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LTE for Public Safety

Rainer Liebhart
Nokia Networks
October 15, 2015

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Agenda

Why LTE for Public Safety?


Deployment aspects
Devices and Applications
3GPP Release 12
3GPP Release 13
Key takeaways

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Why LTE for Public Safety

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Todays Public Safety networks


Public Safety (PubS, PS) networks provide communication services to entities
such as police, fire fighters, civil defense or paramedic services

These networks can also be used by commercially operated security firms e.g.
at airports, ports, campus areas
Todays networks are operating in certain frequency bands, providing special
features like walkie-talkie, relay and direct communication
Digital PubS systems until today are based on two incompatible standards:
APCO(*) P.25 in the US and ANZ, Brazil, India, Russia, Singapore
TETRA in Europe and more than 60 other countries
(*) APCO: Association of Public Safety Communications Officials / TETRA: Terrestrial Trunked Radio

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History
Operators/agencies running P.25 or TETRA networks were attracted by LTE data rates
and lower costs for devices and network equipment compared to TETRA/P.25 and the
fact that LTE can potentially been operated in any frequency band (more than 40 bands
defined for LTE so far)
The US administration in 2012 were first to demand an LTE based, country wide first
responder network and provided $7 B to start this activity
The UK was next to decide as their TETRA based licenses run out middle of this decade
France and Netherlands are also driving standards in 3GPP, other countries are still
waiting as their licenses for TETRA system only end in the next decade
South Korea is very demanding to roll-out a LTE based PS network latest at 2018 (or
already in 2017)

German government is looking into capabilities of LTE but not planning to replace TETRA
in short-time as a budget of 3.6 B for the full runtime of BOS Net-project until 2020
was granted in the past
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Facts about LTE and P25/TETRA


LTE is the de-facto mobile broadband standard
-

Global Mobile Suppliers Association (GSA) is listing 393


deployed LTE networks in 138 countries
Nearly 2919 LTE capable devices available
497 Million LTE subscriptions
755 million connections worldwide as of Q2 2015

Economies of scale
-

APCO P.25 and TETRA address small markets with few


suppliers only
Handheld prices significantly higher than for LTE
smartphones

LTE is the current mobile broadband technology


-

Peak DL rates up to 300 Mbit/s, UL rates up to 75 Mbit/s


TETRA provides 7.2 kbit/s data rate per time slot (4 slots
can be combined), P.25 offers even less
New versions of TETRA support rates up to 691 kbit/s

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)


3GPP (http://www.3gpp.org) is a joint
international standardization initiative between
North American (ATIS), European (ETSI) and
Asian organizations (ARIB and TTC in Japan, TTA
in Korea and CCSA in China)
Established in December 1998 to specify the
3rd generation Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS)
3GPP is organized in so called Working Groups
New features are specified in Releases (duration
typically 1 years),
Release 8 (begin 2008) was the starting point
for the development of LTE
The next generation of mobile networks
(working title 5G) is already at the horizon

LTE for Public Safety in 3GPP (http://www.3gpp.org)


Exploration

3GPP Rel-12

3GPP SA1
2012

3GPP SA2
2013

Rel-13 and beyond

3GPP CTx, RANx


2014

Rel-13
2015

2016

Rel-12 content:
1. Group Communication using LTE
2. Device to Device communication (also called Proximity Services)
Rel-13 content:
1. Mission Critical Push To Talk
2. MBMS enhancements
3. ProSe extensions
4. Isolated E-UTRAN Operation for Public Safety
Rel-14 content:
1. Mission Critical Video
2. Mission Critical Data

Rel-12
finalized by
03/15
Rel-13
Final
completion
planned for
03/16

Deployment aspects

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LTE network principle overview


