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Form No.

6197

"ECDX" EVAPORATIVE COOLED


PACKAGED CHILLERS
INSTALLATION, OPERATION, AND MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
1. GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1 Receiving and Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 Rigging and Moving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1 Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2 Vibration Isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.3 Water Piping Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.4 Electrical Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.5 Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.6 Request for Start-Up Representative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1 System Water Flow Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.2 Seasonal Shut-Down Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.3 Seasonal Start-Up Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 & 5
4. OPERATION & MAINTENANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.1 Initial and Seasonal Start-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2 After 24 Hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.3 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.4 Seasonal Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5. MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.1 Cold Water Sump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.2 Make Up Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.3 Fan Shaft Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.4 Fan Motor Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.5 Locking Collars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.6 Adjustable Motor Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.7 Fan Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.8 Spray Nozzles & Heat Transfer Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.9 Corrosion Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6. COLD WEATHER OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.1 Protection Against Pan Water Freezing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.2 Capacity Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.3 Protection Against Coil Freezing (Model F1000 and VFL Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7. WATER TREATMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7.1 Corrosion and Scale Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7.2 Biological Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

INTRODUCTION
Dunham-Bush, the pioneer in developing and
applying the rotary screw compressors for air
conditioning and refrigeration, introduces the
ECDX line of evaporative cooled packaged

chillers. This new line of packaged chillers


combines the proven rotary screw compressor
technology with evaporative condensers.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1 RECEIVING AND INSPECTION
The unit should be inspected immediately, in the
presence of the carrier's representative, for any
evidence of damage during shipment. Any damage
should be noted on the carrier's delivery receipt before
it is signed. A damage

claim should then be filed by the purchaser against the


delivering carrier as all shipments are made at the
purchaser's risk.

1.2 RIGGING AND MOVING


Each unit has been carefully tested and inspected at the
factory where every precaution was taken to ensure that
it reaches its destination in prefect condition. It is very
important that the installers, movers, and riggers use
the

same care in handling the unit. Chains, cables, or other


moving equipment should be placed to avoid damage to
any part of the unit. For proper method of rigging
consult the Label on the unit.

2. INSTALLATION
2.1 FOUNDATION
Foundations for the ECDX Packaged Chillers must be
level for proper operation of controls. Provisions must
be made for supporting the individual load points. Roof
mounted

units must be supported on adequate steel structures.


If units are located on the ground level, a concrete base
is recommended.

2.2 VIBRATION ISOLATION


Where structure-borne vibration may be a concern, it is
recommended that the unit be mounted on vibration
rubber-in-shear isolators or spring isolators are
available for this unit as optional equipment. If vibration
isolators are

installed, it is also necessary to provide isolation in


chilled water pipes by means of flexible connectors and
in main power supply conduit through use of flexible
conduit.

2.3 WATER PIPING CONNECTIONS


Purging - All closed water systems must be properly
vented so that entrained air can be trapped and bled off
either manually or by automatic vent valves. Air in any
system

will affect chiller performance, cause pump cavitation


and frequently give rise to water hammer or shock
effect, which must be avoided.

2.4 ELECTRICAL WIRING


In connecting power wiring to the unit, the following
precautions should be taken:
!

! Phase sequence to connections L1, L2, L3,


shall be in that order. Check with Amprobe phase
sequence adapter PSA-1 or equivalent.

All field wiring is to be checked for damage and all


terminal connections tested for tightness. Unit
terminal blocks are to be connected with copper
conductors only, and sized per ampacity listed on
unit data plate.

! For minimum circuit ampacity, disconnect switch


size, and fuse size, consult the ECDX catalog. The
unit is provided with circuit protection and running
overload protection.

Connections to unit should match the unit


nameplate in volts, phase, and Hertz. Voltage must
be within +-10% of nameplate value and voltage
imbalance between phases must not exceed 2%.

2.5 CONTROLS
2.5.1 Connections
Controls which are to be field installed should be
connected in accordance with the appropriate wiring
diagram accompanying the unit.
The following
connections should be made where applicable:

2.5.1.1 Connect a set of normally open auxiliary


contacts from the chilled water pump contactor into unit
controls between appropriate terminals on unit wiring
diagrams.

2.5.1.2 Connect chiller water flow switch (if supplied)


in same circuit.

