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Product Name

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CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev.B


Product Version

Total 42 pages

White Paper for CDMA2000 1xEV-DO


Rev.B Network Planning

Prepared by

Chen Siyan

Date

2009-12-30

Reviewed by

Zhang Congling, Jiang

Date

2009-01-12

Jindi, and Jiang Zongjie


Approved by

Date

Approved by

Date

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


All Rights Reserved

White Paper for CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev.B Network Planning

SECRET

Revision History
Date
20091230

Version
V1.0

Description

Prepared by

Completed the initial draft.

Zhang

Congling,

Jiang

Jindi, and Chen Siyan


20100112

V1.3

Modified, supplemented, and restructured Chen Siyan


the

document

according

to

review

comments.

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White Paper for CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev.B


Network Planning
Keywords
DORB, frequency, coverage, capacity, CE, interoperation
Abstract
The document describes key technologies and strengths of DORB and its impacts on
network planning.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Acronyms and Abbreviations

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Full Spelling

QN

Queue Number

SAR

Segmentation and Reassembly

DTX

Discontinued Transmit

DRX

Discontinued Receive

TIC

Total Interference Cancellation

PIC

Pilot Interference Cancellation

HARQ

Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request

RLP

Radio Link Protocol

ACK

Acknowledged

NAK

NOT Acknowledged

PN

Pseudorandom Noise

TCA

Traffic Channel Assignment message

MRU

Most Recently Used

PRL

Priority Roaming List

CE

Channel Element

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Reference
(1) White Paper for Huawei DORB Solution V1.1(20091020)
(2) White Paper for Huawei DORB Solution V1.1 (20091020)
(3) Introduction to CDMA2000 1xEVDO Rev.B (20090526)
(4) Introducation to CDMA2000 1x EVDO RevB V1.0 (20090608)
(5) Technical_Rev.B Overview_030606
(6) C.S0002-0_v3.0 Physical Layer Standard for cdma2000 Spread Spectrum
Systems
(7) White Paper for CDMA Neighboring Protection Band Analysis and Interference
Solution 20060906

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1 DORB Features and Strengths


EV-DO Rev.B (DORB) is an evolution from EV-DO Rev.A. It further improves the
forward and reverse rates, increases the utilization of frequency bands, reduces the
cost per bit, and provides better quality of service (QoS) assurance and enhanced
user experience.
DORB distinguishes between phase 1 and phase 2. This document mainly describes
phase 1.

1.1 Overview of Features


(1) Phase 1 features
-

Multi-carrier binding brings the forward peak rate up to 9.3 Mbps and the
reverse peak rate up to 5.4 Mbps.

Multi-carrier binding increases the high-rate coverage area and helps to


enhance the experience of edge users.

Multi-carrier binding decomposes a high-rate data flow into multiple low-rate


data flows for transmission and thus reduces the required Eb/Nt and access
terminal (AT) power and increases the reverse capacity.

Multilink Radio Link Protocol (RLP), multi-carrier best-effort assignment, and


adaptive load balancing help to obtain a frequency diversity gain and
increase the resource utilization and thus bring a 525% increase of forward
capacity (according to Qualcomm's emulation).

Short delay provides better QoS assurance.

(2) Phase 2 features


-

Feedback multiplexing enables more efficient use of CEs.

Support for 8192-byte packets and 64 quadrature amplitude modulation


(64QAM) increases the forward peak rate of one carrier to 4.9 Mbps and
that of three bound carriers up to 14.7 Mbps.

DRX, DTX, and QPCH capabilities reduce the power consumption of


terminals effectively and the total time of user communication is 30% longer.

The CSM6850 chip integrates TIC and PIC functions with higher spectrum
efficiency and larger voice over IP (VoIP) capacity.

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1.2 Multi-Carrier Binding


The most important feature in phase 1 is multi-carrier binding. High-rate data is
transmitted over multiple carriers in parallel and reassembled at the base station
controller (BSC) and the terminal, as shown in Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1 Multi-carrier binding of DORB

Multi-carrier binding creates a resource pool and enables adaptive load balancing.
Compared with a single-carrier system, a multi-carrier system enables joint
scheduling of service requests over multiple carriers with the frequency selectiveness
of radio channels. The system thus obtains a diversity gain from scheduling and
therefore the system capacity is increased. In addition, if a high-rate data flow over
one carrier is decomposed into multiple middle/low-rate data flows over multiple
carriers, a higher HARQ gain will be obtained and the transmit power of the terminal
will be lower and thus the data throughput of the system will be increased.

1.2.1 Multilink RLP


In a multi-carrier system, multiple data packets belonging to one data flow are
transmitted and combined over multiple carriers by multilink RLP. The main purpose
of multilink RLP is to recombine the data distributed over different carriers at the
receiving end according to the sequence numbers set at the time of transmission.
Multilink RLP is shown in Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1 Multilink RLP

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As shown in Figure 1.2, to avoid incorrect detection of packet loss, multilink RLP
adopts a link number QN on the basis of the RLP number. The terminal checks for
packet loss on a link according to the QN and recombines packets received on
different links according to the RLP number. The QN is not used when a packet is
retransmitted. The QN must be long enough to avoid cyclic repetition of QNs on one
link.
Figure 1.2 RLP retransmission of DORB

