Samer Adeeb » The Principle of Virtual Work
http://sameradeeb.srv.ualberta.ca/variationalprinciples/theprincipleofv
1 of 13
15Jul16 5:04 PM
Samer Adeeb » The Principle of Virtual Work
http://sameradeeb.srv.ualberta.ca/variationalprinciples/theprincipleofv
any point inside the body at static equilibrium satisfy the following equations:
Let
Let
be an arbitrary smooth function that could be viewed as a virtual displacement defined on be the associated strain field defined as:
and in component form:
(1)
( Figure 2).
, and then
the three equations are added together (in other words, if we take the dot product between the equilibrium equations as
When each of the equilibrium equations is multiplied by the corresponding component of the vector function
a vector and the vector ), the following equation is obtained 
:



(2) 

The following equality will be used: 



Setting 
and utilizing the symmetry of 
, Equation 2 can now be written as
:



(3) 

In the next step, Equation 3 is integrated over the domain of 
. Therefore 
:



(4) 

Using the divergence theorem, the first volume integral can be replaced with a surface integral. Therefore, 
:



(5) 

Additionally, the Cauchy stress matrix is related to the external traction vectors on the surface of 
. Therefore, Equation 
5 can be rewritten in the following form

(6) 

Or in a more simple form 
:



(7) 
The left hand side is the external work done by the traction vectors on the surface and the body forces vectors
during a virtual smooth displacement field
. The right hand side is equal to the internal work associated with the
associated virtual strain field . The following are two important observations:
The phrase
Equations 1 and 7 are equivalent. You can derive Equation 1 by reversing the steps above from Equation 7.
is necessary in the virtual work Equation (Equation 7).
2 of 13
15Jul16 5:04 PM
Samer Adeeb » The Principle of Virtual Work
http://sameradeeb.srv.ualberta.ca/variationalprinciples/theprincipleofv
Figure 2. The principle of virtual work in a continuum. (a) Equilibrium position with external forces. (b) Application of an arbitrary differentiable (small) virtual displacement field.
10.1.3 THE PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL WORK FOR AN EULER BERNOULLI BEAM:
The Euler Bernoulli beam is a special example of a continuum. We can either derive the equations from Equation 7 however, we will follow the same procedure above to obtain the virtual work equations for an Euler Bernoulli beam. The equilibrium equation of an Euler Bernoulli beam is given by:
We can assume a virtual smooth displacement field and integrate over the length of the beam. Therefore,
and proceed by multiplying the equilibrium equation by :
By applying integration by parts for the integral on the left hand side of the above equation, we get
By applying integration by parts once more for the integral on the left hand side of the above equation, we get
displacement as shown in Figure 3. The right hand side represents the work done by the external forces during the
application of a virtual smooth displacement field
the bending moment during the application of the virtual displacement field.
The same notes regarding the principle of virtual work for a continuum apply to the Euler Bernoulli beam. The principle of
virtual work equation is equivalent to the equilibrium equation. In addition, the phrase
the principle of virtual work. I.e., the principle states that from an equilibrium position and under all possible virtual displacements, the internal virtual work is equal to the external virtual work
is an essential element of
while the left hand side represents the internal work done by
.
Figure 3. The principle of virtual work in an Euler Bernoulli Beam. (a) Equilibrium position with external forces. (b) Application of an arbitrary differentiable (small) virtual displacement field.
3 of 13
15Jul16 5:04 PM
Samer Adeeb » The Principle of Virtual Work
http://sameradeeb.srv.ualberta.ca/variationalprinciples/theprincipleofv
10.1.4 THE PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL WORK FOR A
TIMOSHENKO BEAM:
Similar to the Euler Bernoulli beam, we will assume a virtual arbitrary and smooth displacement field
to a virtual cross section shear deformation field
in addition
such that the total cross section virtual rotation is given by:
Multiplying the equilibrium equation by
and integrating over the length of the beam yields
Using integration by parts for the left hand side integral,
(9)
Applying the integration by parts to one of the integrals on the left hand side yields
:
Finally, the statement of the virtual work principle has the following form
Where , , , , , , , and are the boundary conditions for the shear, moment, virtual cross section rotation and virtual displacement on ends 1 and 2. The right hand side represents the work done by the external forces during the application of a virtual smooth displacement field and a virtual smooth shear deformation field
