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CEBU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY

Cebu City
Physics Department
Sanchez, Hyacinth T.

Date Submitted: Dec. 3, 2015

Experiment no. 3

Group 6, 3:00 6:00 PM TH

Title: Heating Effect of Current

Objectives: To observe the heating effect of current and make an experimental


determination of joules constant.
Apparatus: Graduated Cylinder, Voltmeter, Ammeter, Power Supply, Timer, Connectors,
Electric Calorimeter, Rheostat, Thermometer, Thermocouple.
Procedure:
Part I
1. The Circuit was discussed as shown on the diagram. The inner cup of the
calorimeter was weighed and a 150 gram of water was placed in it.
2. A thermometer in the calorimeter cover was inserted, making sure that the bulb is
half-way into the thermometer.
3. The rheostat was adjusted to read the voltmeter into 3 volts. In addition, the
corresponding ammeter reading was noted.
4. The initial temperature was noted while gently stirring the water in the
calorimeter. The timer was activated simultaneously with the reading of the initial
temperature. Without stopping the timer, the final temperature was recorded
every two minutes until five trials were mad. (The voltage constant for the
duration of the experiment was kept by adjusting the rheostat).
Part II
1. The power supply was turned off and the water in the calorimeter was replaced.
(The coil of the water was never taken while the power is on).
2. The voltage was set again to 3 volts and the initial temperature was noted
(water). The temperature (final) after five minutes was read and noted.
3. Four trials were made more, the voltage was increased by 0.5 V and the water
was changed each time. The corresponding ammeter reading for each of the five
trials,
The amount of heat absorbed by the water and the calorimeter in calories
was calculated.
The electrical energy consumed was also calculated.
Finally, the Joules constant and the percent error in each of part I and part
II was calculated.

Sketch:

Data and Results:


Part I
I (amp)

T (sec)

Ti
( Tf
(
Q (cal)
C )
C )

E (Joules)

J (J/cal)

1.63
1.64

120
240

29.3
29.3

30.1
30.9

130
261

587
1181

4.50
4.53

1.65
1.65
1.64
Table 1

360
480
600

29.3
29.3
29.3

31.7
32.4
33.0

391
505
603

1782
2376
2952

4.55
4.70
4.89

V (volts)

3 volts

Jave = 4.63

%E=

J ( ave ) J ( std )

x 100
J ( std)

= 10.6%

Part II
Ti
( Tf
(
Q (cal)
C )
C )

E (Joules)

J (J/cal)

1.68

30.6

32.3

298

1512

5.64

3.5

1.93

34.6

358

1764

3.93

2.15

37.6

463

2016

4.35

4.5

2.35

32.3
300 sec
34.6
(5 mins)
37.6

41.0

523

2268

4.34

2.62

41.0

44.3

508

2520

4.96

V (volts)

I (amp)

T (sec)

Table 2
Jave = 4.84

%E=

J ( ave ) J ( std )

x 100
J ( std)

= 16%

Data Analysis:
From the given data, we can infer the effect of current to temperature. Voltage (in
volts) was kept constant throughout the five trials in the first part of the experiment,
while in the second part, time (in seconds) was kept constant. Electrical energy
consumed (in Joules) was measured with the use of the formula E=VIT wherein V
refers to volts, I refers to amperes, and T refers to seconds. As for the amount of heat in
calories, the formula Q= mw cw tw + mc cc tc was used. The given formula defines that
computed amount of heat is equal to the sum of the heat absorbed by the water and the
calorimeter. Joules constant can then be calculated, provided data of E and Q. The
formula J=E / Q was used.