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After multi-carrier binding is adopted in DORB, high-rate data will be transmitted over
multiple carriers in parallel. The RLP function of the BSC will schedule data among
multiple carriers and the retransmission technique of DORA will be inapplicable to
multi-carrier transmission. According to the RLP retransmission technique of DORA,
when the terminal receives packets numbered 2, 3, and 5, the terminal requests
retransmission of the No. 4 packet. But in fact, the No. 4 packet is not transmitted yet,
as shown in Figure 1.2.
For the need of retransmission, DORB adopts QNs on every carrier. If the terminal
detects discontinuous QNs on one carrier, there is loss of packets. As shown in
Figure 1.2, because QNs are continuous on both carriers, the terminal will not request
retransmission of the No.4 packet.
If the terminal finds the QNs of one carrier are discontinuous, the terminal initiates a
Quick NAK, requesting the BSC for retransmission. In this case, the BSC does not
retransmit all packets. Instead, the BSC finds the packets associated with the missing
QNs on the relevant carrier. Some packets are transmitted over other carriers and the
Quick NAK is targeted at only packets lost on the local carrier.
Multilink RLP is necessary only when different chips are used. Because two-carrier
binding can be implemented by one CSM800 chip, multilink RLP is not adopted.
In addition, in the reverse direction, the terminal uses a single chip to schedule
packets. The time sequence of initially sent packets is definite. Therefore, multilink
RLP is not required. Figure 1.3 shows the multi-carrier transmission in the reverse
direction.
Figure 1.3 Multi-carrier binding for reverse channels

1.2.2 Adaptive Load Balancing


The purpose of load balancing is to distribute network loads evenly among carriers.
Load balancing includes static load balancing and adaptive load balancing.

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Static load balancing distributes newly accessed terminals to certain carriers. Due to
the change of application layer data flows and burst data sources, static load
balancing is unable to achieve balance of loads in a short time. DORA adopts static
load balancing, which is implemented through hard assignment. Adaptive load
balancing splits all packets to transmit evenly to all carriers through collaboration of
the access network and the AT and thus achieves balance of loads among all carriers.
DORB adopts adaptive load balancing. Figure 1.1 shows the adaptive load balancing.
Figure 1.1 Adaptive load balancing

1.2.3 Multi-Carrier Assignment


During the setup of a connection, the network assigns a carrier to the terminal
according to the flow request of the terminal, available power margin, and functions of
the terminal. In addition, the network can reassign a carrier or delete the carrier
according to the need of the connection. The assignment and deletion of a carrier can
be initiated by the network or the terminal. In most cases, the network makes the final
assignment decision. Figure 1.1 shows an example of multi-carrier assignment.
Figure 1.1 Example of multi-carrier assignment

(1) When the session begins, the network negotiates the multi-carrier capability of
the terminal with the terminal.

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(2) During the setup of the connection, the network assigns a carrier to the terminal
through a TCA message according to the flow request and available power
margin of the terminal.
(3) When the connection is kept alive, the network can reassign a carrier or delete
the assigned carrier dynamically.
(4) The network can assign more carriers according to the length of the forward user
queue. The terminal sends a CarrierRequeset to the network and the network
sends a TCA message in response to assign another carrier to the terminal.
(5) On the reverse link, if the available power margin is insufficient, the terminal may
delete a carrier automatically.
Figure 5.1 shows the signaling flow of multi-carrier assignment.
Figure 5.1 Signaling flow of multi-carrier assignment

(1) The connection setup initiated by an AT is the same as in DORA.


(2) Multiple carriers are assigned through a multi-carrier TCA message to set up a
multi-carrier link.

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(3) When one reverse link is captured, the connection is set up successfully and
step 4 proceeds. If no reverse link is captured, the connection setup fails.
(4) The reverse links of other carriers are captured. If the capture fails, step 5
proceeds.
(5) The reverse links of other carriers are captured unsuccessfully. The AT initiates a
carrier deletion request.

1.2.4 Pilot Set Management


In a single-carrier system, the PN offset of pilot channels is used to identify pilots. In a
multi-carrier system, because one base transceiver station (BTS) may be equipped
with multiple carriers, the PN offset alone is not enough for the identification.
Therefore, a two-dimensional vector [PN offset, CDMA channel (carrier No.)] is used
to identify pilots.

I. Pilot Group
In EV-DO Rev.B, pilots with the same PN offset and the same coverage are
categorized in one pilot group. The terminal does not need to report pilot strength
repeatedly for the multiple pilots in one pilot group but only needs to report the
strength of the primary pilot. The Multi-Carrier Routing Update Protocol (MC RUP) will
add all pilots in one pilot group to the active set.
In the active set, candidate set, and neighbor set, the terminal reports only the
strength of one pilot in one set. The active set may include multiple pilots from one
pilot group but the candidate set or neighbor set includes only one pilot from one pilot
group. Furthermore, a pilot leaving the active set will not necessarily join the
candidate set. The pilot joins the candidate set only when the pilot group of the pilot is
not in the active set. This means, no pilot of a pilot group in the active set will be in
the candidate set or neighbor set. Figure 1.1 shows the division of pilot groups.
Figure 1.1 Pilot groups

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II. Sub-active Set


In EV-DO Rev.B, the sub-active set is a set of pilots that can be identified by the
terminal using the DRC Cover and that have the same PN but different carriers. The
sub-active set is made up of a group of <PN_offset, Channel> pairs. The terminal
may get service from any pilot in the sub-active set. Two pilots in one sub-active set
cannot be placed in one pilot group. Figure 1.1 shows the sub-active set.
Figure 1.1 Sub-active set

III. Scheduler Group


EV-DO Rev.B adopts the concept of scheduler group. Pilots sharing one Quick NAK
(QN) instance belong to one scheduler group. Pilots between which softer handoff is
allowed must be in one scheduler group. A scheduler group is indicated by the
SchedulerTag field in a TCA message and associated with the softer handoff set.
Figure 1.1 shows the planning of scheduler groups.
Figure 1.1 Scheduler groups

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1.2.5 Forward and Reverse Scheduling