while the left hand side represents the internal work done by the bending moment and shear force during the application
of the virtual displacement fields.
The same notes regarding the principle of virtual work for a continuum apply to the Timoshenko beam. The principle of virtual work equation is equivalent to the equilibrium equation. In addition, the phrase is an essential element of the principle of virtual work. I.e., the principle states that from an equilibrium position and under all possible virtual displacements, the internal virtual work is equal to the external virtual work.
10.1.5 APPLICATIONS OF THE PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL
WORK:
In this section, we will present three applications for the principle of virtual work. The first applications is for illustrative
purposes only to show that the principle of virtual work is equivalent to the equilibrium equations. The second application was widely used to calculate deflections for statically determinate structures. It was also widely used in the past to calculate the reactions for statically indeterminate structures. However, the wide use of the computer programs to calculate the reactions and deflections have rendered the second application almost obsolete. The third application is for
finding approximate solutions for continuum mechanics problems. In particular, the majority of the finite element analysis procedure for solving continuum mechanics problems are based on the principle of virtual work.
APPLICATION 1: FINDING THE REACTIONS OF STATICALLY DETERMINATE BEAMS
A statically determinate beam is a beam whose external reactions can be obtained by solving the equilibrium equations
without the need for using the constitutive equations. In case of a plane beam, the equilibrium equations: the sums of the horizontal and vertical forces, separately, are equal to zero, and the sum of moments is equal to zero. For such beams, it will be shown that the principle of virtual work can be used to generate the same equations by simply applying a virtual
displacement field that produces no internal forces. Such a displacement field that produces no internal forces is termed:
“Rigid Body Displacement.” Recalling the principle of virtual work derived above for the Euler Bernoulli beams, if the arbitrary smooth displacement field is such that:
then the internal work done is equal to zero and the statement of the principle of virtual work is reduced to: From an equilibrium position, the work done by the external forces through an arbitrary and smooth displacement field is equal to zero:
4 of 13
15Jul16 5:04 PM
Samer Adeeb » The Principle of Virtual Work
http://sameradeeb.srv.ualberta.ca/variationalprinciples/theprincipleofv
5 of 13
15Jul16 5:04 PM
Samer Adeeb » The Principle of Virtual Work
http://sameradeeb.srv.ualberta.ca/variationalprinciples/theprincipleofv
SOLUTION:
The equilibrium body forces applied to the plate can be obtained using the equilibrium equations:
The plate is in a state of plane stress, so, the problem can be reduced to
. The area vectors for the boundary edges
Therefore,
The virtual displacement vector is:
The gradient of the virtual displacement tensor is:
The associated virtual strain is given by:
The internal virtual work can be calculated as follows:
There are five components for the external virtual work. The first one is the external virtual work due to the external body forces applied to the plate. This component is a volume integral:
The third component is the external virtual work due to the external forces acting on side
. This is a surface integral and
6 of 13
15Jul16 5:04 PM
Samer Adeeb » The Principle of Virtual Work
http://sameradeeb.srv.ualberta.ca/variationalprinciples/theprincipleofv
The fifth component is the external virtual work due to the external forces acting on side
. This is a surface integral and
Therefore, the total external virtual work is:
VIEW MATHEMATICA CODE
EXAMPLE 2: ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE OF THE PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL WORK APPLIED TO AN EULER BERNOULLI BEAM
fixed ends Euler Bernoulli beam is subjected to a distributed load
A
the length, and the moment of inertia for the beam are applies when a virtual parabolic displacement
SOLUTION:
. Assuming that Young’s modulus,
, respectively, verify that the principle of virtual work is applied to the beam.
The principle of virtual work applies to the equilibrium internal forces. So, the first step is to find the internal forces at the state of equilibrium. For this, we will solve the differential equation of equilibrium:
Therefore, the equilibrium displacement of the beam is:
