approximately in a parabolic form to zero at a distance x from the face of the beam. Stresses also vary vertically from a maximum at the top fibers of the flange to a minimum at the lower fibers of the flange.

FIGURE 1.25 Effective flange width, B.

As a means of simplification, rather than varying with distance from the web, an effective width B of uniform stress may be assumed. The effective width B is a function of span length of the beam and depends on:

1. Spacing of beams

2. Width of web of beam

3. The ratio of the slab thickness to the total beam depth

4. End conditions of the beam (simply supported or continuous)

5. The way in which the load is applied (distributed load or point load)

6. The ratio of the length of beam between points of zero moment to the width of the web and the distance between

webs.

1. Spacing of beams

2. Width of web of beam

3. The ratio of the slab thickness to the total beam depth

4. End conditions of the beam (simply supported or continuous)

5. The way in which the load is applied (distributed load or point load)

6. The ratio of the length of beam between points of zero moment to the width of the web and the distance between

webs.

T- and I -Shaped Sections

The Egyptian Code prescribes that the effective flange width B of a T-section, as in Fig. 1.26, shall be taken as the web

width b plus the effective overhanging flange sides x

1

and x . Thus,

2

B = b + (x

1

+ x )

2

where x + x

1

2

or

equal the least of:

when t

s1

= t

s2

(1.58)

(1.59a)

(1.59b)

(1.59c)

where L is the distance between the points of zero moments. For a simply supported beam, the distance L referred to

2

2

above is just the span distance between centers of supports. For beams continuos from one end and simply supported from

the other end, the distance L

continuos from both ends, the distance L may be taken as 0.70 times the span distance between centers of supports.

t

beams.

2 may be taken as 0.80 times the span distance between centers of supports. For beams

2

1

and S

2

are the clear distances to the next right and left

and t

s2

are the thicknesses of the right and left slabs and S

s1

FIGURE 1.26 Effective flange width of T-beams.

Isolated T- Shaped Sections

To increase the compression force capacity of isolated rectangular beams, concrete overhanging flange sides are added, Fig. 1.27. This isolated T-shaped section is most commonly used as prefabricated units. The Egyptian Code specifies the size of isolated T-sections as:

and

(1.60)

FIGURE 1.27 Isolated T-shaped sections.

Inverted L-Shaped Sections

The end beam of a slab-beam girder floor is called a spandrel beam. The beam joins the slab from only one side.

FIGURE 1.28 Effective flange width of L-beams.

The Egyptian Code specifies that the effective flange width B shall be taken as the web width b plus the effective overhanging flange width x . Thus,

1

B = b + x

1

(1.61)

where x

1 equals the least of:

(1.62a)

(1.62b)

(1.62c)

The design of inverted L-shaped sections may approximately follow the same procedure of T- and I-shaped sections but with employing the respective effective width B.

1.10 FLEXURAL DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLANGED SECTIONS

In flanged sections, it can be seen that a large area of the compression flange, forming a part of the slab, is effective in resisting a great part or all of the compressive force due to bending. If the section is designed on this basis, the depth of the web will be small; consequently the moment arm y is small, resulting in a large amount of tension steel which is not

favorable.

ct

Because of the large area of the compression flange, the design of a T-section does not need, in most practical cases, to consider a doubly reinforced section. But, in case of precast units, when the width of the flange is small and the effective depth is limited, compression steel may be added.

1.10.1 Effective Depth d In many cases, the effective depth d can be known based on the flexural design of the section at the support in a

continuous beam, e.g. section 2-2 in Fig. 1.29a. The section at the support is subjected to a negative moment, the slab being under tension and ignored, and the beam width is that of the web b.

FIGURE 1.29 Slab and beam systems

Iýýýf the effective depth d of section 1-1 in Fig. 1.29b is not known, an approximate effective depth can be obtained by

considering a rectangular section with a reduced width

, Fig. 1.30. The reduced width

is greater than the width of

the web b and less than the effective flange width B. A reasonable choice of

ratio varies between

and

depending on the applied moment and shear requirements. If shear is high or a small amount of

depth is needed; i.e.

approaches

. For shallow sections, a higher ratio is used; i.e. the ratio

After determining the ratio

, the next step is to estimate the effective depth using equation

is required, a greater

may approach

.

