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Solutions for Homework #9

PROBLEM 1. (P. 32 on page 379 in the note) Consider a springmounted rigid bar of total mass m and

length L, to which an additional mass m is lumped at the rightmost end. The system has no damping.

Find the natural modes of vibration


The left support is given an initial vertical
displacement a and is then released. Find the
response.
Write down the impulse response functions for this
system.

m
k

Rigid Bar !!!!


Careful: The rigid bar has rotational inertia (the mass of
the bar is uniformly distributed).

SOLUTION
The system has two degrees of freedom for the vertical translation u C and rotation . We first consider a
general deformed shape for the system in terms of u C and , as shown below.

uc
k

Then, we draw the free body diagramm and set up the equations of motion as follows.

L
J && + mu&&B
2
m B
m u&&c

k uA

k uB

where J=mL2 /12. Choosing as degrees of freedom the rotation of the rigid bar and the translation of the
center of mass, u C , we have:
L
L
u A = uc
uB = uc +
{1}
2
2
The equations of motion are formulated by defining equilibrium of vertical forces and moments around the
center of mass, as follows:

= 0 : ku A + ku

+mu&& C +mu&&B = 0

L
2 mu&&C + m &&+ 2 kuC = 0
2
L
L
L
M C = 0 : kuA 2 + kuB 2 + J&& + mu&&B 2 = 0

{2}

mL
mL2 && kL2
u&&C +
+
=0
{3}
2
3
2
Express the above equations {2} and {3} in the following matrix form.
mL

0
2k
2 m
2 u&&C
u C Pz
+
{4}

kL2 =

2 &&
mL mL 0
M

2
3
2
Manipulate equation {4} such that we shift the factor L from the second columns to the rotational
component , and then divide the second row by L to obtain the following form.
2 1 / 2 u&&C 2 0 u C Pz
m
{5}
&& + k
=

1 / 2 1 / 3 L 0 1 / 2 L M / L
or symbolically
&& + Ku = P
Mu
{6}
Note that
uC
Pz
u = , and P =
{7,8}

L
M / L
To find the natural modes of vibration, we establish the following eigenvalue problem from equation {5}.
12 0
12 3 z 0
m 2
with =
{9}


= ,
k
3 2 0
0 3
Then, the solutions for equation {9} are given as 1 = 0.735 , and 2 = 3.264 . Then, it follows that
k
k
1 and 2 =
2
m
m
1
1

1 = 4 41 , and 2 = 4 42

1 =

{10,11,12,13}

Next, consider the response for the case that the left support at B is given an initial vertical displacement a
and is then released. In connection with equation {7}, this initial condition can be expressed in the form.
uC 0 a / 2
u0 =
with 0 = a / L
{14}
=
,
L 0 a
Also, in terms of mode shapes, u0 is written in the form.
u 0 = q 0 11 + q 02 2
{15}
From the orthogonality condition, we obtain
T Mu 0
T Mu 0
q 01 = 1T
, and q 02 = 2T
1 M 1
2 M 2
Finally, we can express

{16,17}

u = q j j

{18}

j =1

where
1

q j (t ) = q 0 j cos jt , and j = 4 4 j

j

However, remember that u = {uC

{19,20}

L } . Therefore, more precisely, we can express


T

1
2
uC

= q0 j cos j t 4 4 j

j =1
L
j

{21}

The impulse response functions for this system are expressed in the form.
2

u = q j j j

{22}

j =1

where
q j (t ) =

1
sin jt
j

j = 4 4 j
L2
j
Since u = {uC

{23}

, for Pz = 1and M = 0
{24}

, for Pz = 0and M = 1

L } , we can express
T

1
2 sin t
uC

j
j 4 4 j
=

j =1
j
L
j

{25}

PROBLEM 2. (P. 33 on page 380 in the note) Consider a lumped mass structure which can be modeled as a

shear beam (= a chain of close-coupled lateral springs and masses, i.e. the simple system that we often use
to model high-rise buildings). The distance between floors (i.e. inter-story height) is constant. The masses
are numbered from the top down, and while arbitrary, you should consider them as being known. The
stiffness, however, are not known. However, from a vibration test, you have determined experimentally
the fundamental frequency 1 as well as the fundamental mode 1 , and you have found that this mode is a
straight line, i.e. 1T ={N