The bending moment and the shearing force equations at equilibrium are:
The external forces acting on the ends of the beam are given by:
Note that the convention for positive end forces is shown in Figure 3. The virtual end displacements and rotations are given by:
Therefore, the internal virtual work is given by:
The external virtual work has three components, the first is the external virtual work due to the distributed load
7 of 13
15Jul16 5:04 PM
Samer Adeeb » The Principle of Virtual Work
http://sameradeeb.srv.ualberta.ca/variationalprinciples/theprincipleofv
The second component is the external virtual work due to the reactions at end 1:
The third component is the external virtual work due to the reactions at end 2:
The total external virtual work is:
VIEW MATHEMATICA CODE
EXAMPLE 3: APPLICATION 1 OF THE PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL WORK
The shown beam has its neutral axis aligned with the equations and then using the principle of virtual work.
axis. Find the reactions
, and
using the equilibrium
Example 3. Virtual Work Principle applied to a statically determinate Euler Bernoulli Beam. (a) Geometry and Loading, (b) Rigid body displacement field.
SOLUTION:
There are three equilibrium equations which can be used to find the three unknown reactions:
Therefore, the three unknown reactions are:
The principle of virtual work can be used by applying a virtual smooth rigid body displacement to the beam. The rigid body displacement will in fact have three unknown variables. Each variable will correspond to an equilibrium of motion. In this example, the virtual vertical displacement field:
and a horizontal displacement equal to
corresponds to moving the beam vertically upwards and will be used to write the equation of equilibrium that states
that the sum of vertical forces is equal to zero.
the equation of equilibrium that states that the sum of the horizontal forces is equal to zero.
the beam around point 1 which will be used to write the equation of equilibrium that states that the sum of moments around point 1 is equal to zero.
corresponds to rotating
. In essence, the rigid body displacement has three variables,
, and
corresponds to moving the beam horizontally and will be used to write
The statement of virtual work of the system is:
so the equation becomes:
Since the virtual displacement field is arbitrary and the statement applies for any choices of the variables
, and
8 of 13
15Jul16 5:04 PM
Samer Adeeb » The Principle of Virtual Work
http://sameradeeb.srv.ualberta.ca/variationalprinciples/theprincipleofv
then, their coefficients are equal to zero. Therefore, the three equations of equilibrium are retrieved:
Therefore, the same reactions are obtained. Note that the chosen virtual displacement field guarantees that the associated internal virtual work is equal to zero.
EXAMPLE 4: APPLICATION 1 OF THE PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL WORK
The shown beam has its neutral axis aligned with the equations and then using the principle of virtual work.
axis. Find the reactions
, and
using the equilibrium
Example 4. Virtual Work Principle in an Euler Bernoulli Cantilever Beam. (a) Geometry and Loading, (b) Rigid body displacement field.
SOLUTION:
There are three equilibrium equations which can be used to find the three unknown reactions:
Therefore, the three unknown reactions are:
The principle of virtual work can be used by applying a virtual smooth rigid body displacement to the beam. The rigid body displacement will in fact have three unknown variables. Each variable will correspond to an equilibrium of motion. In this example, the virtual vertical displacement field:
, corresponds to moving the beam vertically upwards and will be used to write the equation of equilibrium that states
and a horizontal displacement equal to
. In essence, the rigid body displacement has three variables,
, and
that the sum of vertical forces is equal to zero.
the equation of equilibrium that states that the sum of the horizontal forces is equal to zero.
the beam around point 1 which will be used to write the equation of equilibrium that states that the sum of moments around point 1 is equal to zero.
corresponds to moving the beam horizontally and will be used to write
corresponds to rotating
The statement of virtual work of the system is:
After substituting for
and integrating, the above equation can be rearranged to have the following form:
Notice that the displacement field is chosen small enough such that be rearranged to have the following form:
. The above equation can then
Since the virtual displacement field is arbitrary and the statement applies for any choices of the variables then, their coefficients are equal to zero. Therefore, the three equations of equilibrium are retrieved:
, and