OSS, BSS

EPC/IMS

Operator services

HSS/SPR
MGCF

VoLTE
Management

Charging
PCRF
CSCF

S/P-GW

MME

Cell site

Messaging
BM-SC

MBMS-GW

DNS

FW

Internet

eNodeB

Cell site
IP backhaul
eNodeB

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IP backbone

Intranet

Vdeo

Possible deployment options


Public safety
services

Public safety
services

Public safety
services

AS

Interconnection
network

HSS

HSS
S/PGW

MME

eNB

Shared
spectrum

HSS

AS,
IMS,
PCRF

MME

S/PGW

eNB

Shared
spectrum

MME
S/PGW
MME

eNB

AS,
IMS,
PCRF

S/PGW

Shared or
dedicated
spectrum

Mobile operator

Mobile operator

Mobile operator

Public safety
OTT

Hosted
public safety

RAN sharing for


public safety

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HSS

MME

eNB

AS,
IMS,
PCRF

S/PGW

dedicated
spectrum

Dedicated LTE
network for
public safety

Devices and Applications

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Public Safety Devices for wide range of different LTE bands


Tens of ruggedized (MIL-STD-810G & IP6x) LTE devices, Jan 2015

Handheld

Tablets

Notebooks
Vehicle
USBmodems/
Modules
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MIL-STD-810G US Military standard, Environmental Engineering Considerations and Laboratory Tests .


Note: typically consumer ruggedized devices are not fully compliant
IP Code International protection marking. Solid particle and liquid ingress protection

New Revolutionary M2M Wearable

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Public Safety Applications Categories


Enhanced PS mission execution with high performance LTE

Person to
person & group
communication

Voice, Video, Picture, Text


Individual, Group, Dispatch
Half-duplex PTT, full-duplex voice
Legacy system interworking (TETRA,
P25, Analog)

Location

Location awareness
Tracking of individuals & equipment
Guiding and directions (navigator)
3D & indoor location

Control room
applications

Dispatcher Applications
Dispatcher interface
Application O&M

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Surveillance
and
monitoring

Database

Situation awareness, augmented reality


Voice, Video, Picture
Ambient listening, body camera
Sensor readings
Smoke, heat, sound (e.g. gunshot),
movement, humidity, biometrics,
dangerous substances, etc.
Database lookup, reporting
Crime registers, license registers,
medical records, tax records, etc.
Fingerprint reading, facial recognition,
license plate reading

Group Communication over LTE (GCSE_LTE)

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Group Communication over LTE consists of following building blocks


MBMS Delivery uses the broadcast mode of 3GPPs MBMS
feature for delivery of downlink group communication media
to many users at the same time

Off Network

Unicast Delivery refers to the re-use of normal EPS bearers


for communication between UE and Application Server (GCS
AS)
Service Continuity to allow the UE to switch between MBMS
and Unicast Delivery
Proximity Services to allow for out of coverage based group
communication

On Network

GCSE solution overview


Main components of GCSE:

Broadcast via standardized and secured MB2


interface

Unicast via SGi interface

GCS AS (de-)activates, modifies MBMS bearers


over MB2-C and is maintaining EPS sessions for
Unicast Delivery via Rx

GC1 application layer signalling between GCS


AS and UE to be standardized as part of Rel-13
MCPTT

GCS AS delivers DL data to a group of UEs


either using Unicast Delivery or MBMS Delivery
or both simultaneously

GCS AS receives UL data from the UE via


unicast bearers

GCS AS controls service continuity between


Unicast and MBMS Delivery for a UE

GC1

Rx
PCRF
PCRF

HSS
HSS
SGi
MME
MME

S/P - GW
S/P-GW

GCS AS

Application Domain

Unicast Delivery
Unicast Delivery

MB2-C
eNodeB

MB2-U
MCE

MBMS
MBMSGW
GW BM-SC

MBMS Delivery
MBSFN
area

EUTRA
cell

AS

New QCI values for Public Safety


-

To allow for low E2E latency (<= 150 ms), high scheduling priority in E-UTRAN and optimal radio
utilization, i.e. cope with short talk bursts followed by long silence periods, 3GPP defined a set of
new QoS Class Identifier (QCI) values for GCSE.
These QCI values can be used I case of Unicast Delivery and MBMS Delivery
QCI