2.5.2 Settings
All controls are factory set, however, operating control
settings are not always applicable under all operating
conditions. For recommended control settings, see
wiring

diagrams accompanying unit. Safety control must be


set to factory recommendations.

2.6 REQUEST FOR START-UP REPRESENTATIVE


After the installation has been completed and checked,
Form 9180 must be filled out and sent to the North
American Service Department of Dunham-Bush, Inc.
This Form is a request for the service of a DunhamBush, Inc. authorized start-up representative to perform
the initial start-up of the Dunham-Bush packaged chiller.
The purchaser will have competent service, and
operating personnel in attendance to assist in the work
involved, and also to be trained in the service and
maintenance of this unit. (During the warranty period,
the manufacturer is responsible for parts only upon
proof of defective workmanship or manufacture).
Following receipt of this signed form, a representative
will be sent to the customer. The installation will be
inspected to determine if it is in compliance with

Dunham-Bush, Inc. requirements, perform the initial


start-up of the installation to determine whether it is in
satisfactory operating condition, and instruct the
specified customer personnel in its operation and
maintenance for the length of time specified in the
purchase contract.
NOTE:
Sump oil heaters should be energized a minimum of 24
hours and the oil sump temperature must be at a
minimum of 100F (38C) prior to arrival of start-up
representative. This will ensure that the oil is warm
enough to vaporize any dissolved refrigerant and that
the oil is within the normal operating temperature range.

WARNING
The compressor(s) should be started initially only under the direct supervision of an Authorized Dunham-Bush, Inc.,
Start-up Representative.

3. OPERATION
3.1 SYSTEM WATER FLOW RATE
The quantity of chilled water being circulated can be
estimated by means of pressure gauges in the water
piping and the manufacturer's pump performance curve.
Two reliable pressure gauges should be used, one
located at the water discharge of the pump and one
located at the pump inlet. The difference in pressure
readings between the two

gauges should then be checked against the


performance curve, thereby indicating the gallons of
water being circulated.
A differential pressure
manometer and chiller pressure drop curves may be
used in place of pressure gauges.

3.2 SEASONAL SHUT-DOWN PROCEDURE


If the unit is to be shutdown for a prolonged period,
close the King valve and operate the compressor down
to 10 psig suction. Turn all power off and close all
system service valves. Tag all valves that have been
closed. Completely drain the chiller and the piping of all
water especially if it is

subject to freezing conditions. Clear out water with


compressed air. NOTE: Draining alone may not be
sufficient. Restart of the unit requires a 24 hour
crankcase warm-up period if the crankcase heaters
have been de-energized during the shutdown period.

3.3 SEASONAL START-UP PROCEDURE


When the unit is to be started up after being shutdown
for a prolonged period, the following steps should be
followed:

3.3.4
Open all valves that were closed and tagged at
seasonal shutdown.

3.3.1
Check
condenser
and
compressor
compartments and remove any accumulated debris.
Brush down the condenser coils if needed.

3.3.5

Start chilled water flow.

3.3.6

Start the chiller.

3.3.7
After approximately 15 minutes of operation,
check the liquid line moisture indicator/sight glass
located after the filter-drier for bubbles or an indication
(color change) of moisture. If bubbles are present, refer
to the section on charging. If there is an indication of
moisture, consult a qualified refrigeration mechanic.

3.3.2
Check electrical panels. Tighten all power and
control terminals.
3.3.3
Close the main disconnect switch, but do not
start the compressor. The unit must be energized for at
least 24 hours prior to start-up in order to warm the
compressor oil sump.

3.3.8
After the system has stabilized and the water
cooler is at the approximate design temperature, the
superheat setting of the expansion valve(s) should be

checked. Normal operating superheat should be 10F.


The maximum suction temperature 75F and the
maximum saturate suction temperature is 50F.

4. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE


4.1 INITIAL AND SEASONAL START-UP
Before initial start-up or after a shutdown period, the
unit should be thoroughly inspected and cleaned:

b.

1. Clean any debris from inlet air screens, fans, eliminators, heat transfer sections, and cold water basin.
2. Drain the cold water sump (with sump strainers in
place) and flush to remove accumulated dirt.

10. Set the float on the make-up valve to shut off the
valve when the float is approximately 1/2" below
the overflow level.

