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2 - Ashby Method

2.5 - Case studies

Outline

Materials for oars


Materials for flywheel
Materials for spark plug insulators
Air cylinders for trucks

Resources:
M. F. Ashby, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design Butterworth Heinemann, 1999
Chapter 6
The Cambridge Material Selector (CES) software -- Granta Design (www.grantadesign.com)

Materials for oars

Materials for oars


Specification
Function
Objectives
Constraints

Oar: light, stiff beam

Oars are stiffness-limited,


minimum weight, designs

Minimum weight
Stiffness S specified
Cost within reason
Toughness adequate

Free
variables

Cross-section area
Material

Multiple constraints problem

Materials for oars


F

Function

Beam (solid square section).

Objective

Minimise mass, m, where:

b
b

m = A L = b2 L
Constraint

Stiffness of the beam S:

m = mass
A = area
L = length
= density
b = edge length
S = stiffness
I = second moment of area
E = Youngs Modulus

CEI

S=

L3

I is the second moment of area:


I=

Free variables

b4
12

Material choice.
Edge length b. Combining the equations gives:
1/ 2

12 S L5

m=
C


1/ 2
E

Chose materials with smallest 1/ 2


E

Materials for oars


Specification

Function
Objectives
Constraints

Oars are stiffness-limited,


minimum weight, designs

Oar: light, stiff beam


Minimum weight
Stiffness S specified
Cost within reason
Toughness adequate

Free
variables

Cross-section area
Material

Multiple constraints problem


Primary constraint
Performance maximizing criteria
Material index, set by objective

Material limits, set by constraints

Fracture toughness

1/2

K lc 10 MPa.m

Minimise M =

E1/ 2

Density

Modulus

Materials for oars -- hard copy chart


M=
3 4

E1/ 2

The selection
1 Wood: Cheap, light, but
variable

2
Search
area

2 CFRP: The best choice,


more control of design

3 Beryllium: cost (and


toxicity) rules it out
4 Ceramics: But fracture
toughness inadequate

Oars: real life


Wood: Sitka spruce,
quartered and laminated
CFRP: Tailored to rowers
specification

Flywheels

Real flywheel -- filament-wound GFRP


Case

Rotor

Burst shield

Specification for a flywheel


Specification

Function
Objectives

Flywheel
Maximum energy/weight
Must not disintegrate

Constraints

Cost within reason


Fr. Toughness adequate

Free
variables

Material

Multiple constraints problem

Material index and constraints for flywheels


Maximise energy/unit weight at maximum velocity
Angular velocity

Moment of inertia

Energy

2
U =
2

Mass

m = R 2 t

Must not fail

Maximise

(1)
(2)

Density

(3 + ) R 2 2
8

Strength

(3 + ) 1

8
2

U
y
m
2

Energy/mass

R 4 t

=
2

M =

(3)
(4)

Additional constraint: Fracture toughness > 15 MPa.m1/2

Material for flywheels


1

M= y

2
The selection
1 Ceramics: But fracture
toughness inadequate
2 CFRP, GFRP: The best
choice

Spark-plug insulators
Specification
Spark-plug insulator

Function

Insulator

Objectives

Minimise material cost


Body
shell

Good electrical insulator

Constraints

Breakdown V > 20 MV/m


Tolerate temp. > 600 C
Resist thermal shock of 100 C

Free
variables

Central
electrode

Material

Multiple constraints problem

Analysis for spark plug insulators


Constraints: R > 1.1015 ohm.cm

Vmax > 20 MV/m

Tmax > 600 C

Temperature change

Thermal Strain = T

(1)

T-expansion coefficient

Insulator

Youngs modulus

Stress:

=E

(2)
Elastic limit

Fracture when:

= el in tension

(3)

Combining (1) to (3) gives allowable T-shock:

Tmax =

Body
shell

el
E

Impose T > 100 C as a constraint, then minimise material cost

Central
electrode

Materials for spark-plug insulators

resistance,
shock
Thermal
shock
resistance (C)T (C)
Thermal

10000

1000

The selection:
alumina

Thermal shock - cost

Search
region

Silica

Silicon Nitrides

Glass Ceramics

Aluminas

Aluminium Nitrides

100

Additional constraints:
Electrical resistivity > 1.1015 ohm.cm
Breakdown potential > 20 MV/m
Maximum service temperature > 873 K
10
1