Questions:
1. What error would be introduced into the value of J in failing to take into
account the heat absorbed by the stirrer?
If one fails to recognize the purpose of the stirrer (which is to evenly
spread the heat throughout the calorimeter), there is a great possibility for an
error to occur in getting the value of J. Q, or the amount of heat consumed,
might have a different value if the heat was not spread thoroughly upon the
recording of data, causing a different value of the Joules constant.
2. A piece of nichrome wire is embedded into a 1-kg block of ice at -10 C . A
current of 3.0 amperes and a voltage of 12 volts is maintained in the wire.
How long will it take to separate the wire from the ice?
Heat reqd 00C ice 00C H2O
sec
H1 = mLv
= (1000)(334)
=334 000 J
Heat reqd 00C H2O 100C H2O
H1 = mct
= (1000kg)(4.18J / kg C)(1
0
00
C)
=41 800 J

electro heating = 3 x 12 = 36 J/ C
0
T = (375800J/sec) = 10438.89
(36 sec)
sec min hour
10438.89 sec=178.98 min = 2.90 hr

H1 + H2 = 334 000 J + 41 800 J


= 375 800 J

Conclusion:
Heat is energy that is in a process of transfer between a system and its surroundings. It
may be transferred into another form of energy. Example could be heat that is converted
into electrical energy.
As electrical energy increases, heat energy produced also increases.

COMPUTATIONS:

Part I.
Q= t (mw cw+ mc cc)

E=VIT

Q= (30.1 29.3)[(150 x 1.00) + (60.1 x 0.217)]


= 130.43336

= 586.8

Q= (30.9 29.3)[(150 x 1.00) + (60.1 x 0.217)]


= 260.86672

E= (3.00)(1.63)(240)
= 1180.8

Q= (31.7 29.3)[(150 x 1.00) + (60.1 x 0.217)]


= 391.30008

E= (3.00)(1.63)(360)
= 1782

Q= (32.4 29.3)[(150 x 1.00) + (60.1 x 0.217)]


= 505.42927

E= (3.00)(1.63)(430)
= 2376

Q= (33.0 29.3)[(150 x 1.00) + (60.1 x 0.217)]


= 603.25429

J=E/Q

E= (3.00)(1.63)(120)

E= (3.00)(1.63)(600)
= 2952

J(ave) = 4.50 + 4.53 + 4.55 + 4.70 + 4.89

J= 586.8 / 130.43336

5.00

= 4.498849067

= 4. 634752295 or 4.63

J= 1180.8 / 260.86672
= 4.5266449362
10.61461277%
J= 1782 / 391.30008
= 4.55404967
J= 2376 / 505.42927
= 4.700954498
J= 2952 / 603.25429

%E=

4. 6347522954.19 x 100
4.19

= 4.893958777

Part 2
Q= t (mw cw+ mc cc)

E=VIT

For 3 volts
Q= (32.3 30.6)[(150 x 1.00) + (60.1 x 0.217)]

E= (3.00)(1.68)(300)

= 298

= 1512

For 3.5 volts


Q= (34.6-32.3)[(150 x 1.00) + (60.1 x 0.217)]

E= (3.50)(1.93)(300)

= 358

= 1764

For 4.00 volts


Q= (37.6-34.6)[(150 x 1.00) + (60.1 x 0.217)]

E= (4.00)(2.15)(300)

= 463

= 2016

For 4.5 volts


Q= (41.0-37.6)[(150 x 1.00) + (60.1 x 0.217)]

E= (4.50)(1.63)(300)

= 523

= 2268

For 5 volts
Q= (44.3-41.0)[(150 x 1.00) + (60.1 x 0.217)]

E= (5.00)(1.63)(300)

= 508

J=E/Q

= 2520

J(ave) = 5,64 + 4.93 + 4.35 + 4.34 + 4.96

J(3 volts) = 1512 / 298

5.00

= 5.640913335

= 4. 844

J(3.5 volts) = 1764 / 358


= 4.926800426
15.60859189%
J(4.00 volts) = 2016 / 463

%E=

4. 8444.19 x 100
4.19

= 4.353819537
J(4.5 volts) = 2268 / 523
= 4.736174343
J(5.00 volts) = 2520 / 508
= 4.960222753