3. Remove, clean, and replace sump strainers.


4. Turn the fan by hand to ensure rotation without
obstruction.

11. On F1000 Industrial Fluid Coolers and C1000


Evaporative Condensers, start the pump and check
for the proper rotation as indicated by the arrow on
the pump cover. On installations where the unit
pump was not furnished by the factory, a globe
valve should be installed in the pump discharge
line and the pump flow rate adjusted to the correct
water flow.

5. Check the locking collar on each fan bearing


assembly and tighten as required.
6. Check and, if necessary, adjust the fan belt tension.
7. Prior to seasonal start-up, lubricate the fan shaft
and motor bearings. The ball bearings are factory
lubricated, but should be re-lubricated if the unit
has been sitting on site for more than a year before
start-up.

12. Inspect spray nozzles and heat transfer section.


13. Start the fan and check for the proper rotation as
indicated by the arrow on the fan housing.

8. Check float-operated make-up valve to be sure it is


operating freely.

14. Check the voltage and current of all three legs of


the fan and pump motors. The current should not
exceed the nameplate rating. After prolonged shutdowns, the motor insulation should be checked
with the megger insulation tester prior to restarting
the motor. To prevent motor overload, do not
operate fan motor without design water flow over
unit.

9. Fill the cold water sump with fresh water to the


overflow level.
a.

Following a shut-down period, where the sump


was
not
completely
drained;
it
is
recommended that an initial shock treatment
of appropriate biocides be administered at
restart-up to eliminate accumulated biological
contaminants.

At initial start-up or before restart-up where the


sump was completely drained; the initial
biocide treatment should be applied at this time
(see Water Treatment section).

15. Check the bleed system to be sure it is fully


functional and the bleed rate has been properly
adjusted prior to putting the unit into operation
(see "Water Treatment").

4.2 AFTER 24 HOURS


After 24 hours of operation under load, the following
services should be performed:
1.

2.
3.
4.

Check the unit for any unusual noise or vibration.

Check the operating water level in the cold water


sump. Adjust if necessary.
Readjust the fan belt tension.
Inspect spray nozzles and heat transfer section.

4.3 OPERATION
During operation, the unit should be inspected, cleaned,
and lubricated on a regular basis. The required services

and recommended frequency for each are summarized


in Table 1 on the following page.

4.4 SEASONAL SHUTDOWN


The following services should be performed when the
unit is to be shutdown for a prolonged period:

4.

Lubricate water shaft and motor bearings, motor


base and motor base adjusting screw.

1.

Drain the cold water sump and all piping that will be
exposed to freezing temperatures.

5.

Close shut-off valve in water make-up line and


drain all exposed make-up piping.

2.

Clean and flush the cold water sump with the sump
strainers in place. Leave the drain open so rain and
melting snow will drain from the unit.

6.

Inspect the protective finish on the unit. Clean and


refinish as required.

3.

Clean the sump strainers and re-install.

TABLE 1. Recommended Maintenance Services


TYPE SERVICE Start-Up
Inspect General Condition of Unit
x
Clean Debris from Unit
x
Clean and Flush Sump
x
Clean Sump Strainer
x
Check and Adjust Sump Water Level
x
Inspect Heat Transfer Section
x
Inspect Spray Nozzles
x
Check and Adjust Fan Belt Tension
x
Check and Adjust Bleed Rate
x
Check Operation of Make-up Valve
x
Check Unit for Unusual Noise or Vibration
x
Check Fan Bearing Locking Collars
x
Check Motor Voltage and Current
x
Lubricate Fan Shaft Bearings
x
Lubricate Fan Motor Bearings
x
Lubricate Motor Base Adjusting Screw
x
Check Fan for Rotation Without Obstruction
x
Check Fan and Pump Motor for Proper
x
Rotation
Drain Sump and Piping
Inspect Protective Finish