Therefore, the same reactions are obtained. Note that the chosen virtual displacement field guarantees that the associated internal virtual work is equal to zero.
EXAMPLE 5: APPLICATION 2 OF THE PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL WORK
9 of 13
15Jul16 5:04 PM
Samer Adeeb » The Principle of Virtual Work
http://sameradeeb.srv.ualberta.ca/variationalprinciples/theprincipleofv
Use the principle of virtual work to find the displacement at the free end of the shown cantilever beam. Assume constant and ignore the shearing force and normal force deformations.
is
Example 5. Virtual Work Principle to find the displacement in a statically determinate Euler Bernoulli Cantilever Beam. (a) Geometry and Loading, (b) Unit load.
SOLUTION:
The bending moment of the structure with the original load (distributed load) is given by the equation:
After removing the loads from the structure and applying a unit load at the point of interest, the bending moment equation
for the structure with the
unit load
is given by the equation:
Applying the statement of virtual work as described above for this application:
Therefore:
EXAMPLE 6: APPLICATION 3 OF THE PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL WORK
Use the principle of virtual work to find an approximate cubic polynomial displacement solution for the shown beam.
Compare with the exact solution for
length, and moment of inertia respectively. Ignore Poisson’s ratio.
and
where
and
are the Young’s modulus, beam’s
Example 6. Geometry, loading and symmetry boundary conditions for an Euler Bernoulli beam.
SOLUTION:
First, we will find the exact displacement shape by solving the differential equation of equilibrium. Because of symmetry, we are going to solve the equation for only half the beam with the boundary conditions shown in the figure.
The constants
10 of 13
15Jul16 5:04 PM
Samer Adeeb » The Principle of Virtual Work
http://sameradeeb.srv.ualberta.ca/variationalprinciples/theprincipleofv
Therefore, the displacement function
is given by:
The following are two important observations about the exact solution:
The exact solution is not differentiable at
since the shear is not continuous in the middle of the beam.
The exact solution is a polynomial of the third degree for each half.
We wish now to find an approximate solution for the displacement. We will force the solution however, to be continuous
and differentiable at of the beam:
by assuming that the approximate solution is a cubic function applied from the whole length
Therefore,
Thus, the approximate displacement shape that would satisfy the boundary conditions has the form:
The associated bending moment diagram in this case has the following form:
In order to apply the principle of virtual work, a virtual displacement needs to be assumed. Since the principle of virtual work applies for any assume virtual displacement, the most general virtual displacement field within the space of possible functions will be assumed. Since we restricted the solutions to be quadratic functions satisfying the boundary conditions, the most general virtual displacement has the form:
and the associated second derivative has the form:
The internal virtual work can be calculated as follows:
work have to be equal. Therefore, we get the following two equations:
Solving the above two equations yields:
Therefore, the best approximate solution that satisfies the virtual work principle is;
11 of 13
15Jul16 5:04 PM
Samer Adeeb » The Principle of Virtual Work
http://sameradeeb.srv.ualberta.ca/variationalprinciples/theprincipleofv
The approximate solution can be compared with the exact solution when
. The plot of
versus
shows that the approximate solution underpredicts the displacement of the structure. In other words, the approximate solution gives a stiffer structure compared to the exact solution.
VIEW MATHEMATICA CODE
PROBLEMS:
1. Use the principle of virtual work to find the reactions for the following statically determinate structures.
2. The shown beams have Young’s modulus Assuming a virtual displacement field
Assuming a virtual displacement field
. Verify that the virtual work principle applies:
where
3. The Cauchy stress distribution in the shown plate is given by:
where
applied to the plate. Find the traction forces on the boundary edges principle of virtual work in the following two cases:
and
are the coordinates inside the plate with units of m. Find the equilibrium body forces vector
of the plate. Verify the
, and
Assuming a virtual displacement field
Assuming a virtual displacement field
LEAVE A REPLY
12 of 13
15Jul16 5:04 PM
Samer Adeeb » The Principle of Virtual Work
http://sameradeeb.srv.ualberta.ca/variationalprinciples/theprincipleofv
13 of 13
15Jul16 5:04 PM
Molto più che documenti.
Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.
Annulla in qualsiasi momento.