I. Forward Scheduling
In a DORA system, data frames are transmitted in a time division method over the
forward traffic channel. One timeslot can provide service for only one user (except for
multi-user packets). One user may have multiple flows and each flow may have
multiple queues. Byte flows enter different queues depending on their attributes. In
each timeslot, bytes in all queues of a user compose a candidate transport instance in
descending order of priority. The scheduler calculates the priority of each user packet
according to the given candidate transport instance with reference to the packet
format supported by the current air interface environment and decides the user whose
candidate transport instance will be transmitted in the timeslot by comparing the
priority of packets. The forward air interface scheduling algorithm is implemented by
the BTS chip, which decides the user that a given timeslot will serve.
Because a DORB system supports multilink RLP, a forward scheduling algorithm is
necessary at both the SAR and QN layers. The forward scheduling algorithm of the
SAR layer is implemented by FMR. Assignment of resources to different QNs is
decided according to the algorithm. The scheduling algorithm in the QN layer is
implemented by the BTS chip in the same way as the air interface scheduling
algorithm of DORA. Figure 1.1 shows the forwarding scheduling of DORB.
Figure 1.1 Forward scheduling

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II. Reverse Scheduling


In a DORB system, reverse scheduling is implemented by the T2P algorithm. The
terminal calculates the T2P inflow resource of each carrier according to the number of
pre-assigned carriers and loads. Figure 1.1 shows the reverse scheduling of DORB.
Figure 1.1 Reverse scheduling

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1.2.6 Power Control


Unlike DORA, DORB is a multi-carrier system. There may be multiple carriers in both
the forward and reverse directions. How to allocate power among carriers is a major
issue in DORB.
For a given AT, the difference between the transmit power of two neighboring carriers
must not exceed the MaxRLTxPwrDiff. For any two neighboring reverse CMDA
channels, even if the power of one carrier is increased, the AT must also ensure that
the power difference between two carriers does not exceed the power difference
threshold. When the MaxRLTxPwrDiff is updated, the new MaxRLTxPwrDiff value is
applicable only at the subframe time when the maximum number of transmissions of
the packet is reached or the time when the packet is terminated earlier. This means
the MaxRLTxPwrDiff can be updated only when the transmission of a packet is
complete.

1.3 Influences of DORB on Network Planning


1.3.1 Increase of Forward/Reverse Rate and Capacity
(1) Increase of forward rate and capacity
Multi-carrier binding brings the forward near-point peak rate to N x 3.1 Mbps. The
forward far-point rate is also N times higher. With multilink RLP, multi-carrier
best-effort assignment, and adaptive load balancing against the selective fading
of channel frequency, a frequency diversity gain can be obtained. This helps to
reduce the intra-frequency interference of neighboring cells and improve the
coverage quality. Compared with the conventional hard assignment, this further
improves the utilization of resources and brings a 525% rise of forward
capacity. Figure 1.1 shows the forward capacity increase according to
Qualcomm's emulation test of DORB with three-carrier binding.
Figure 1.1 Increase of forward capacity

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(2) Increase of reverse rate and capacity


Multi-carrier binding brings the reverse near-point peak rate to N x 1.8 Mbps.
Due to the restriction of AT power, the reverse far-point peak rate is not N times
higher. Figure 2.1 shows the reverse capacity increase according to Qualcomm.
Figure 2.1 Increase of reverse capacity

In addition, multi-carrier binding can decompose one high-rate data flow into multiple
low-rate data flows for transmission and thus reduce the required Eb/Nt and AT
transmit power. Therefore, the reverse capacity and reverse high-rate coverage are
increased.

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1.3.2 More Flexible Radio Networking


A mobile terminal can be handed off between multi-carrier cells and single-carrier
cells seamlessly. This gives great convenience for mixed networking in hot-spot areas
but the decision of handoff is also complex (based on a pilot group).
In densely-populated urban areas, CDMA 1X data services can be gradually migrated
to DORB and 1X can be used in rural areas to provide low-rate data services. DORB
is deployed in hot-spot areas first and continuous coverage is gradually realized
according to service requirements as shown in Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1 DORB overlay in hot-spot areas

Scenario 1: Initially, multi-carrier DORB is deployed only in hot-spot areas. Network


construction is more flexible and the cost of construction is saved. As high-value data
users are mainly indoor users, indoor deployment of DORB is enhanced in the initial
stage.
Figure 1.2 Initial DORB deployment

Scenario 2: DORB only coverage is gradually deployed on the entire network, which
avoids active personality handoff between DORB and DORA and improves the
continuity of real-time services.
Figure 1.3 Mature DORB deployment

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2 Frequency Planning
2.1 Frequency Deployment Strategy
Due to the multi-carrier binding feature of DORB, there must be at least two DO
frequencies to construct a DORB network. Restricted by the terminal chip, DORB
supports binding of at most three carriers. If frequency resources permit, three-carrier
binding is recommended, which can improve the experience of edge users and
increase the high-rate coverage.
Carriers bound by DORB may be discontinuous carriers in one frequency band or
carriers spanning sub-bands. The largest frequency span between the carriers must
not exceed the frequency band width of the terminal chip. At present, the frequency
band width supported by the QSD8650 chip is 5 MHz.
In view of the chip restriction and the difficulty of implementation, the binding of three
continuous carriers in one frequency band is recommended. Furthermore, unlike the
descending order of 1X frequencies, the ascending order of DORB frequencies is
recommended. For example, the order of 1X frequency numbers is 283, 242, and 201
and the order of DO frequency numbers is 37, 78, and 119.
If frequency resources permit, inter-band DORB deployment can be considered and
indoor and outdoor networks can be separate to enhance the user experience.