Monthly
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

Every Six
Months

Shutdown

Annually

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x

Ref. Page
6
6
6
6
7
9
9
9
11
7
6
8
6
8
8
9
6
6
6
10

WARNING: Before performing any maintenance or inspection, make certain that all power has been disconnected and
locked in the off position.
SAFETY The operation, maintenance, and repair of this
equipment should be undertaken only by personnel
qualified to do so. All such personnel should be
thoroughly familiar with the equipment, the associated
system and controls, and the procedures set forth in
this manual. Proper care, procedures, and tools must
be used in handling, lifting, installing, operating,
maintaining and repairing this equipment to prevent
personal injury and/or property damage.
For the protection of authorized service and
maintenance personnel, each fan and pump motor
associated with this equipment should be installed
with a lockable disconnect switch located within sight
of the cooling tower, evaporative condenser, or fluid
cooler. No service work should be performed on or
near the fans, motors, and drives or inside the unit
without first ensuring the fan and pump motors have
been disconnected and locked out.
All electrical, mechanical, and rotating machinery
constitute a potential hazard, particularly for those not
familiar with its design, construction, and operation.
Accordingly, adequate safeguards (including use of
protective enclosures where necessary) should be
taken with this equipment both to safeguard the public
(including minors) from injury and to prevent damage
to the equipment, its associated system, and the
premises.

WARNING: The PVC eliminators used on some


products are not designed to support the weight of a
person or to be used as a storage or work surface for
any equipment or tools. Use of these plastic
eliminators as a walking, working or storage surface
may result in injury to personnel or damage to
equipment. Units with PVC eliminators should not be
covered with a clear plastic tarpaulin.
Depending upon site conditions, it also may be
necessary to install bottom air inlet screens, ladders,
safety cages, stairways, access platforms, and
handrails and toeboards for the safety and
convenience of authorized service and maintenance
personnel.
At no time should this equipment be operated without
all fan screens, access panels, and access doors in
place.
The recirculating water system may contain
chemicals or biological contaminants including
Legionella, which could be harmful if inhaled or
ingested. Accordingly, personnel who may be exposed
directly to the discharge airstream and the associated
drift mists generated during operation of the water
distribution system and/or fans, or mists produced by
high pressure water jets or compressed air, should
these be used to clean portions or components of the
recirculating water system, should wear respiratory
protection equipment approved for such use by OSHA
and/or local occupational safety and health authorities.

WARRANTIES -- Please refer to the Limitation of Warranties applicable to and in effect at the time of the sale/purchase
of these products.

FREEZE PROTECTION -- These products must be protected by mechanical and operational methods against damage
and/or reduced effectiveness due to possible freeze-up. Please refer to the Cold Weather Operation guidelines (page
10) or contact the local Dunham-Bush representative for recommended protection alternatives.
6

5. MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
5.1 COLD WATER SUMP
The cold water sump should be inspected regularly.
Any trash or debris which may have accumulated in the
sump or on the strainers should be removed.

vary with system thermal load (evaporation rate), the


bleed rate employed and the make-up water supply
pressure. Because the typical winter load is less than
the summer load, the winter evaporation rate is
frequently less than the summer evaporation rate. With
this reduced evaporation rate in winter, the water level
in the cold water sump will increase unless the float is
re-adjusted. The operating water level should be
checked monthly and the float re-adjusted as necessary
to maintain the recommended operating level.

Each month, the entire cold water sump should be


drained, cleaned, and flushed with fresh water to
remove the silt and sediment which normally collects in
the sump during operation. If not removed periodically,
this sediment can become corrosive and cause
deterioration of the protective finish. When flushing the
sump the strainers should be left in place to prevent the
sediment from re-entering the system. After the sump
has been flushed, the strainers should be removed,
cleaned, and replaced before refilling the sump with
fresh water.

The water level in the sump of equipment designed for


remote sump operation is a function of the circulating
water flow rate, water outlet connection size, quantity
and location, and outlet piping size and configuration.
The remote sump unit is supplied without a water makeup assembly and the sump operating level during
remote sump operation is not adjustable.

CAUTION: Do not use acid to clean the strainers.


The operating water level in the cold water sump will

5.2 MAKE-UP VALVE


A float operated water make-up assembly is furnished
as standard equipment on all Series V and Low Profile
Series V equipment unless the unit has been ordered
with the optional electric water level control package or
for remote sump application. It is located inside the unit
sump within easy reach from the access door at the
connection end of each unit.

thermal load and with average city water pressure (15 to


50 psig) at the valve, this setting should produce the
operating water levels stated in Table 2. It should be
noted that if the thermal load is less than the design
load at the time of unit start-up, this procedure may
produce operating levels greater than that shown. It
may be necessary to re-adjust the float in order to attain
the recommended operating level. The unit sump
should be closely monitored and water level adjusted as
necessary during the first 24 hours of operation.

