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GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION Electronics&CommunicationEngineering Fifth Edition R. K. Kanodia

Electronics&CommunicationEngineering

Fifth Edition

R. K. Kanodia

B.Tech.

NODIA & COMAPNY

JAIPUR

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GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia MRP 400.00 Price 550.00 www.gatehelp.com
GATE EC BY RK Kanodia MRP 400.00 Price 550.00 www.gatehelp.com
MRP 400.00
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MRP 400.00

MRP 400.00
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Price 550.00

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GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

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GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

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GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia
GATE EC BY RK Kanodia
GATE EC BY RK Kanodia
GATE EC BY RK Kanodia
GATE EC BY RK Kanodia
GATE EC BY RK Kanodia
GATE EC BY RK Kanodia
GATE EC BY RK Kanodia
GATE EC BY RK Kanodia
GATE EC BY RK Kanodia
GATE EC BY RK Kanodia
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GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia
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GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

CHAPTER

1.1

BASIC CONCEPTS

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1.1 BASIC CONCEPTS 1. A solid copper sphere, 10 cm
GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1.1 BASIC CONCEPTS 1. A solid copper sphere, 10 cm
1.
1.

A solid copper sphere, 10 cm in diameter is deprived

of 10 20 electrons by a charging scheme. The charge on the sphere is

(A)

160.2 C

(B)

160.2

C

(C)

16.02 C

(D) 16.02

C

A lightning bolt carrying 15,000 A lasts for 100 s. If s. If

the lightning strikes an airplane flying at 2 km, the charge deposited on the plane is

(A)

(C)

13.33 C 1500 C

(B) 75 C (D) 1.5 C

3.
3.

If

120 C

of

charge

passes

through

an

electric

conductor in 60 sec, the current in the conductor is

(A)

0.5 A

(B) 2 A

(C)

3.33 mA

(D) 0.3 mA

4.
4.

The energy required to move 120 coulomb through

3 V is

(A)

25 mJ

(B) 360 J

(C)

40 J

(D) 2.78 mJ

5.
5.

i ?

1 A i 2 A 5 A 3 A 4 A Fig. P.1.1.5
1 A
i
2 A
5 A
3 A
4 A
Fig. P.1.1.5

(A)

1 A

(B) 2 A

(C)

3 A

(D) 4 A

is

delivered to the 100 V source in a 1 minute. The value of v 1 must be

In the circuit of fig P1.1.6100 V source in a 1 minute. The value of v 1 must be a charge

a charge

of 600

C

20

v 1

be In the circuit of fig P1.1.6 a charge of 600 C 20 v 1 100

100 V

Fig. P.1.1.6

60 V

(A)

240 V

(B) 120 V

(C)

60 V

(D) 30 V

In the circuit of the fig P1.1.7,60 V (A) 240 V (B) 120 V (C) 60 V (D) 30 V voltage source

voltage source E is

0 V 1 V 2 V + E – 5 V 4 V 10 V
0 V
1 V
2 V
+
E
5 V
4 V
10 V
+
+
+
+

Fig. P.1.1.7

the value of the

(A)

16 V

(b)

4 V

(C)

6 V

(D) 16 V

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Page

Page

UNIT 1
UNIT 1

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Consider the circuit graph shown in fig. P1.1.8. EachPage UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia branch of circuit graph represent a circuit element.

branch of circuit graph represent a circuit element. The

v 1 1

value of voltage is v 1 + 105 V – – 15 V + –
value of voltage
is
v 1
+ 105 V –
– 15 V +
– 10 V +
+
+
+
65 V
55 V
35 V
100 V
+ v 1
+ 30 V –
+ 30 V –

Fig. P.1.1.8

?

Networks + v – 1 1 k 7 V 8 V 5 V 6 V
Networks
+
v
1
1
k
7 V
8 V
5 V
6 V
4
k
3 k
2 k

Fig. P1.1.12

(A)

30 V

(B) 25 V

(C)

20 V

(D) 15 V

9.
9.

For the circuit shown in fig P.1.1.9 the value of

voltage v o is

5

 
 

+

+

v

o

15 V

v o 15 V 1 A
v o 15 V 1 A

1 A

–
 

Fig. P.1.1.9

(A)

10 V

(C)

20 V

10.
10.

R 1 ?