10

100

Price (typical) (GBP/kg)

Approximate material cost ($/kg)

Case study: Air cylinders for trucks


Design goal: lighter, cheap air cylinders for trucks

Compressed air tank

Design requirements for the air cylinder


t

Specification

Function

Pressure vessel

Objectives

Minimise mass
Minimise cost

Constraints

Free
variables

Pressure p

Dimensions L, R, pressure p, given


Must not corrode in water or oil
Working temperature -50 to +1000C
Safety: must not fail by yielding
Adequate toughness: K1c > 15 MPa.m1/2

2R

L
R = radius
L = length
= density
p = pressure
t = wall thickness

Wall thickness, t;
Choice of material

Performance metrics for the air cylinder


Thin-walled pressure vessels are treated as membranes. The
approximation is reasonable when t < b/4
The stresses in the wall do not vary significantly with radial distance, r
r
z

p 2bL p b
=
2tL
t

r =
z =

pe + pi
p
=
2
2

p b2 pb
=
2bt 2t

t <
4

> 4
t

Performance metrics for the air cylinder


t

Volume of material in cylinder wall

Objective 1

Pressure p

m = 2R L t + 4R2t
2R

= 2R L t1 +

Aspect ratio

Constraint

L
Q

R = radius
L = length
= density
p = pressure
t = wall thickness
y= yield strength
Sf = safety factor
Q = aspect ratio 2R/L

pR
=
< y
t
Sf
Eliminate t to give:

Metric 1

Objective 2
Metric 2

2R

m = 2 R 2 L (1 + Q) p Sf
y
C = Cm m

C
C = 2 R 2 L (1 + Q) p Sf m
y

Substitution: Relative performance metrics


This is a problem of substitution. The tank is currently made of a plain
carbon steel.
The mass m and cost C of a tank made from an alternative material M,
differs (for the same strength) from one made of Mo by the factors
C Cm y,o
.
=
Co y Cm,o o

m y,o

.
=
mo y o

For plain carbon steel

o / y,o = 0.03

Explore the trade-off between

and

m
and
mo

C
Co

Cm,o o / y,o = 0.02

Trade-off plot

Trade-off
surface

10

Additional
constraints:
K1c >15 MPa.m1/2
Cu-alloys T
max > 373 K

Zn-alloys

Tmin < 223 K


Water: good +
Organics: good +
1

Mild steel
Ni-alloys
High-C steel
Low alloy steel
Al-alloys

0.1

Mg-alloys
Al-SiC Composite

0.1

GFRP

CFRP

Ti-alloys

10

100

Price * Density / Elastic limit

Cost relative to plain carbon steel, C/Co

Trade-off plot
The four sectors of a trade-off plot for substitution
Lead alloys

Mass relative
to plain
carbon
Density
/ Elastic
limit steel, m/mo

Mass relative
to plain
carbon
Density
/ Elastic
limit steel, m/mo

Lead alloys

10

D. Worse by
both metrics

B. Cheaper
but heavier

Cu-alloys
Zn-alloys

Mild steel
Ni-alloys
High-C steel
Low alloy steel

C. Lighter
but more
expensive

Al-alloys

0.1

M g-alloys

A. Better by
both metrics
0.1

Al-SiC Composite

GFRP

CFRP
10

T i-alloys
1 00

Price * Density / Elastic limit

Cost relative to plain carbon steel, C/Co

High-C steel, low alloy steel and Al-alloys all offer reduction in mass and cost

Problem solution
Selected material M (or materials) to substitute carbon steel

, y , Cm
Mass m and cost C of a tank made from the alternative material M
m y,o

.
=
mo y o

C Cm y,o
=
.
Co y Cm,o o

o / y,o = 0.03

Cm,o o / y,o = 0.02

Free variable (thickness)


=

pR
< y
t
Sf