The standard make-up assembly (see Figure 1) consists


of a bronze make-up valve connected to a float arm
assembly and actuated by a large diameter polystyrene
filled plastic float. The float is mounted on an all-thread
rod which is held in place by wing nuts. The operating
water level in the cold water sump can be adjusted by
repositioning the float and all-thread rod using the wing
nuts provided.

TABLE 2. Operating Water Level


MODEL NO.
ECDX45-260

OPERATING
HEIGHT (measured
from pan bottom)
5 1/2 "

As an option, an electric water level control package is


available in lieu of the above described mechanical
make-up assembly. The package consists of a probetype liquid level control assembly and a slow closing
solenoid valve. Stainless steel electrodes, factory set at
predetermined lengths, extend from a NEMA 4 electrode
holder into the cold water sump. These electrodes
should be periodically wiped clean to prevent
accumulations of scale, corrosion, sludge or biological
growth from interfering with the electrical circuit, with
the electric water level control package. The water level
is maintained at the recommended operating level
regardless of the system thermal load; therefore, it is
not necessary nor is it recommended that the operating
level be adjusted. During initial and seasonal start-up,
the probe-type level control assembly should be
bypassed to fill the cold water sump to approximately
" below the overflow connection.

The make-up assembly should be inspected monthly


and adjusted as necessary. The valve itself should be
inspected annually for leakage and the valve seat
replaced if necessary.

Unit operation at the recommended water level will


ensure that the unit sump contains sufficient water
volume to prevent air entrainment in the circulating
pump during system start-up and to provide sufficient
excess sump capacity to accept the total system pulldown volume. The total system pull-down volume is the
quantity of water suspended in the tower during pump
operation plus that contained in the water distribution
system, external piping, and any heat exchangers which
could drain to the lower sump when the circulating
pump is shut down.

The make-up water supply pressure should be


maintained between 15 and 50 psig for proper operation
of the valve.
To make the initial sump water level setting, adjust the
wing nuts so that the make-up valve is completely
closed when the water level in the cold water sump is
1/2" below the overflow connection. Under design
7

5.3 FAN SHAFT BEARINGS


The fan shaft is supported at each end by ball bearings
(see Figure 2), each equipped with a lubrication fitting

and locking collar.

5.3.1 Ball Bearings


Under normal operating conditions, the bearings should
be greased every 2,000 operating hours or at least every
six months. The bearings should also be greased at
seasonal start-up and shutdown. Lubricate the bearings
only with one of the following water resistant inhibited
greases which are good for ambient temperatures
ranging from -65E
EF to 250E
EF.
American
Exxon
Shell
Mobil
Chevron
Keystone

- Rycon Premium #3
- Beacon #325
- Aeroshell #7
- Mobilgrease #28
- SRI #3
- 84 EP Light

The bearings should be lubricated only with a hand


grease gun. Do not use high pressure grease guns
since they may rupture the bearing seals. When
lubricating, purge the old grease from the bearing by
gradually adding grease until a bead of new grease
appears at the seal.

Figure 2 -- Ball Bearing

Figure 3 -- Sleeve Bearing

5.3.2 Sleeve Bearings


Prior to start-up and during the first week of operation,
the bearing oil cup must be refilled several times with
an industrial-type mineral oil (see Table 3) to saturate
the felt wick in the bearing reservoir. After the initial
start-up, fill the bearing oil cup every 1,000 operating
hours or at least every six months. When ambient
temperatures below 0E
EF are expected, a light oil must be
used. With such light oils, the bearing oil cup should be
checked and refilled several times during the first
several hours of operation until the bearings reach
operating temperature.

TABLE 2. Sleeve Bearing Lubricants


TEMP AMBIENT

DUNHAM-BUSH

EF to 110E
EF
70E

TEXACO

EXXON

Regal R & O 320

Teresstic 220

Regal R & O 150

Teresstic 100

#582628PI
30E
EF to 70E
EF
5E
EF to 30E
EF

Regal R & O 32
#58267PI

-25E
EF to 5E
EF

CAUTION: Do not use oils containing detergents for


bearing lubrication. Detergent oils will remove the
graphite in the bearing sleeve and cause bearing failure.
Also, do not disturb bearing alignment by tightening
bearing cap adjustment on a new unit as they are torque
adjusted at the factory.