 

100 V

(A)

25

(C)

100

(B) 15 V

(D) None of the above

60 + R 1 70 V + 20 V R 2 – –
60
+
R 1
70 V
+
20 V
R 2

Fig. P.1.1.10

(B) 50

(D) 2000

11.
11.

Twelve 6 resistor are used as edge to form a cube.

The resistance between two diagonally opposite corner of the cube is

(A) 5

(B)

6

5

6

(C) 5

(D) 6

(A)

11 V

(B) 5 V

(C)

8 V

(D) 18 V

The voltage v o in fig. P1.1.11 is always equal to v o in fig. P1.1.11 is always equal to

(A)

(C)

14.
14.

1 V

9 V

R eq ?

5

1 A

   

4

    4 + v o –      

+

+
+

v

o

–
 
   
4 + v o –       Fig. P1.1.11 5 V (B) 5 V (D)

Fig. P1.1.11

5 V

(B) 5 V

(D) None of the above

10

10

10

         
   
   
 
   
   
   
 
   
         
 
         
 
         
 

R

eq

10

10

10

up to

     
     

Fig. P1.1.14

(A)

11.86

(B) 10

(C)

25

(D) 11.18

15.
15.

v s ?

180

+ 60 20 V – v 40 s 90 Fig. P.1.1.15 (A) 320 V (B)
+
60
20 V
v
40
s
90
Fig. P.1.1.15
(A)
320 V
(B) 280 V
(C)
240 V
(D) 200 V

180

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UNIT 1
UNIT 1
 

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

 

Leti ( t ) 3 te 100 t A and v () t .( 0

i ( t ) 3

te

100 t

A and

v () t

.(

0 6 0 01

.

t ) e

100 t

V for

28.
28.

v ab ?

the network of fig. P.1.1.24. The power being absorbed

 

by the network element at t 5 ms is

 
 
i + v N – Fig. P.1.1.24
i
+
v
N
Fig. P.1.1.24

(A)

18.4

W

(B)

9.2

W

(C)

16.6

W

(D)

8.3

W

(A)

15.4 V

25.
25.

In the circuit of fig. P.1.1.25 bulb A uses 36 W when

(C)

2.6

V

2 Networks 8 A 2 a 0.2 i 1 i 1 b 0.3 i 1
2
Networks
8 A
2
a
0.2 i 1
i 1
b
0.3 i 1
R
2 A
6

Fig. P.1.1.28

(B) 2.6 V

(D) 15.4 V

lit, bulb B uses 24 W when lit, and bulb C uses 14.4 W

when lit. The additional A bulbs in parallel to this

circuit, that would be required to blow the fuse is

12 V

20 A

A B C
A
B
C

In the circuit of fig. P.1.1.29 power is delivered bythat would be required to blow the fuse is 12 V 20 A A B C

40 V

500 400 i x 2i x
500
400
i
x
2i x

Fig. P.1.1.29

200

Fig. P.1.1.25

(A)

4

(B) 5

(C)

6

(D) 7

26.
26.

In the circuit of fig. P.1.1.26, the power absorbed by

the load R L is

i 1

1 V

1

1   i 1
 

i 1

1   i 1

2

by the load R L is i 1 1 V 1   i 1 2 R
by the load R L is i 1 1 V 1   i 1 2 R

R L = 2

Fig. P.1.1.26

(A)

dependent source of 192 W

(B)

dependent source of 368 W

(C)

independent source of 16 W

(D)

independent source of 40 W

30.
30.

The dependent source in fig. P.1.1.30

20 V

5 v 5 1
5
v
5
1

v 1

5

(A)

2 W

(B) 4 W

Fig. P.1.1.30

(C)

6 W

(D) 8 W

(A)

delivers 80 W

(B) delivers 40 W

27.
27.

v o ?

(C)

absorbs 40 W

(D) absorbs 80 W

Page

0.2 A

5

+ v 1 –
+
v
1
 

v 1

5 + v 1 –   v 1 8 + v 2 –   v 2

8

+ v 2 –
+
v
2
 

v 2

5 + v 1 –   v 1 8 + v 2 –   v 2
 

0.3

5

18

+ v 2 –   v 2   0.3 5 18 + v o – Fig.
+ v o –
+
v
o

Fig. P.1.1.27

(A) 6 V

(C) 12 V

(B) 6 V

(D) 12 V

31.
31.