2.2 Introduction to CDMA Frequency Bands


Common CDMA frequency bands include the 800 MHz band (Band Class 0), 1900
MHz band (Band Class 1) and 450 MHz band (Band Class 5).
(1) CDMA 800MHz (Band Class 0)

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Band Class 0 System Frequency Correspondence


Figure 1.1 CDMA 800 MHz frequency band

(2) CDMA 1900MHz (Band Class 1)


Band Class 1 System Frequency Correspondence
Figure 2.1 CDMA 1900 MHz frequency band

(3) CDMA 450MHz (Band Class 5)


Band Class 5 System Frequency Correspondence and Band Subclasses
Figure 3.1 CDMA 450 MHz frequency band

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2.3 Band Width and Protection Band Requirements


2.3.1 Band Width Requirement
(1) DORB 3X: 3.69 MHz is required for an 800 MHz network and 3.75 MHz is
required for a 1900 MHz network.
(2) DORB 2X: 2.46 MHz is required for an 800 MHz network and 2.5 MHz is
required for a 1900 MHz network.

2.3.2 Protection Band Requirement


(1) No protection band required for a co-sited system: In this case, network drop will
occur when the power difference between the interfering frequency and the
interfered frequency exceeds 33 dB. In a co-sited system, however, the power is
close in any location so that the power difference will not reach 33 dB. Therefore,
no protection band is required.
(2) A 150 KHz protection band required for a non-co-sited system: A 120 kHz
protection band is enough for a non-co-cited system working in neighboring
frequencies. In view of the variance of terminal indicators in practice, 30 kHz is
added to the protection band. Therefore, a 150 kHz protection band is
recommended for a non-co-sited system.

3 Coverage Analysis
EV-DO Rev.B phase 1 is in nature the binding of multiple EV-DO Rev.A carriers.
Therefore, the coverage performance of one carrier is the same as that of an EV-DO

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Rev.A carrier. In multi-carrier deployment, EV-DO Rev.B is laid over the existing EVDO Rev.A to enlarge the high-rate coverage area and increase the edge rate. The
edge rate thus achieved is unreachable by EV-DO Rev.A.
(1) Multilink RLP and multi-carrier best-effort assignment: For a same application
rate R, EV-DO Rev.B requires only R/N from one carrier in comparison with EVDO Rev.A. Accordingly, the demodulation threshold and power are much lower
than when the entire R rate is carried over a single EV-DO Rev.A carrier. The
coverage radius is thus larger. As for the user, the coverage of high-rate R is
greatly enlarged.
(2) The cell edge rate of EV-DO Rev.A is R. When EV-DO Rev.B is deployed at the
same site, because N carriers are bound, the edge rate is N x R. For example, if
the edge rate of EV-DO Rev.A is 200 kbps, the edge rate of three-carrier EV-DO
Rev.B is 3 x 200 = 600 kbps. The overall rate of network coverage is improved.

3.1 Forward Link Coverage


In an ordinary urban area under the 800 MHz band, the coverage probability in the
area is 95% (the edge coverage probability is 87%), the antenna height is 25 m (the
feeder length is 35 m), the antenna gain is 15 dBi, and other parameters take on
default values. The forward link budge is described in Table 1.1.
Table 1.1 Forward link budget
Forward link Budget Detail

Cell Edge

Cell Edge

Cell Edge

Information

service

service rate

service rate

rate (kbps) (kbps) for DoB


for DoA

2X/ per carrier

remark

(kbps) for
DoB 3X/ per
carrier

Forward Effective Burst Data 300.00

150.00

100.00

Rate (kbps)
BS

Max

cell

edge

data

rate
Traffic

Channel 43.00

43.00

43.00

1.27

1.27

0.13

0.13

0.13

BS System Connector Loss 0.50

0.50

0.50

15.00

15.00

Transmitting power (dBm)


BS System Feeder Cable Loss 1.27
(dB)
BS System Jumper Loss (dB)

+TMA Insertion Loss (dB)


BS Antenna Gain (dBi)

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Forward link Budget Detail

Cell Edge

Cell Edge

Cell Edge

Information

service

service rate

service rate

rate (kbps) (kbps) for DoB


for DoA

2X/ per carrier

remark

(kbps) for
DoB 3X/ per
carrier

BS System EIRP (dBm)


Background

Thermal

56.10
Noise -174.00

56.10

56.10

f=a-b-c-d+e

-174.00

-174.00

8.00

8.00

-6.11

-7.61

0.00

0.00

j=10*log(W/R)

-111.21

-112.72

k=10*LOG(10^(g

Density (dBm/Hz)
AT Noise Figure (dB)
Required

C/I

For

8.00
Forward -3.37

Investigated service (dB)


Forward Processing Gain (dB)

0.00

Terminal Receiver Sensitivity -108.48


(dBm)

/10)*W)+h+i-j

AT Atenna Gain (dB)

0.00

0.00

0.00

AT Feeder Cable&Connector 0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-111.21

-112.72

o=k-(l-m-n)

Loss (dB)
AT Body Loss (dB)

0.00

Required Minimum Received -108.48


Signal Strength (dBm)
Virtual SHO Gain (dB)

4.10

4.10

4.10

Shadow Fading Margin (dB)

10.72

10.72

10.72

2.49

1.60

18.00

18.00

140.21

142.59

t=f-o+(p-q-r-s)

Forward Interference Margin 7.43


(dB)
Building Penetration Loss (dB)
Max

Allowed

18.00

Propagation 132.52

Loss For Cell Radius (dB)


Morphology

Urban

Urban

Urban

Propagation Model

Okumura

Okumura Hata

Okumura Hata v

Hata

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Forward link Budget Detail

Cell Edge

Cell Edge

Cell Edge

Information

service

service rate

service rate

rate (kbps) (kbps) for DoB


for DoA

2X/ per carrier

remark

(kbps) for
DoB 3X/ per
carrier

System

Carrier

Center 875.00

875.00

875.00

Frequency (MHz)
BS Effective Height (m)

25.00

25.00

25.00

AT Effective Height (m)

1.50

1.50

1.50

Forward Link Cell Radius 1.41

2.32

2.70

z=function(t,u,v,w

(km)

,x,y)

Table 1.1 compares the forward link budge of DORB 2X (two-carrier binding), DORB
3X (three-carrier binding) and DORA. When the cell edge data rate is the same (300
kbps), the forward cell radius of DORB 2X or DORB 3X is larger than that of DORA.
Figure 1.2 gives a bar chart comparing the forward cell radiuses.
Figure 1.2 Comparison of forward cell radiuses

From the above forward link budget and cell radius comparison, it is known that under
a same edge rate (300 kbps), the forward cell radius of DORB 2X or DORB 3X is
larger than that of DORA.