N-1

N -2 3

2 1}

a) Determine the values of the springs in terms of the fundamental frequency and
masses.

m1

u1
k1

m2

u2

b) The overturning moment at the base is the moment exerted by the inertia
forces, which is

k2

M = mi &&
ui zi
i =1

in which zi is the height of the ith mass above the ground. Show that because the
first mode is a straight line, only that mode contributes to the overturning moment
(notice, by the way, that the foundation must be able to resist this moment).

mN

uN
kN

c) Suppose that there is a wall that runs parallel to the structure, and that there
are springs of rigidity ri = mi connecting the masses and the wall, in which is
a known constant (i.e, the springs are proportional to the masses). If you knew
all the frequencies and mode shapes of the original system without the added
springs, could you find the frequencies and mode shapes for the structure with
the added springs?

r1
m1
k1

r2

m2
k2

d) If N=2 (i.e. two floors only), find the second frequency and mode shape, again
in terms of the known parameters (for the original system without added lateral
springs!). Assume that both masses are equal.
e) Determine the proportional damping matrix for the 2-dof system in d) that
would produce the same value of damping in both modes. From this matrix,
figure out the values and physical configuration of the dashpots.
f) Again for the 2-dof system considered in d), assume that it is subjected to a
unit impulsive load acting on the bottom floor. Find the response in each floor,
assuming no damping.

rN
mN
kN

SOLUTION

We first formulate the mass and stiffness matrix of the structure:

m1

M =

m2

...

m N

k1
k
1
K =

k1
k1 + k2

k2

k2

...
kN 1

m1

k N 1

kN 1 + kN

u1
k1

m2

u2
k2

The fundamental eigenvalue and modal shape are an eigenpair, satisfying the
eigenvalue problem, namely:

K 1 = 12 M 1

{1}
mN

We substitute the mass and stiffness matrix in equation {1} and perform the
algebraic operations in the left and right hand side of {1}.

12 M 1 = 12

m1

k1
k
1
K 1 =

...

m N

m2

k1
k 1+ k 2

k 2

k2

...
kN 1

N
N 1

= 1
...

k N 1

kN 1 + kN

m1 N
m N 1
)
2(

...

mN

N
N 1

=
...
1

k1

k k
2
1

...

kN kN 1

uN
kN

{2}

{3}

Substituting {2} and {3} in equation {1}, we get the following system of N equations with N unknown
stiffness coefficients k 1 , k2 ... k N :
k1

m1 N
k k

2
1
2 m2 ( N 1 )

= 1
...
...

kN kN 1

mN

k1 = 12 m1 N

k2 = 12 m1 N + m 2 (N 1)


...

k = 2 m N + m ( N 1) + ... + m
1 1
2
N
N
{4}

ki = m1 N + m 2 ( N 1) + ... + mi ( N ( i 1) )
2
1

N
The overturning moment at the base is the moment exerted by the inertia forces is M = mi &&
ui zi .
i =1
N

We want to prove that m i u&&i z i = 0 i 1 .


i =1

We know that the response of the i th degree of freedom for the j th mode is given by: ui ( t ) =ij q j ( t ) .
Therefore the acceleration of the i th degree of freedom for the j th mode is given by: u&&i ( t ) =ij q&&j ( t ) .
So the overturning moment at the base, for the jth mode is evaluated as follows:

M j = &&qj mi ij zi

{5}

i =1

The inter-story height, h, i.e. the distance between floors, is constant. Therefore, the position of the masses
can be written in vector form as follows:
z T = {N h

... h } = h {N

( N 1)h

N 1 ... 1} = h 1

{6}

We now write equation {5} in matrix form as follows:


T
T
M j = &&
q j j M z = q&& j h j M 1 = 0 j 1

{7}

due to the orthogonality of the modal shapes with respect to the mass matrix.
Therefore, from modal superposition, the total moment at the base is evaluated as follows:
N

j =1

j=1

T
T
M = M j = q&& j h j M 1 = q&&1 h 1 M 1 = q&&1 h 1

{8}

Suppose that there is a wall that runs parallel to the structure, and that there are springs of rigidity
ri = mi connecting the masses and the wall, in which is a known constant (i.e, the springs are
proportional to the masses).