In the circuit of fig. P.1.1.31 dependent source

+ 8 V – i x 4 A 2 i x
+ 8 V
i
x
4 A
2 i x

(A) supplies 16 W

(C) supplies 32 W

Fig. P.1.1.31

(B) absorbs 16 W

(D) absorbs 32 W

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Basic Concepts

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 1.1
Chap 1.1

A capacitor is charged by a constant current of 2 mABasic Concepts GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.1 and results in a voltage increase of

and results in a voltage increase of 12 V in a 10 sec

interval. The value of capacitance is

36.
36.

The waveform for the current in a 200 F capacitor

is shown in fig. P.1.1.36 The waveform for the capacitor

voltage is

(A)

0.75 mF

(B) 1.33 mF

i

(C)

0.6 mF

(D) 1.67 mF

33.
33.

The energy required to charge a 10 F capacitor to

100 V is

(A)

(C)

0.10 J

5

9

10

J

(B) 0.05 J

(D) 10

10

9

J

34.
34.

The current in a 100 F capacitor is shown in fig.

P.1.1.34. If capacitor is initially uncharged, then the

waveform for the voltage across it is

i(mA)

then the waveform for the voltage across it is i (mA) 2 t (ms) Fig. P.

2

t(ms)

Fig. P. 1.1.34

v

5 4 (A) v 250
5
4
(A)
v
250

4

v v 10 10 t (ms) t (ms) 2 4 2 4 v (A) (B)
v
v
10
10
t (ms)
t
(ms)
2
4
2
4
v (A)
(B)
v
0.2
0.2
t (ms)
t
(ms)
2
4
2
4
(C)
(D)
35. The voltage across a 100 F capacitor is shown in fig. P.1.1.35. The waveform
35.
The voltage across a 100 F capacitor is shown in
fig.
P.1.1.35.
The
waveform for the current in the

capacitor is

(mA)

5

4

4

 

t

(ms)

Fig. P. 1.1.36

 

v

 

50m

4

4

 

t

(ms)

t

(ms)

 

(B)

 

v

t

(ms)

50m

t (ms) 50m t (ms)

t

(ms)

4

(C) (D) 37. C eq ? 2.5 F 1.5 F 2 F C 1 F
(C)
(D)
37.
C eq ?
2.5 F
1.5 F
2 F
C
1 F
eq
Fig. P.1.1.37
(A)
3.5
F
(B)
1.2 F
(C)
2.4
F
(D)
2.6 F

6

v

1 2 3
1
2
3

t (ms)

Fig. P.1.1.35 i (mA) i (mA) 6 600 t (ms) t (ms) 1 2 3
Fig. P.1.1.35
i (mA)
i (mA)
6
600
t
(ms)
t
(ms)
1
2
3
1
2
3
(A)
(B)
i (mA)
i (mA)
6
600
2 3
2 3
t
(ms)
t
(ms)
1
1
(C)
(D)
38. In the circuit shown in fig. P.1.1.38 i in ( t ) 300 sin
38.
In the circuit shown in fig. P.1.1.38
i in ( t ) 300 sin 20
t mA, for t
0.
C
2
C 2
C 2
C 2
+
v
C
C
C
C
i
in
1
1
1
1
in

Fig. P. 1.1.38

60 mF

Let C 1 40 F and C 2 30 F. All capacitors are

initially uncharged. The v

in (

t ) would be

(A)

0.25cos 20 t V

(B) 0.25cos 20 t V

(C)

36cos 20 t mV

(D) 36cos 20 t mV

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Page

Basic Concepts

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 1.1
Chap 1.1

SOLUTIONS

1.

Charge on sphere will be positive.

(C) n 10 20 , Q

ne

e10

20

16 02

.

C

2.

(D) Qi

t 15000 100

15.

3.

dQ

(B) i

dt

120

60

2 A

4.

(B) W Qv 360 J

C

30

vv

32

v

3

65 V

105

v

v

4

v

3

4

15 55

65

0

v 4 25 V

v

1

0

v 1 15 V

9. (B) Voltage is constant

because of 15 V source.

10. (C) Voltage across 60 resistor 30 V

Current

30

0.5 A

60

Voltage across R 1 is

70

20

R 1

50

05

.

100

50 V

6. (A)

1 A i =1A 2 A 5 A 3 A 4 A 6 A 1
1
A
i =1A
2 A
5 A
3 A
4 A
6 A
1
A
2 A

Fig. S 1.1.5

6.