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3.2 Reverse Link Coverage


In an ordinary urban area under the 800 MHz band, the coverage probability in the
area is 95% (the edge coverage probability is 87%), the antenna height is 25 m (the
feeder length is 35 m), the antenna gain is 15 dBi, the reverse load rate is 75%, and
other parameters take on default values. The reverse link budge is described in Table
1.1.
Table 1.1 Reverse link budget
Reverse link Budget Detail

Cell Edge

Cell Edge

Cell Edge

Information

service

service rate

service rate

rate (kbps) (kbps) for DoB


for DoA

2X/ per carrier

remark

(kbps) for
DoB 3X/ per
carrier

Reverse Service Data Rate 76.8

38.4

25.60

(kbps)

cell edge service


rate

AT Max Transmitting power 23.00

20

18.23

(dBm)

10

log(200mw/N),
where N is the
number of bound
carriers

AT Feeder Cable&Connector 0.00

0.00

0.00

Loss (dB)
AT Antenna Gain (dBi)

0.00

0.00

0.00

AT Body Loss (dB)

0.00

0.00

0.00

AT EIRP (dBm)

23.00

20

18.23

e=a-b+c-d

-174.00

-174.00

4.00

4.00

4.00

Required Eb/Nt For Reverse 1.71

2.36

3.00

Background

Thermal

Noise -174.00

Density (dBm/Hz)
BS Noise Figure (dB)

Investigated service (dB)


Reverse Processing Gain (dB)

12.04

15.05

16.81

i=10*log(W/R)

BS Receiver Sensitivity (dBm)

-119.43

-121.79

-122.92

j=10*LOG(10^(f/
10)*W)+g+h-i

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Reverse link Budget Detail

Cell Edge

Cell Edge

Cell Edge

Information

service

service rate

service rate

rate (kbps) (kbps) for DoB


for DoA

2X/ per carrier

remark

(kbps) for
DoB 3X/ per
carrier

BS Antenna Gain (dB)

15.00

BS System Feeder Cable Loss 1.27

15.00

15.00

1.27

1.27

(dB)
BS System Jumper Loss (dB)

0.13

0.13

0.13

BS Total Connector Loss (dB)

0.50

0.50

0.50

-134.89

-136.02

o=j-(k-l-m-n)

4.66

4.66

Required Minimum Received -132.53


Signal Strength(dBm)
Soft HandOver Gain Again 4.66
Slow Fading (dB)
Shadow Fading Margin (dB)

10.72

10.72

10.72

Interference Margin (dB)

6.02

6.02

6.02

Building Penetration Loss (dB)

18.00

18.00

18.00

124.82

124.17

t=e-o+(p-q-r-s)

Max

Allowed

Propagation 125.45

Loss For Cell Radius (dB)


Morphology

Urban

Urban

Urban

Propagation Model

Okumura

Okumura Hata

Okumura Hata v

825.00

825.00

Hata
System

Carrier

Center 825.00

Frequency (MHz)
BS Effective Height (m)

25.00

25.00

25.00

AT Effective Height (m)

1.50

1.50

1.50

Reverse Link Cell Radius 0.93

0.90

0.86

z=function(t,u,v,w

(km)

,x,y)

As shown in Table 1.1, when the cell edge service rate is the same (76.8 kbps), the
reverse cell radius of DORB 2X or DORB 3X is smaller than that of DORA. The

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DORB terminal reduces the number of carriers from three to two or one automatically
when its power is insufficient. Therefore, in fact, the reverse coverage of DORB may
be considered to be the same as that of DORA.
Note: The reduction of carriers is decided by the terminal. The transmit power of the
terminal is unknown to the system. All DORB terminals have the function, which is
implemented by Qualcomm chips.

3.3 Use of Coverage Estimation Tools


RNPS CDMA V6.0 Dimensioning Tool V3.0 already supports the estimation of
coverage in DORB phase 1. The calculation is as follows:
(1) Select the network technology and number of carriers:
Figure 1.1 Select network technology and the number of carriers

The following Traffic and Service Table will be updated. When the number of
carriers is N, the edge rate changes to N times the rate of DORA.
Figure 1.2 Change of DORB edge rate

The DORB terminal reduces the number of carriers from three to two or one
automatically when its transmit power is insufficient. Therefore, in fact, the
reverse coverage of DORB may be considered to be the same as that of DORA.
Therefore, one carrier can be selected for the calculation of DORB reverse
coverage.

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(2) Set BTS transmit power


Figure 2.1 Setting the transmit power of a single-carrier BTS

(3) Other settings are the same as those in the coverage estimation of DORA.

3.4 Summary
Considering the balance of forward and reverse links, under the same user
experience, DORB is better than DORA in terms of forward coverage.
Owing to the forward interference, the cell edge C/I of DORA is subject to an upper
limit. Accordingly, the forward edge rate also has an upper limit Redge. After the multicarrier DORB system is deployed, the forward edge service rate perceived by the
user is up to N x Redge. The inherent edge rate limit of the single-carrier DORA is
thus broken. The reverse rate is restricted by the power of the terminal. The edge
service rate perceived by a user is equivalent to that of DORA. Within a cell where
power restriction is not present, however, the service rate perceived by a user is N
times that of DORA.