(1.63)

FIGURE 1.30 Reduced width of T-section.

It is also possible to estimate the effective depth d using

Table D.1 gives values for K

1min

(1.64)

for all grades of steel and a range of commonly used concrete strengths.

1.10.2 Design of T- and I-Sections

As already stated in Section 1.9, the design of an I-section is similar to that of a T-section. When the depth of the equivalent stress block a lies within the flange; i.e. a £ t , the section behaves as a rectangular section with the beam width equal to the flange width. Otherwise, if a is greater than t , a T-section design is a must.

s

s

T -Section Behaves as a Rectangular Section

If a £ t , the section may be designed as a rectangular section of width B, Fig. 1.31.

s

FIGURE 1.31. Rectangular section behavior.

The design may be commenced by assuming that a £ t . Taking moments of forces about the tension steel, we have

s

(1.65)

solution of the quadratic equation yields a. If a £ t as assumed, the tension steel

s

(1.66)

T -Section Behavior

can be found using

When the depth of the equivalent stress block is greater than the flange thickness, i.e. a > t , the section may be designed using the equations for a doubly reinforced beam, as follows. As Fig. 1.32 indicates, the tension steel A may be considered to be divided into an area A , which resists the compression in the concrete over the web, and an area A or A , which resists the compression in the concrete in the overhanging of the flange.

sf

s1

s

s

s2

or

FIGURE 1.32. Design of a T-Section when a £ a

Assuming that the tension steel is yielding, considering equation T = C , then

2

2

The ultimate moment of the section is the sum of the two moments M

u1

and M

u2

where

and

solving the quadratic equation yields a.

:

max

.

(1.67)

(4.68)

(1.69)

(1.70)

(1.71)

If a £ a

max

This implies that the section is adequate without

or

. Considering equation, T = C , then

1

1

The total steel used in the T-section is

If a > a

max

This implies that

is necessary, Fig. 1.33. Here also,

The ultimate moment of the section is the sum of the three moments M , M

u1

u2

where

and M

u3

:

(1.72)

(1.73)

(1.74)

(1.73)

(1.75)

(1.70)

(1.76)

and

and

The total steel used in the T-section is

If

, then

(1.77)

(1.78)

(1.79)

(1.80)

FIGURE 1.33. Design of a T-Section, a > a

max

.

Egyptian Code Solution

The Egyptian Code allows another approach to determine A when a > t . Ignoring the compression in the web part below the flange as shown in Fig 1.34, the tension steel can be obtained from:

s

s

(1.81)

giving

(1.82)

FIGURE 1.34. Design of a T-section.

Example 1.5

A T-beam section with B = 1000 mm, b = 250 mm and t = 100 mm is to have a design flexural strength M of 450

s

u

kNm. If f

cu

= 25 N/mm and steel 360/520, calculate the required steel area when:

2

a. d = 550 mm

b. d = 440 mm

c. d = 400 mm

FIGURE 1.35. Example 1.5.

Solution:

Assume a £ t . Then,

s

giving :

Part a: d = 550 mm

solution of the quadratic equation gives a = 79 mm which is less than rectangular section. For equilibrium, C = T, we have

t s . Therefore, the section will behave as a

A

s

= 2818 mm ; use 6

2

mm ; use 3

2

12.

25.

Part b: d = 440 mm

solution of the quadratic equation gives a = 104 mm which is greater than t . Therefore, a T-section design is required.

s

With reference to Fig. 1.32, for equilibrium,

, hence from

we have

giving

kNm

kNm

Solving the quadratic equation yields a = 116 mm and c = 145 mm.

But c

max

without

= 0.44 d = 0.44 x 440 = 193.6 mm which is

.