100 V source, the current must be anticlockwise.

(A) In order for 600 C charge to be delivered to the

i

dQ

dt

600

60

10 A

Applying KVL we get

v 1 60 100

10

20 or v 1 240 V

7. (A) Going from 10 V to 0 V

0 V 1 V 2 V + E – 5 V 4 V 10 V
0 V
1 V
2 V
+
E
5 V
4 V
10 V
+
+
+
+

Fig. S 1.1.7

+ 30 V – 10 5 E 1 0 or E 16 V 8. (D)
+ 30 V –
10
5
E
1 0 or
E 16 V
8. (D) 100
65 v
v
35 V
2
2
+ 105 V –
– 15 V +
– 10 V +
+
+
+
65 V
55 V
v 4
– + v 3
+ v 1
100 V
+
v 2
+ 30 V –

Fig. S 1.1.8

11. (C) The current i will be distributed in the cube

branches symmetrically

 

i

 

i

3

a

a    
a    
 
a    
a    
 
 
i 3
i
3
 

i

     

3

3
3
 
  i i

i i

6

6

 
   
 
   
   
   
 

i

i

b

6 iii 6

v ab 5 i ,

6

R

6

3

3

eq

v

ab

i

5

3

Fig. S. 1.1.11

12. (C) If we go from +side of 1 k through 7 V, 6 V and

5 V, we get

7

v 1

658

V

13. (D) It is not possible to determine the voltage across

1 A source.

14. (D) R

eq

5

10

(

R

eq

5

)

10

5

R

eq

5

5

   
      R eq 10  
      R eq 10  
      R eq 10  
      R eq 10  
 

R

eq

  R eq 10  

10

 
      R eq 10  
      R eq 10  
5 R eq 5 5       R eq 10   Fig. S 1.1.14 R

Fig. S 1.1.14

R

2

eq

R

eq

15

RR 5

eq

75

1118.

eq

125
125

10

R

eq

50

R eq

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Page

Basic Concepts

v

o

20

5

v

5

o

20

5

Power is P

v

o

v

o

20 V

v

1

20

20

5 5

80 W

31. (D) Power P

i x 4 A, P 32 W (absorb)

vi 2

i

i 2

xx

i

2

x

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

We can say C d 20 mF, C eq 20

v C

1

C

idt

1

60 m

300

20

cos

20

t

Chap 1.1 40 60 mF 3 10 0.25 cos 20 t V
Chap 1.1
40 60 mF
3
10
0.25 cos 20 t V

39. (C) i

C

i C

1

in

1

C

2

C

1

0 8

.

sin

600 t mA

At t 2 ms, i C1 0.75 mA

32. (D) v

t

2

v

t 1

12 C

2m

1

C

10

t

in

2

1

idt

t

1

C

C 1.67 mF

12

2 m( t

2

t )

1

v C

2

4 v

in

40. (B) v

C

1

C

1

C

2

6

4

v 1

v

in

c

33. (B) E

1

2

2

Cv

5

10

62

100

0 05 J

.

41.

(D) V

2

3

5

10, Q 1 C, C

Q

V

0.4

0.1 F

1

2 m

10

34. (D) v c

10

This 0.2 V increases linearly from 0 to 0.2 V. Then

current is zero. So capacitor hold this voltage.

c

3

idt

0

100

6

(

2

10

10

3

). 0 2 V

42. (A) v

L

L

di

dt

100

m

L

200

m

4

m

di

43.

L

dt

0.01

(B) v

L

7.54 cos 377 t V

2(377 cos 377 ) V

t

L 2 mH

35. (D) i

C dv

dt

For

0 t 1 , C dv

dt

100

For 1 ms

C dv

t

dt

100

10

2 ms,

6

0

6

(

3

2

)m

10

6

6

0

10

3

0

600

mA

600

mA

44. (A) i

1

L

vdt

1

0 01

.

120

P vi

12000 120

377

sin 377

t

1910 sin 754 t W

45. (D) v

L

L

di

L

dt

,

i

C

C dv

C

dt

cos

3

t dt 12000

377

cos 377

t

sin 377 t

36. (B) For 0 t 4,

v C

1

C

idt

1

5

m

200

10

6

4

m

tdt

3125

t

2

v

C

3

v

L

i LC

C

3

2

d i

L

dt

9 6

.

sin

4 t A

At t 4 ms, v c 0.05 V

It will be parabolic path. at t 0 t-axis will be tangent.