Resource Type

(Scheduling) Priority
Level

Packet Delay Budget


(PDB)

Packet Error
Loss Rate

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GBR

0.7 (+)

75ms

10-2

Mission Critical user plane PTT


voice (e.g. MCPTT)

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GBR

100 ms

10-2

Non-Mission-Critical user plane


Push To Talk voice

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Non-GBR

0.5 (+)

60 ms

10-6

Mission Critical delay sensitive


signalling (e.g. MCPTT signalling)

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Non-GBR

5.5

200 ms

10-6

Mission critical data (e.g. Email,


chat, ftp, file sharing, etc.)

(+) Note that up to Rel-12 the highest priority level was 1 for the IMS signalling bearer.

Example Services

Switch from MBMS to Unicast based on UE measurements


Service Continuity allows the UE to continue
receiving group communication media from the
GCS AS whenever MBMS Delivery becomes
unavailable (e.g. UE moves out of MBSFN area)
Based on decreasing radio link quality, UE can
inform GCS AS to establish a unicast bearer
This scenario is called Make before Break as a
unicast bearer is established before the UE is
unable to receive data via MBMS Delivery
A Break before Make scenario is assumed
when the reception of data via MBMS Delivery is
lost before Unicast Delivery is successfully
established

Proximity Services (ProSe) a.k.a. D2D

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Proximity Services for Public Safety


Introduction

3GPP proximity services


Direct Discovery:
Ability for a device to discover
other devices in its proximity
using E-UTRA direct radio
signals without using the
network infrastructure
Direct Communication:
Ability to communicate
between two or more devices
in proximity via E-UTRA radio
technology bypassing the
mobile network

3GPP Direct discovery

D2D discovery at unparalleled


scale and capacity (~1000
devices)
Less network signaling and
lower UE power consumption
Public safety services and
Consumer services
Proximity triggered
communication with normal
LTE or WiFi

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3GPP Direct
communication

LTE direct communication for


public safety UEs
Enables group (1 to - many)
communication directly
between UEs
Supported in network
coverage and out of network
coverage

<Change information classification in footer>

ProSe Direct Discovery - Overview

ProSe-enabled UEs to discover


other ProSe-enabled UE(s) in
its proximity without using the
network
ProSe Direct Discovery can be
a standalone service to
provide information for
applications (e.g. find a taxi
nearby)
Direct Discovery is not needed
for Public Safety Direct
Communication

Discovery Modes:
Open (supported in Rel-12)
no explicit permission
needed from the UE that is
being discovered

E.g.: Discovering the


nearby friends

Discovery via direct radio link


Using E-UTRA radio signals

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E.g.: Discovering the


nearby ATM(s)

Restricted (moved to Rel13) explicit permission


needed from the UE that is
being discovered

Discovery models:
Model A (I am here)
(supported in Rel-12) - the
UE announces its presence
to other UE(s)

UE(s) that announce are


called announcing UE(s)
UE(s) that monitor are
called monitoring UE(s)

Model B (who is there?


Are you there?) (moved to
Rel-13) - the UE tries to
discover other UE(s) by
sending a request containing
certain information.