All the frequencies and mode shapes of the original system without the added springs are known.
The presence of the lateral springs, results in the following stiffness matrix for the structure:
k1
k
1
K* =

k1
k1 + k2

k2

k2

...
kN 1

m1

+a

k N 1

kN 1 + kN

m2

= K + a M {9}

...

mN

The new eigenvalue problem is formulated as follows (assume that the modal shapes are identical to the
previous structure and successively verify):

( )

K *i = i*

M i

( K + M ) i = ( *i )
K i =

(( )

* 2
i

M i

{10}

) M =
i

2
i

M i

Therefore, the new natural frequencies of the system are:

( )

* 2
i

= i2 +

and the modal shapes of the modified structure remain the same.

{11}

For the 2 degree of freedom system, the mass and stiffness matrices are:
k1
k1
K =

k1 k1 + k 2

m 0
M=

0 m

From equation {4}, we calculate the stiffness coefficients, as a function of the masses and the fundamental
frequency, as follows (N = 2):
k1 = 2 m 12

k 2 = [ 2 m + m ] = 3 m 12
2
1

2 2
Therefore, the stiffness matrix is now: K = m 12

2 5

{12}

From the orthogonality properties of the modal shapes wrt. the mass matrix, we know that:
1 T M 2 = 0

m 0 1
= 0 22 = 2
0 m 22

{2 1}

{13}

We also verify the orthogonality properties of the second mode wrt. the stiffness matrix:
1 T K 2 = 0

{2 1}

2 2 1
m 12
=0
2 5 2

{14}

The second frequency of the system is calculated using the Rayleigh quotient, which will give the exact
frequency, when the second modal shape is used:

2 K 2

{1

R = 22 =

2 M 2
T

2
2} m 12
2
1
{1 2} m
0

2 1

5 2
30 12
=
= 6 12
0 1
5

1 2

{15}

The Rayleigh damping matrix for the 2 dof system, is formulated as follows: C = 0 M + 1 K

We know from the class notes that the coefficients 0 and 1 are evaluated as follows:
2 1 1 1 12 0

2
2 2 2 1 2 1

{16}

Setting in equation {16} 1 = 2 = , 22 = 6 12 , we evaluate the coefficients as follows:

1 12
0
=
2
1
1 6 1

2 1
2

=
5
2 6 1

6 6 1

6 1

{17}

Therefore, the damping matrix is now:


C =0 M + 1 K =

2
5

m
6 6 1
0

2 m 1
1 0
=
6 6
+
5
0 1

0
6 1
+
m 12
m
1

2
6 1
2

2 2
2 5 =

2
2.58
= m 1
5
1.16

1.16

4.32

2.58 1.16 c1 + c3
The damping matrix can be written as follows: C = m 1
=
1.16 4.32 c1

{18}

c1
c1 + c2

Due to the way the Rayleigh damping matrix was formulated (mass and stiffness proportional), the physical
configuration of the dashpots is shown in the figure below:

c1
c3
c2

The force vector for a unit impulsive load acting on the bottom floor, is the following:
p T = {0 ( t )} where: ( t ) is the Dirac Delta function

{19}

The modal properties of the structure, namely modal masses and forces are calculated below (damping is
ignored):
m 0
1 = {2 1}

0 m

2
= 5m
1

0
1 = { 2 1}
= (t )
(t )

m 0
2 = {1 2}

0 m

1
= 5m
2

{20}

0
2 = {1 2}
= 2 (t )
(t )

Therefore, the structure response is evaluated using modal superposition, as follows:


u
2 1
1
2
u = 1 = 1 h1 + 2 h2 =
sin ( 1 t ) +
sin
u
1
5
m

2
2

1
5 m 6 1

6 1 t

where h 1 and h 2 are the impulse response functions corresponding to the 1st and 2nd mode.