Capella

32

Teresstic

32

5.4 FAN MOTOR BEARINGS


All ODP and TEFC Fan Motors have re-greasable
bearings. The motor bearings should be lubricated as
recommended in the motor manufacturer's Operating
Instructions which

are attached to the motor when the equipment ships


from the factory.

5.5 LOCKING COLLARS


Each eccentric locking collar should be checked every
six months to ensure that the inner bearing race is
secured to the fan shaft. The locking collar can be set
using the following procedure (see Figure 4):
1.

Loosen the set screw.

2.

Using a drift pin or centerpunch, tap the collar (in


the hole provided) tangentially in the direction of
rotation while holding the shaft.

3.

Re-tighten the set screw.

5.6 ADJUSTABLE MOTOR BASE


The motor base slides and adjusting screw (see Figure
5) should be coated twice a year using a good quality
corrosion inhibiting grease, such as one of those
recommended for lubricating the fan shaft bearings.

5.7 FAN DRIVES


The fan belt should be checked and adjusted every
month. To properly adjust the belt tension, position the
fan motor so that a single belt will deflect " when
moderate pressure of one finger is applied midway
between the sheaves. The position of the fan motor can
be changed:
1.

Loosen locking nut (see Figure 5).

2.

Rotate adjusting nut


a. to loosen belt tension, turn clockwise (on
models ECDX45-260, turn counterclockwise)
b. to tighten belt tension, turn counterclockwise
(on models ECDX45-260, turn clockwise).

3.

Tighten locking nut -- failure to do so may result in


the motor base vibrating free; hence, loosening the
belt tension.

The drive alignment should be checked annually to


ensure maximum belt life. This can be done by placing
a straight edge across both sheaves as shown in Figure
6.
When the drive is properly aligned, the straight edge will
contact all four points as indicated. If realignment is
necessary, loosen the motor sheave and align it with the
fan sheave. Allow approximately " for draw-up as the
motor sheave is pulled tight on the bushing; then retighten the bushing screw.

NOTE: There should be no "chirp" or "squeal" when the


fan motor is started.

5.8 SPRAY NOZZLES AND HEAT TRANSFER SECTION


The spray nozzles and heat transfer section should be
inspected and cleaned each month. The inspection
procedure is as follows:
1.

Shut off the fan, but leave the pump running.

2.

Remove the eliminators.

3.

Check to see if the nozzles are producing the spray


pattern shown in Figure 7a for cooling towers or 7b
for industrial fluid coolers and evaporative
condensers.

4.

Clean any nozzles which are clogged. If necessary,


the nozzle and rubber grommet may be removed for
cleaning.

5.

Inspect the coil or wet deck surface. Any corrosion,


damage, or obstructions must be corrected.

6.

Some ECDX units are provided with an extended


surface coil. During the winter season, when the
ambient temperature is well below design, units
with this coil can operate with the spray pump off.
The coil is designed for seasonal dry operation
followed by seasonal wet operation, and not for
frequent cycling of the spray pump. Frequent spray
pump cycling may lead to excessive scale buildup.

NOTE: Do not use steam or high pressure water to


clean cooling tower wet deck surface other than steel.

5.9 CORROSION PROTECTION


The ECDX evaporative coils are constructed entirely of
corrosion resistant materials. The wet deck surface and
the eliminators of the ECDX are made of polyvinyl
chloride (PVC) which requires no protection against rot,
decay, rust or biological attack. The coil of the ECDX is
constructed of

all prime surface steel and hot-dip galvanized after


fabrication. The balance of the construction in all units
is either heavy gauge G210* galvanized steel with a
paint finish or the optional BALTIBOND Corrosion
Protection System.

5.9.1 G210* Galvanized Steel


The standard ECDX evaporative coils are constructed of
G210 hot-dip galvanized steel.

Inspect the inside of the tower for blemishes or


corrosion on the galvanized steel. Affected areas
should be thoroughly wire brushed and recoated with
ZRC (zinc-rich compound).