37. (A) 2 F is in parallel with 1 F and this combination is in
37.
(A)
2
F
is
in
parallel
with
1
F
and
this
combination
is
in
series
with
1.5
F.
15
.(
2
1
)
1 F,
C 1 is in parallel with 2.5 F
C 1
15
.
2
1
C eq 1
25.
35. F
30
60
30 20
(
40
)
38.
(A) C a
20 mF, C b
20
mF
30
60
30
20
0
C
C
C
C
d
c
b
a
C
C
C
C
2
2
2
2
+
v
C
C
C
C
60 mF
i
in
1
1
1
1
in

46. (B) v

L

L di

L

dt

For 2 t 4,

For

For

4

8

t 8,

t

10,

100

2

100

100

4

0

v L (.0 05)

v L (.0 05)

25 V

.

25 V

.

v L (.0 05)

0

100

2

25 V

.

Thus

(B) is correct option.

47. (C) Algebraic sum of the current entering or leaving

a cutset is equal to 0.

iii

6

16

0

243

2 4

i

3

0

i 3 7 A,

v 3 7 3 21 V

*********

Fig. S 1.1.38

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Page

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

CHAPTER

1.2

GRAPH THEORY

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1.2 GRAPH THEORY Page Consider the following circuits : (1)
GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1.2 GRAPH THEORY Page Consider the following circuits : (1)

Page

Consider the following circuits :GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1.2 GRAPH THEORY Page (1) (3) (2) (4) Non-planner graphs

(1)
(1)
1.2 GRAPH THEORY Page Consider the following circuits : (1) (3) (2) (4) Non-planner graphs are

(3)

(2)
(2)
THEORY Page Consider the following circuits : (1) (3) (2) (4) Non-planner graphs are (A) 1

(4)

Non-planner graphs are

(A)

1 and 3

(B) 4 only

(C)

3 only

(D) 3 and 4

3.
3.

A graph of an electrical network has 4 nodes and 7

branches. The number of links l, with respect to the

chosen tree, would be

(A)

2

(B) 3

(C)

4

(D) 5

For the graph shown in fig. P.1.1.4 correct set istree, would be (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5 The planner circuits are (A)

(D) 5 For the graph shown in fig. P.1.1.4 correct set is The planner circuits are

The planner circuits are (A) 1 and 2

(B) 2 and 3

(C) 3 and 4

(D) 4 and 1

Consider the following graphs(A) 1 and 2 (B) 2 and 3 (C) 3 and 4 (D) 4 and 1

Fig. P.1.1.4

Node

Branch

Twigs

Link

(A)

4

6

4

2

(B)

4

6

3

3

(C)

5

6

4

2

(D)

5

5

4

1

A tree of the graph shown in fig. P.1.2.5 is

cc

5 4 1 A tree of the graph shown in fig. P.1.2.5 is cc 5. (1)
5.
5.

(1)

(2)

(3) (4)
(3)
(4)
2 f a 1 3 g b d e 4 h 5 Fig. P.1.2.5 (A)
2
f
a
1
3
g
b
d
e
4 h
5
Fig. P.1.2.5
(A)
adeh
(B) acfh
(C)
afhg
(D) aefg

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UNIT 1 110 (A) 10 1 011 110 (C) 011 10 1
UNIT 1
110
(A)
10
1
011
110
(C)
011
10
1

(B)

(D)

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

10 1 2 110 011 10 1 1 4 011 110
10
1
2
110
011
10
1
1
4
011
110
Networks
Networks

2

3 1 4 3
3
1
4
3

The incidence matrix of a graph is as given below011 10 1 1 4 011 110 Networks 2 3 1 4 3 111000 00 1110

111000 00 1110 A 0 10 10 1 1000 11 The graph is 2 2
111000
00
1110
A
0
10
10
1
1000
11
The graph is
2
2
4
4
1
3
1
3
(A)
(B)
2
2
4
4
1
3
1
3
(C)
(D)
14.
14.

