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RULES OF THUMB

Selecting Enroute Altitude/FL

10% of the leg distance (thousands of feet)

For Example: Leg to 300 NM x 10% = FL30

Rate of Descent (fpm)

IAS ÷ 2 & add a zero to get 3° descent

250 ÷ 2 = 125

Add Zero = 1,250 fpm descent

or

GS x 5

400 KIAS x 5 = 2,000 fpm

Top of Descent (TOD)

Multiply the # of feet to lose x 3 Divide by 1,000 (remove 3 zeros)

FL 350 to 5000' = 30,000' 30,000 3 = 90,000

90,000 ÷ 1,000 = 90 miles

Performance Formulas

FPM/Ground Speed = Gradient

Feet Per NM/60 = Gradient

(6076')

90,000 90,000 ÷ 1,000 = 90 miles Performance Formulas FPM/Ground Speed = Gradient Feet Per NM/60

2nd Segment Visual Conditions = 1.6 Net Climb Gradient (97' per NM)

2nd Segment Requirements for IMC Obstacle Clearance = 3.3% net climb gradient (200 feet per NM)

For second segment and enroute turning climb, up to and including a 15° bank angle, if the takeoff weight is 19,323 lbs (*19,516) or less, multiply weight by 1.035 to obtain an adjusted weight. Enter the appropriate second segment or enroute climb table at the adjusted weight to find the actual climb performance of the aircraft in the bank. If takeoff weight is greater than 19,323 lbs (*19,516), reduce the climb gradient by 1.2%. AFM Page 4-37 (10)

Anti-Skid Inop: Multiply by 1.6

Add 7 Knots/Multiply Distance by 1.3 for Residual Ice on Wings

Flaps Inop: Multiply by 1.4

VDP

Distance (DME): For 3° Approach:

Divide the MDA HAT by 300. The result will be the distance to the end of the runway for the VDP.

Example: MDA is 450 ft. HAT 450 ÷ 300 = 1.5 NM from the end of the runway.

Timing:

Take the first two digits of the MDA HAT and think of them as seconds:

Example: 450 ft. would be translated as 45 seconds. Subtract this number from the total timing required to the end of the runway. i.e; Look at your Jepps and see how much time it would take from the FAF to the end of the runway based on your approach

speed

then subtract 45 seconds from it.

It may look like this: MDA is 450 ft. HAT and if time to runway is 3 minutes minutes minus 45 seconds = 2:15.

then 3

At the MDA and 2:15 min. from the time you passed the FAF you must have the runway in sight to begin a stabilized descent from MDA to land at that runway.

* The MAP may not be co-located with the end of the runway subtract or add as necessary.

if that's the case

HAT ÷ 300 (3° Glideslope) = Distance Out from End of Runway

Temperature Conversion

°F - °C Temp -32 +10% ÷ 2

°C - °F Temp x 2 -10% + 32

Power Settings (approximate)

48% 160 KIAS

58% 200 KIAS

65% 250 KIAS

46% Normal ILS

48% Single Engine ILS

52% Circle to Land @ 140 KIAS

V Speeds

Weight

V

V

ref

app

Weight

V

V

ref

app

14k

15k

16k

102

106

109

108

111

115

17k

18k

18,700

112

115

117

118

122

124

High Altitude Buffet Avoidance

FL410 Max @ Weights 17,500

Normal Fuel Flow:

1st Hour 1700 lbs/hr

2nd Hour 1400 lbs/hr

Add'l

1300 lbs/hr

Weight & Balance

Weight X Arm = Moment

Moment / Weight = C.G.

******************************** Weight Shift:

Weight Shifted ÷ GWT

X

C.G. Moved ÷ Wt Moved

1. Weight Shifted

2. GWT

3. Distance C.G. Moved

4. Wt Moved

1 x 4 ÷ 2 = 3

Moved Forward: Subtract Moved Aft: Add to C.G.

*****************************

% of MAC Formula

% MAC = (C.G. - 306.59) ÷ 0.8283

C.G. Ranges Inches (approximate)

Zero Fuel

Max Landing 330.74" - 331.0"

20,400

321.0" - 331.26"

324.29" - 331.0"

C.G. Ranges % Mac (approximate)

15,100

15.0" - 30.0"

20,200

21.5" - 29.5"