The exterior of the cooling tower is given a paint finish


after fabrication. These units should be inspected
annually.

ZRC is available from your local B.A.C. Representative.

5.9.2 BALTIBOND Corrosion Protection System


The optional ECDX evaporative coils are constructed of
G210 hot-dip galvanized steel, protected with the
BALTIBOND Corrosion Protection System. Scratches
and scrapes on parts which do not require extraordinary

corrosion protection can be touched up with a repair kit.


In the unlikely event the damage is more extensive than
simple scratches or dents, contact your local DunhamBush Representative.

*Units manufactured in Canada will be constructed of the metric equivalent, Z600 galvanized steel.

10

6. COLD WEATHER OPERATION


ECDX evaporative coils can be operated in sub-freezing
ambient conditions provided the proper measures are
taken:
1.

Protection against pan water freezing when the unit


is idle.

2.

Capacity control to prevent ice formation in heat


transfer sections during operation.

3.

Protection against coil freezing (F1000 and VCL


Industrial Fluid Coolers).

Cold weather applications should be reviewed with the


Dunham-Bush Representative in your area to ensure
that the unit selection, location, control, and
accessories are adequate to ensure reliable operation.
Listed below are general guidelines which should be
followed to minimize the possibility of freeze-up.

6.1 PROTECTION AGAINST PAN WATER FREEZING


When the unit is shutdown and exposed to sub-freezing
ambient temperatures, the pan water may freeze. A
remote sump located in a heated indoor area is a
desirable method of freeze protection. Alternatively,
pan heaters (electric immersion heaters, steam coil, or
hot water coil) can be

used to maintain the pan water at a minimum


temperature of 40E
EF. In addition to protecting the cold
water basin, all exposed water piping including pump
piping below the overflow level and makeup water lines
should be traced with electrical heater tape and
insulated.

6.2 CAPACITY CONTROL


with the ENERGY-MISER Fan System should also have
a 15-second time delay during the switch down from
high to low speed to avoid overloads on the lower
horsepower motor.

It is necessary to prevent the recirculating water from


approaching freezing conditions when the unit is
operating under load. Capacity control on centrifugal
fan units may be achieved through fan cycling, capacity
control dampers, the ENERGY-MISER Fan System, or
two-speed motors. Capacity control dampers offer the
greatest protection and should be used for close
temperature control.

Please note that capacity control dampers allow the unit


to operate longer and with closer control than the
ENERGY-MISER Fan System, two-speed motors, and/or
fan cycling. The use of a modulating by-pass is not a
recommended method of capacity control.

Units with two-speed motors should have a 15-second


time delay during switch down from high to low speed
to avoid overloads on the low speed windings of the
motor. Units

6.3 PROTECTION AGAINST COIL FREEZING (Model F1000 and VFL Only)
emergency method of freeze protection if the coil is not
protected by an antifreeze solution. The local DunhamBush Representative should be consulted for guidelines
on the installation of an emergency coil drain system.

If the process load is extremely light or shut off, it may


be necessary to apply an auxiliary heat load to the
circulating fluid to maintain the fluid at 50E
EF when
freezing conditions exist.* This can be added as a low
ambient control option on the ECDX.

*For evaporative chilling applications only, the leaving


fluid temperature can be maintained as low as 45EF.
Consult the local Dunham-Bush Representative for
necessary precautions.

Draining the coil is not recommended as a normal


method of freeze protection.
Frequent draining
promotes corrosion inside the coil tubes. However,
draining is acceptable as an

7. WATER TREATMENT
7.1 CORROSION AND SCALE CONTROL
In cooling towers, cooling is accomplished by
evaporation of a portion of the process water as it flows
through the tower. As this water evaporates, the
impurities originally present remain in the recirculating
water. The concentration of the dissolved solids
increases rapidly and can reach unacceptable levels. In
addition, airborne impurities are often introduced into
the recirculating water, intensifying the problem. If
these impurities and contaminates are not effectively
controlled, they can cause scaling, corrosion, and
sludge accumulations which reduce heat transfer
efficiency and increase system operating costs.