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4 Capacity Planning
4.1 Throughput per Sector
Because of the multi-carrier binding of DORB, the forward peak rate of 2X will rise to
6.2 Mbps and that of 3X will rise to 9.3 Mbps. The distribution of forward rates of
DORA, DORB 2X and DORB 3X is shown in Figure 1.1, according to the emulation of
Qualcomm.
Figure 1.1 Throughput per sector

As shown in Figure 1.1, the throughput per sector of DORB 2X and DORB 3X is
respectively increased to 2.5 Mbps and 3.8 Mbps relative to DORA.

4.1.1 VoIP User Size


According to Qualcomm emulation, DORA allows 44 VoIP users and the user size is
restricted on the reverse link. According to the maximum reverse capacity formula,
the result of calculation is about 42. The formula and calculation are as follows:

N max

W
R

E
b (1 )
Nt

Where:
Nmax is the maximum number of users simultaneously accessed to a cell;

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W/R is the spreading gain, where W = 1.2288 MHz and R = 9.6 kpbs;
is the voice activity factor which equals 0.45;
Eb/Nt is the required signal to noise ratio which equals 4.955 dB;
is the cell interference factor which equals 0.5.
The calculation result is Nmax=60.69. Allowing for a 5 dB margin (68.37% load), the
allowed number of users is 60.69 x 68.37% = 41.5.

is obtained through calculation. According to the MSO model, there are 29% full

rate channels, 4% 1/2 rate channels, 7% 1/4 rate channels, 6% 1/8 rate channels,
and 54% idle channels. Considering a 22-byte voice payload and an 8-byte overhead,
the equivalent voice activity factor is 0.45.
Therefore, in the case of 5 dB rise, the number of VoIP users is 42, close to the
emulation result of Qualcomm.
For DORB, the supported number of VoIP users is two times (2X binding) or three
times (3X binding) that of DORA, in particular, 84 and 126.

4.1.2 BE Throughput
I. Forward BE Throughput
Forward BE services are relevant to the terminal type, user distribution, terminal
movement, HARQ, radio channel environment and scheduling algorithm. Figure 1.1
shows the emulation result of forward BE throughput of DORA. Huawei's emulation
result is close to that of Qualcomm.
Figure 1.1 Forward BE throughput

In capacity planning, to ensure the Internet experience of broadband users, the


recommended forward BE throughput of DORA is 1.2 Mbps. For DORB 2X and

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DORB 3X, considering the scheduler gain of BE services, the forward BE throughputs
are respectively 2.5 Mbps and 3.8 Mbps.

II. Reverse BE Throughput


Reverse BE services are relevant to the terminal type, user distribution, terminal
movement, HARQ, and radio channel environment. Figure 1.1 shows the emulation
result of reverse BE throughput of DORA.
Figure 1.1 Reverse BE throughput

In Figure 1.1, the reverse throughput per sector is obtained by averaging the
throughputs of 57 sectors. It is the largest throughput among all sectors where the
probability of ROT larger than 7 dB is below 1%. The emulation result of Huawei is
consistent with that of Qualcomm.
In capacity planning, to ensure the Internet experience of broadband users, the
recommended reverse BE throughput of DORA is 600700 kbps, depending on the
number of ongoing connections. For DORB 2X and DORB 3X, because the service
rate is two or three times that of DORA, the reverse BE throughputs are respectively
1.21.4 Mbps and 1.82.1 Mbps.

4.1.3 Hybrid Service Planning


Figure 1.1 shows Qualcomm's emulation of VoIP and BE hybrid throughput on the
forward link.
Figure 1.1 Forward hybrid throughput

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As shown in Figure 1.1, when 30 VoIP users are on the forward link, 50% of the
forward load is occupied and the forward throughput of BE will be 50% down.
Therefore, for DORB 3X, in the case of 10 VoIP users, the forward BE throughput is
3.8 Mbps x 0.75 = 2.8 Mbps; in the case of 20 VoIP users, the forward BE throughput
is 3.8 Mbps x 0.69 = 2.6 Mbps; in the case of 42 VoIP users, the forward BE
throughput is 3.8 Mbps x 0.4 = 1.5 Mbps.

4.2 Traffic Model


Table 1.1 describes the forward traffic model of DORB.
Table 1.1 Forward traffic model
Items

Data & voice subscriber

Voice subscriber

Proportion

100%

Hierarchy

Lower

Medium Higher -

Sub-proportion

60%

25%

15%

Traffic type

Data rate -

0%

(kbps)

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VOIP (erl)

9.6

VT (erl)

76.8

BCMCS (second)

204.8

PPP session Time (s)

300

600

900

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Items

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Data & voice subscriber

Voice subscriber

Packet call duty ratio

10%

15%

20%

115.2 kbps

115.2

20%

15%

10%

230.4 kbps

230.4

30%

25%

20%

460.8 kbps

460.8

25%

30%

35%

921.6 kbps

921.6

25%

27%

30%

Traffic specified (kbps)

3000

0%

3%

2%

Traffic specified (kbps)

4500

0%

0%

3%

Average PS data rake (kbps)

437.76 551.952 690.36 504.198

Table 1.2 describes the reverse traffic model of DORB.