For equilibrium, T = C + C , hence from

1

2

we have

kN

greater

than c.

giving A = 3710 mm

s

2

Another Solution

For equilibrium, C = T , we can put

1

1

Also, for equilibrium, C = T , we can put

2

2

which results in A

s1

= 1034 mm

2

= A

s2

s1

A sf

A

= A

s

= 2675 mm

2

+ A

s2

= A

s1

+ A

sf

2

= 1034 + 2675 = 3709 mm

A - A

A

s1

= A

s

=

smax

sf

m max

= 1034 mm

2

b d = 5 x 10

which is less than

-4

x 25 x 250 x 440 = 1375 mm

2

and greater than A

=

smin

m min

b d =

Egyptian Code Solution

x 250 x 440 = 336.11 mm

2

This

implies that the section is adequate

Upon neglecting the compression in the web part below the neutral axis, we have

Part c: d = 400 mm

2

mm

solution of the quadratic equation gives a = 118.5 mm which is greater than t . Therefore, a T-section design is required.

s

For equilibrium,

, hence from

we have

kN

giving

kNm

kNm

Solving the quadratic equation yields a = 182 mm and c = 227.5 mm.

But c

max

= 0.44 d = 0.44 x 400 = 176 mm which is less than c. This implies that compression steel is required, Fig.

 1.33. Here, also kNm

A

sf

= A

s2

2

= 2675 mm

a

max

= 0.80 c

= 140 mm

max

A

s1

= A

Since

smax

= m

max

b d = 5 x 10

-4

kNm

x 25 x 250 x 400 = 1250 mm 2

kNm

which is less than 0.15 for steel 360/520, this implies that

A

s

= 255.56 mm

2

= A

s1

+ A

s2

+ A

s3

= A

smax

+ A

sf

+

Egyptian Code Solution

2

= 1250 + 2675 + 255.56 = 4180.6 mm

.

Upon neglecting the compression in the web part below the neutral axis, we have

= 0.10 A = 410.7 mm or more.

s

2

Example 1.6

2

mm

In a slab-beam floor system, the smallest effective flange width B was found to be 1450 mm, the web width b was 250

mm and the slab thickness was 120 mm, Fig. 1.36a. Design a T-section to resist an ultimate external moment M of 240

kNm. Given: f

u

= 20 N/mm and steel 240/350.

2

cu

Solution:

FIGURE 1.36. Example 1.6.

 Since the effective depth is not given, a reduced flange width is assumed; say . Thus, mm.

That is, an equivalent rectangular section, Fig. 1.36b, can be chosen with B = 580 mm and

r

which results in d = 380 mm. Assume two rows of steel bars (to be checked later).

t = 380.8 + 75 = 455.8 mm; say t = 500 mm

actual d = 500 - 75 = 425 mm

Proceed as in the previous example to calculate A .

s

Assume a £ t

s

a = 46 mm which is less than t

s

For equilibrium, T = C, we have

mm choose 6 f 25 (2950 mm )

2

2

should not be less than 0.10 A , use 3 f 12.

s

FIGURE 1.37. Example 1.6.

1.11 DESIGN OF T AND I SECTIONS USING DESIGN AIDS

Once b and d are known, the design of a T-section simulates that of a rectangular section when

a £

, with b equals

B, Fig. 1.38a. Otherwise, if a >

the flange as shown in Fig 1.38c.

as in Fig. 1.38b, the code allows the neglecting of compression in the web part below

First calculate the ratio

and K

1

from

(1.67)

Then, with the known value of , determine the design table that corresponds (Tables E.1 through E.5). Traverse

vertically to the value and also to value, then horizontally to the K value, and finally obtain the value K to be used. Then, calculate A from

1

2

s

If a >

take the value K

2

that correspond to a =

.

(1.68)

FIGURE 1.38. Design of T and I sections

Example 1.7:

In a slab-beam floor system, the smallest effective flange width B was found to be 1450 mm, the web width b was 250

mm and the slab thickness was 120 mm. Design a T-section to resist an ultimate external moment M of 240 kNm.

u

Given: f

cu

= 20 N/mm and steel 240/350.

2

Solution:

= 580 mm

= 380 mm

Assume two rows of steel bars (to be checked later)

t = 380 + 75 = 455 mm; say t = 500 mm and therefore, actual d = 500 -75 = 425 mm

= and

which results in K = 1.0446

1

Enter Table E.1 and obtain K = 197.3 and a = 0.40 t = 48 mm. Then,