The degree to which dissolved solids and other


impurities build up in the recirculating water may be
defined as the cycles of concentration. Specifically,
cycles of concen-tration is the ratio of dissolved solids
(for example:
TDS, chlorides, sulfates) in the
recirculating water to dissolved solids in the make-up
water.
For optimal heat transfer efficiency and
maximum equipment life, the cycles of concentration
should be controlled such that the recirculating water is
maintained within the guidelines listed below:

11

Circulating Water Quality Guidelines

The required continuous bleed rate may be calculated


by the formula.

BALTIBOND
Corrosion
Protection System

G210
Galvanized
Steel*

6.5 to 9.0

7.0 to 9.0-

Hardness as CaCO3

30 to 500 ppm

30 to 500 ppm

Alkalinity as CaCO3

500 ppm max.

500 ppm max.

Total Dissolved Solids

1200 ppm max.

1000 ppm max.

Chlorides

250 ppm msx.

125 ppm max.

Sulfates

250 ppm max.

125 ppm max.

pH

Evaporation Rate
Bleed Rate = Number of Cycles of Concentration - 1
The evaporation rate can be determined by one of the
following:

In order to control the cycles of concentration such that


the above guidelines are maintained, it will be
necessary to "bleed" or "blowdown" a small amount of
recirculating water from the system. This "bleed" water
is replenished with fresh make-up water, thereby
limiting the build-up of impurities.

1.

The evaporation rate is approximately 2 GPM per 1


million BTU/HR of heat rejection.

2.

The evaporation rate is approximately 3 GPM per


100 tons of refrigeration.

3.

Evaporation Rate = Water Flow Rate x Range x


.001.

Example: At a flow rate of 900 GPM and a cooling range


of 10E
EF, the evaporation rate is 9 GPM (900 GPM x 10E
EF
x .001 = 9 GPM).
If the site conditions are such that constant bleedoff will
not control scale or corrosion and maintain the water
quality within the guidelines, chemical treatment may be
necessary. If a chemical water treatment program is
used, it must meet the following requirements:

Typically the bleed is accomplished automatically


through a solenoid valve controlled by a conductivity
meter. The conductivity meter set point is the water
conductivity at the desired cycles of concentration and
should be determined by a competent water treatment
expert. (Note: the solenoid valve and conductivity
meter must be supplied by others.) Alternatively a
bleed line with a valve can be used to continuously
bleed from the system. (Note: the bleed line and valve
must be supplied by others.) In this arrangement, the
rate of bleed can be adjusted using the valve in the
bleed line and measured by filling a container of known
volume while noting the time period. The bleed rate and
water quality should be periodically checked to ensure
that adequate control of the water quality is being
maintained.
* Units manufactured in Canada will be constructed of
the metric equivalent, Z600 galvanized steel.
- Units having G210 galvanized steel construction and
a circulating water pH of 8.3 or higher will require
periodic passivization of the galvanized steel to
prevent "white rust", the accumulation of white, waxy,
non-protective zinc corrosion products on galvanized
steel surfaces.

1.

The chemicals must be compatible with galvanized


(zinc coated) steel as well as all other materials
used in the system (pipe, heat exchanger, etc.).

2.

Chemicals to inhibit scale and corrosion should be


added to the recirculating water by an automatic
feed system on a continuously metered basis. This
will prevent localized high concentrations of
chemicals which may cause corrosion. It is
recommended that the chemicals be fed into the
system at the discharge of the recirculating pump.
They should not be batch fed directly into the cold
water sump.

3.

Acid water treatment is not recommended unless


the unit(s) have been furnished with the
BALTIBOND Corrosion Protection System or are
constructed of stainless steel -- in which cases
acid treatment can be used provided the
requirements of paragraph 1 and 2 above are
maintained.

7.2 BIOLOGICAL CONTROL


Bleed-off with or without chemical treatment for scale
and corrosion control is not adequate for control of
biological contamination. The growth of algae, slimes,
and other micro-organisms, if unchecked, will reduce
system efficiency and may contribute to the growth of
potentially harmful micro-organisms, including
Legionella, in the recirculating water system.

Accordingly, a treatment program specifically designed


to address biological control should be initiated when
the system is first filled with water and administered on
a regular basis thereafter in accordance with the
supplier's instructions.
For specific recommendations on treatment for scale,
corrosion, or biological control, consult a competent
water treatment supplier.

12