Table 1.2 Reverse traffic model
Items

Data & voice subscriber

Voice subscriber

Proportion

100%

0%

Hierarchy

Lower

Medium Higher

Sub-proportion

60%

25%

15%

Traffic type

Data rate (kbps)

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VOIP (erl)

9.6

VT (erl)

76.8

PPP session Time (s)

300

600

900

Packet call duty ratio

10%

15%

20%

28.8 kbps

28.8

20%

15%

10%

57.6 kbps

57.6

30%

25%

20%

115.2 kbps

115.2

25%

30%

35%

230.4 kbps

230.4

25%

27%

30%

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Items

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Data & voice subscriber

Voice subscriber

460.8 kbps

460.8

0%

3%

2%

921.6 kbps

921.6

0%

0%

2%

1382.4kbps

1382.4

0%

0%

1%

Average PS data rake (kbps)

109.44 129.312 165.312 122.7888

4.3 Use of Capacity Estimation Tool


RNPS CDMA V6.0 Dimensioning Tool V3.0 already supports the estimation of
capacity in DORB phase 1. The calculation is as follows:
(1) Select the network technology and number of carriers:
Figure 1.1 Select network technology and the number of carriers

(2) Open the General Assumptions Configuration table.


Figure 2.1 Opening the General Assumptions Configuration table

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(3) Set the number of VoIP users and the number of VT users and select the forward
air interface scheduling algorithm.
Figure 3.1 Setting the number of VoIP users and the number of VT users

(4) Open the Traffic_Service_Conversion table and adjust the proportions according
to the traffic model.
Figure 4.1 Adjusting the traffic model

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(5) Other settings are the same as those in the capacity estimation of DORA.

5 DORB Support and CE Calculation


5.1 DORB Support of BTSs
5.1.1 First Generation BTSs
The first generation BTSs of Huawei include BTS3612/A and BTS3601C. These
BTSs cannot be upgraded to support DORB.

5.1.2 Second Generation BTSs


The second generation BTSs of Huawei include BTS3606/A. These BTSs can be
conditionally upgraded to support DORB.
Due to the restriction of the backplane, one DO channel board of the BTS3606
supports only one DO frequency. To support multi-carrier DORB, an appropriate
number of DO channel boards must be added. If single-carrier CHPA and CTRM are
used as RF boards, the maximum configuration of a single cabinet is S2/2/2. To
support multi-carrier DORB, the RF boards must be replaced by CMPA and CMTR.
After DORB is supported, two functions are restricted. One is the inability to perform
handoff between DORB and DOR0. The other is the inability to guarantee QoS-

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sensitive services of DORA and DORB in ATM transmission, supporting BE services


but not real-time services.

5.1.3 Third Generation BTSs


The third generation BTSs of Huawei include BTS3606E/AE and BTS3606C. These
BTSs can be upgraded to support DORB.
For the BTS3606E/AE, if the CRDM is configured, one CSM6800 channel board
supports two DO frequencies and therefore better supports DORB multi-carrier
binding. Otherwise, one CSM6800 channel board supports only one DO frequency.
The cost of DORB upgrade is therefore high.
For the BTS3606C, because the baseband subrack is equipped with only three
channel board slots. With the slots for two 1X channel boards, only one channel
board slot remains. Upgrade is necessary to support multi-carrier DORB. An 800 MHz
main cabinet supports up to three carriers and a 450 MHz cabinet supports up to two
carriers. To support multi-carrier DORB, it is necessary to extend the RF cabinet.
After DORB is supported, two functions are restricted. One is the inability to perform
handoff between DORB and DOR0. The other is the inability to guarantee QoSsensitive services of DORA and DORB in ATM transmission, supporting BE services
but not real-time services.

5.1.4 Fourth Generation BTSs


The fourth generation BTSs of Huawei include BTS3606CE/AC, BTS3900/A/C/D and
DBS3900. These BTSs can be upgraded to support DORB.
For the BTS3900/A/C/D and DBS3900, the BBU can be upgraded from DORA to
DORB phase 1 through software upgrade; the RRU or RFU supports the multi-carrier
technology and supports DORB multi-carrier binding. The baseband subrack supports
up to six channel boards.
For the BTS3606CE/AC, the baseband part is the same as that of the
BTS3900/DBS3900; the RF part supports the multi-carrier technology and supports
DORB multi-carrier binding. The baseband subrack supports up to six channel
boards. A BTS3606CE 800 MHz cabinet supports four carriers and a 450 MHz
cabinet supports three carriers. With an extended RF cabinet, the 800 MHz system
supports eight carriers. A BTS3606AC 800 MHz cabinet supports four carriers and a
450 MHz cabinet supports three carriers. The BTS3606AC does not support
extension of the RF cabinet.

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5.2 DORB Support of Channel Boards


Each CSM6800-based DO channel board supports the sharing of up to six sector
carriers (three sectors) and 192 reverse CEs.

5.3 Calculation of Chips


Assume that the number of CEs required by each sector carrier is CE RL and that
the total number of sector carriers is S S ,C . Then the calculation of the required
number of CSM6800 chips is as follows:
(1) The

total

number

of

chips

required

by

sector

carrier

is:

roundup (( S S ,C / 6),0) .
(2) The number of chips required by each sector carrier on the reverse link is:

roundup (( S S ,C * CE RL / 192),0) .
(3) Obtain the maximum number of chips from the above two calculations:

CSM 6800 MAX ( roundup (( S S ,C / 6),0), roundup (( S S ,C * CE RL / 192),0))


Where, roundup is the function to get the upper integer.
Figure 3.1 Features supported by DORB chips