ProSe Direct Communication - Overview


1-to-many (in coverage)
communication

- Direct Communication means communication between


two or more devices in proximity via LTE radio technology
bypassing the mobile network
- Two communication modes considered: network
independent and network dependent direct
communication
- Network independent direct communication does not
require any network assistance, communication is
performed by using information locally available at the
UE(s) (pre-configured)
- Network dependent direct communication always requires
network assistance to authorize the connection
- Direct communication In- and out- of E-UTRA coverage
scenarios are supported

1-to-many (out of coverage)


communication

ProSe Enhancements
Release 13

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ProSe Enhancements Release 13


- UE to Network Relays for Public Safety use
- Priority (QoS) support for ProSe Direct Communication
- Restricted ProSe Direct Discovery for non-Public Safety
- Support for Model B of Direct Discovery for all use cases (i.e. open and restricted
discovery)
- Enhancements to the procedures for open ProSe Direct Discovery

- Enhancements to support proximity estimations, e.g. how near or how far a discovered
UE is from the discovering UE for introducing additional range classes

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UE-Network Relays for Public Safety


-

Relay UE is connected to the network and provides network connection to out-of coverage UEs
(Remote UEs)

A Remote UE can discover the Relay UE using Relay Discovery


-

Similar to ProSe Direct Discovery, can also be used out-of coverage

Remote UEs can learn what type of service can be obtained via the Relay based on Relay Service Code(s) advertised
by the Relay UE

One-to-one direct communication is used between the Remote UE and Relay UE

The Relay UE acts as IP level router towards the Remote UEs

Remote UE

P-GW
Relay UE
Remote UE
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eNB

S-GW

EPC

App Server

Mission Critical Push To Talk (MCPTT)


Release 13

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MCPTT over LTE

MCPTT mimics the behavior of Push to Talk (PTT)


services provided by legacy systems like TETRA and P.25

Two or more users can engage in communication

Users have to request for permission to transmit,


traditionally by pressing a button on their handset

Only one user can talk at a certain time, all others are
just listeners

MCPTT allows a user e.g. to register, join and leave group


communication, request the floor to speak, manage
group settings, create groups based on permission

MCPTT supports distribution of TMGIs, security keys,


notification of current cell to the Application Server

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LTE

EPC

AppLayer

MCPTT Group Call

MCPTT
AS/media
handler

If session has not been setup at group affiliation


time, UE-1 sends INVITE at MCPTT call setup,
and the response will contain the details of the
media interface

If group affiliation includes session setup from


UE-1 to MCPTT, then floor control uplink
signalling is carried out directly using unicast
media

Group downlink may be sent over multicast


interface (shown right hand side) or unicast
interface

SIP
media
IMS

RAN , EPC

BM-SC
eMBMS

UE-1
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Floor
control

UE-2

UE-3

Isolated E-UTRAN Operation for Public Safety


(IOPS)
Release 13

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IOPS - general overview


IOPS provides means to operate a E-UTRAN without or with
limited backhaul connection to the core

eNB
eNB

It should be possible to create a local serving radio access


network without backhaul connections

IOPS also aims to address a scenario where a fixed or


nomadic set of eNBs (NeNB) with a (non-ideal) limited
bandwidth backhaul is used
The Isolated E-UTRAN may comprise a single or multiple
eNBs, a single or multiple NeNBs, or a mixed group of eNBs
and NeNBs

eNB

NeNB

eNB

E-UTRAN

eNB

Isolated E-UTRAN

Backhaul

P-GW

PCRF
S-GW
MME

HSS

Macro EPC
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IOPS Rel-13
Only the no backhaul scenario is supported

The solution is that a Local EPC (local MME, SGW/PGW etc functions) is deployed with
the eNB (Network In the Box)
In order to restrict the access of the eNB operating in IOPS mode for Public Safety UEs a
special PLMN ID is advertised
The assumption is that UE uses separate credentials (on different USIM applications)
Local EPC

Local App Server

Local
SGW/PGW
eNB

Local HSS
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Local MME

Take away LTE for Public Safety

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Key Takeaways
LTE for Public Safety

Unlocks new revenue opportunities for vendors and


operators

1
Possible broad range of deployment scenarios (with
2 dedicated or shared spectrum)
Synergies by re-use of commercial LTE networks,
3 economy of scale factor

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Thank You!
Any questions???
For more details, please refer to:

http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1118829867,subjectCd-EEJ0.html

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