The incidence matrix of a graph is as given below

A

100

100

1100

11

1

000 10

00

0

1110000

1000

110

5

5

(C)

(D)

The incidence matrix of a graph is as given below1100 11 1 000 10 00 0 1110000 1000 110 5 5 (C) (D) 1 1

1

1

111000

A

00

0

1110

100

11

10

1000

The graph is 2
The graph is
2

4

(A) 2
(A)
2

4

(C)

3

3

1

1

2 4
2
4
(B) 2
(B)
2

4

(D)

3

3

The graph of a network is shown in fig. P.1.1.16. TheThe graph is 2 4 (A) 2 4 (C) 3 3 1 1 2 4 (B)

number of possible tree are

1

The graph is

2 4
2
4

5

(A)

 

2

Fig. P.1.1.16 (B) 12

Fig. P.1.1.16

(B) 12

3

1

1
1
4 3
4
4

3

(A)

8

 

5

(C)

16

(D) 20

(B)

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UNIT 1
UNIT 1

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Networks
Networks

The fundamental cut-set matrix of a graph isPage UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks Q F 1 0 0 0 100

Q F

1

0

0

0

100

110

000

00

1

00

10

11

10

The oriented graph of the network is

1 2 3 4 5 6 (A)
1 2
3
4
5
6
(A)
1 2 3 4 5 6 (C)
1 2
3
4
5
6
(C)
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2
3
4
5
6
(B) 1 2 3 4 5 6
(B)
1 2
3
4 5
6

(D)

23.
23.

A graph is shown in fig. P.1.2.23 in which twigs are

solid line and links are dotted line. For this chosen tree

fundamental set matrix is given below.

B F

1100 10

000111

0

11100

3 2 4 1 5 6
3
2
4
1 5
6

Fig. P. 1.2.23

(C) (D)
(C)
(D)

A graph is shown in fig. P.1.2.24 in which twigs are10 000111 0 11100 3 2 4 1 5 6 Fig. P. 1.2.23 (C) (D) solid

solid line and links are dotted line. For this tree

fundamental loop matrix is given as below

1110 1011 B F 1 3 2 4
1110
1011
B F
1
3
2
4

Fig. P.1.2.24

The oriented graph will be

B F 1 3 2 4 Fig. P.1.2.24 The oriented graph will be (A) (C) (B)

(A)

1 3 2 4 Fig. P.1.2.24 The oriented graph will be (A) (C) (B) (D) The

(C)

1 3 2 4 Fig. P.1.2.24 The oriented graph will be (A) (C) (B) (D) The

(B)

3 2 4 Fig. P.1.2.24 The oriented graph will be (A) (C) (B) (D) The oriented

(D)

The oriented graph will be

(A) (B)
(A)
(B)

Consider the graph shown in fig. P.1.2.25 in whichwill be (A) (C) (B) (D) The oriented graph will be (A) (B) twigs are solid

twigs are solid line and links are dotted line.

1 4 2 6 5 3
1
4
2
6
5
3

Fig. P. 1.2.25

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Graph Theory

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 1.2
Chap 1.2

A fundamental loop matrix for this tree is given as

below

B F

100

10

10

110

1

0

00

10

11

The oriented graph will be

B F 100 10 10 110 1 0 00 10 11 The oriented graph will be
B F 100 10 10 110 1 0 00 10 11 The oriented graph will be

(A)

(B)

(C) (D)
(C)
(D)

In the graph shown in fig. P.1.2.26 solid lines are110 1 0 00 10 11 The oriented graph will be (A) (B) (C) (D) twigs

twigs and dotted line are link. The fundamental loop

matrix is

i a c e h b d f
i
a
c
e
h b
d f

(A)

(B)

(C)

g

Fig. P.1.2.26

1100000

1100000

1100000

10

10

10

0

11100

100

000

10

111000

1

1000

0

10

11100

10

11100

10

100

000

10

0

111000

1

1000

100

000

10

111000

1

1000

(D) 27.
(D)
27.

1100000

0

000

11100

10

10

10

100

111000

1000

1

Branch

current

and

loop

current

relation

expressed in matrix form as

where i j

i

1

i

i

2

3

i

4

i

5

i

6

i

7

i

8

0

001

110

1

1

1100

1000

100

10

0001

00

100

0

I

I

I

I

1

2

3

4

represent branch current and I k

are

loop

current. The number of independent node equation are

(A)

4

(B) 5

(C)

6

(D) 7

b, the

number of nodes is n and the number of dependent loop

is l, then the number of independent node equations

will be

If the number of branch inl , then the number of independent node equations will be a network is (A) n

a network

is

(A)

n

l 1

(B)

b

1

(C)

b n 1

 

(D)

n 1

 

Statement for Q.29–30:

 
 

Branch

current

and

loop

current

relation

expressed in matrix form as

i

1

i

i

2

3

i

4

i

5

i

6

i

7

i

8

00

0

100

1000

0011

0

10