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5.4 Calculation of CEs


The reverse CE demodulation capability of DORB phase 1 is the same as that of
DORA. The data flows of multiple carriers cannot be demodulated simultaneously on
one CE. Because the VoIP and VT sessions can be carried over only one carrier, one
connection requires one CE. A BE session can be carried over multiple carriers and
one connection requires multiple CEs.
The users on the network are diversified. The reverse service type and traffic (data
services can be converted into equivalent traffic) initiated by each user are different.
To calculate the number of CEs required by a DORB phase 1 system, we first
consider the situation where every user has an active BE session.
The formula and calculation of CEs required by DORB phase 1 are as follows:
[Number of users active in simultaneous BE sessions (M) x (1 + rate of soft handoff) +
1] x number of bound carriers (N)
Where:
The number of users active in simultaneous BE sessions (M) = reverse sector carrier
BE throughput / reverse average BE rate, and particularly, M = 2100 kbps / 122.8
kbps = 17;
The number of bound carriers (N) is 3 in the case of DORB 3X and 2 in the case of
DORB 2X;
The rate of reverse soft handoff is 35%.
The result is: DORB 3X requires 72 CEs; DORB 2X requires 48 CEs.
In the case of A VoIP users and B BE users, the number of CEs required by DORB
phase 1 is A x (1 + 35%) + B x (1 + 35%) x N + N, where N is the number of bound
carriers. In particular, in the case of 30 VoIP users and 10 BE users, the number of
CEs required by DORB 3X is 84.

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6 Emulation
The existing U-Net emulation tool does not support DORB emulation. The DORB
emulation support is planned to be implemented in the first quarter of 2010.

7 Comparison of Technologies
7.1 DORA and DORB
Table 1.1 lists the differences between DORA and DORB.
Table 1.1 Differences between DORA and DORB
Key feature
Forward

Differences between DORA and DORB

Attribute

data In DORA, data flows from the PCF to the FMR and Improvement

transmission

the FMR further sends the data to the AT on one


service link. In DORB, forward data also flows
from the PCF to the FMR but the FMR sends the
data to the AT on multiple service links. This
means

the

FMR

sends

data

to

the

AT

simultaneously in multiple sub-active sets.


Reverse
reception

data In

DORB,

reverse

data

must

be

received Improvement

simultaneously in multiple sub-active sets. The


selective combination of received data in one
active set is almost the same as the DORA
procedure. The difference is the unified sorting of
selectively combined data in multiple active sets.

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Key feature

Differences between DORA and DORB

FMR
processing
AT's

Attribute

Because there are multiple carriers on the forward Improvement


of link of DORB, the data packets sent over each
data carrier are different and the packets over one

retransmission
requests

SECRET

carrier are unnecessarily continuous. The BTS

and sets a transmitting queue QN for each carrier

retransmission

active in transmission and the packets sent from

of data

each QN are numbered independently by the


queue by encapsulating a QN header to the
original packets. When a packet is retransmitted,
no QN header is added because the packet can
be transmitted in a queue of any QN.

Virtual
handoff

soft In DORB, an AT works in Lock or Unlock mode Improvement


depending on the configuration. The difference
between the two modes is: in Lock mode, the
DRCs of three sub-active sets can point to only
one PN; once the DRC Cover changes, handoff
must take place in the three sub-active sets. In
Unlock mode, the DRCs of three sub-active sets
may point to different PNs and their handoff is
independent of each other. Therefore, the AN must
support virtual soft handoff in the two modes.

Forward

and DORB

reverse

rate Different rates are allocated for users at different

restriction

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supports

QoS-based

rate

restriction. Improvement

grades.

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Key feature

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Differences between DORA and DORB

Attribute

Session

To enable DORB terminals to better use DORB Improvement

negotiation

functions on a DORB network, DORB service


negotiation needs to be added. DORB supports
three

personalities.

Personality

is

DO0,

personality 1 is DOA and personality 2 is DOB.


During session negotiation, the AN decides the
number

of

personalities

and

the

specific

personalities to negotiate according to the type of


AT. For a DO0 terminal, only one personality is
negotiated, specifically DO0. For a DOA terminal,
two personalities are negotiated, DO0 and DOA.
For a DOB terminal, two personalities are
negotiated,

DOA

(personality

0)

and

DOB

(personality 1).
Setup
release

and After adoption of DORB, in the case of a DORB New


of terminal, one call can be bound with multiple

multi-carrier

carriers.

The

calls

resource management, and procedures all need


appropriate

associated
changes.

resource

DORB

allocation,

services

are

supported and one call is bound with multiple


carriers. The associated resource allocation and
links all change accordingly. When a call is
released, all allocated links and resources must be
released.
Dynamic

After a DORB terminal sets up a DORB service New

addition

and session, the AN can add carriers dynamically and

deletion

of the AT also initiates carrier addition requests

carriers

actively. The processing complies with the original


soft handoff procedure. The document only
describes the procedure where the AT actively
sends a carrier addition request. The procedure
where the AN adds a carrier actively is the same.
After the DORB terminal sets up the DORB
service session, the AN can delete a carrier
dynamically and the AT may also initiate carrier
deletion actively. The processing still complies with
the original soft handoff procedure.

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Key feature
Soft handoff

SECRET

Differences between DORA and DORB

Attribute

The call procedure of soft handoff is unchanged Improvement


but the carrier addition and deletion in the process
of soft handoff are added in the DORB soft handoff
algorithm

and

neighbor

list

combination

algorithm is also added.


Idle personality Both DOA/0 and DOB carriers may be planned on New
handoff

an AN or both an old version and a new version of


the AN exist. Therefore, the negotiated attribute
has two possibilities:
1. A DOB terminal gets access from the new AN
and two attributes (DOA and DOB) will be
configured and negotiated, and the AT version is
saved as DOB.
2. A DOB terminal gets access from the old AN
and two attributes (DO0 and DOA) will be
configured and negotiated, and the AT version is
saved as DOA.

Active

The AT gets access from the DOB network and New

personality

when it moves to the coverage area of a DOA

handoff

carrier, the AT reports an RU message and the


target carrier carried in the message is DOA. The
RRM makes a handoff decision and also the
personality handoff decision. Then the RRM
initiates a hard handoff procedure. If personality
handoff

is

required,

personality

handoff

is

performed to hand off the AT to the DOA carrier


before the hard handoff.

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