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Whatdoeswellmixedmean?

Prof.SuzanneKresta,University ofAlberta
AIChEStudent Conference
SanFrancisco,November2,2013

S Kresta/2013

WhatdoyoumeanbyWellMixed?

This is a well mixed CSTR.

This is a coffee mug.

Well mixed is not a clear definition, and perfectly mixed in a very short
time is only a safe assumption for perfectly miscible low viscosity fluids.

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Islandsofunmixedness
importantforpharmaceuticals,fine
chemicals,cosmetics,food,allmadein
smallbatches
Macroscale mixing,andsegregationofconcentration

t = 0s

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t = 30 s

t = 2 min

t = 5 min

Otherexamples?
Whatotherexamplescanyougiveofamixing
problemfromeverydaylife(notalwaysthe
kitchen!)Withthepersonnexttoyou,come
upwith5in2minutes!
Whereelsecouldmixingcauseaproblemin
yourdesignprojects,orothertechnical
experiences?(noticethisaswegoforward
throughtheindustrialexamples)
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Micro toMegascale
CIJR
4 mm,
1 mL

CIST
120 mm,
1L

40 ft = 12 m, 10 ML

Coker transport

WhenscalingdowntoamicroLvesselandnanosized
particles,particlemassbecomesinsignificantrelativeto
surfaceforces(nanotechnology)
WhenscalinguptotheMLscale,thebulkblendtime
becomesinfinitelylongandlocalmixingconditions
dominate(mixingtechnology)
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IndustrialMixing
Blending
MultiphaseMixing
Justcontacted(macro)
UniformDistribution(meso)
SizeReduction(meso andmicro)

MixingSensitiveReactions
Heterogeneous(multiphase)
Homogeneous
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Example1:Turbulentblending
Wellmixed=uniformconcentration

Designforuniform
concentration
Specifythenumber
ofstaticmixer
Mixinghappensinmany
elementsneeded
geometries besides
Thiscanbeharder
stirredtanks!
thanitlooks!
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Example2:Laminarblending
Wellmixed=novisibledefectsatthe20mscale

In this case the key


specification is the
striation thickness.
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Designforscale
reduction
Specifythenumber
ofstaticmixer
elementsneeded

Example3:MultiphaseMixing
Wellmixed=JustDispersed
Dispersedphasemustnotbeclusteredtogether
Specifyimpeller speed,Njs,Njd
Key objective is to incorporate the second phase

liquiddrawdown
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airentrainment
andsolidssuspension
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Example4:Mixinginafeedjet
Whatmattersmost?
Plumedispersion?
Eddysize?
Mixingtimeandlength?

The key variable depends on the application.


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Segregatedfeedplume
FeedTime=901seconds

FeedTime=21s

Local concentration and local mixing rates determine the


outcome of the reaction.
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Feedattheimpeller
(rapiddropinconcentration)

Feedatthesurface
(highlocalconcentration
persists longer)

Mesoscalesegregationin
concentrationleadstoan
undesired sidereaction.
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Otherexamples?
Whereelsecouldmixingcauseaproblemin
yourdesignprojects,orothertechnical
experiences?
Doesthisdefinitionincludeyourproblem?

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TechnicalDefinitionofMixing
Mixinghasthreephysicaldimensions
(concentration,scale,andrate)
Itrequiresthreedesignspecifications:
Uniformityofconcentration
Aspecifiedscaleofsegregation
Arequiredrateofmixing,ormixingtime,whichisoften
incompetitionwithotherrates.

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Whichoneisthemosthomogeneous?

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MeasuringuniformityusingCoV*
Uniformityinconcentrationismeasuredusingthestandard
deviation,orcoefficientofvariation(CoV)
OncetheCoV dropsbelow5%ofitsinitialvalue,(CoV/CoVo<0.05)
blendingisconsideredcomplete
Atanypointintime,theequationis:

CoV

C mean

2
(
C
C
)

i mean

C mean

Ci concentration at point i
C mean average concentration
N number of points
sample standard deviation

Applythistothecheckerboard.
*Chapter 3 by Brown et al in Paul et al., 2004, Handbook of Industrial Mixing, Wiley, New York.
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WhichonehasthesmallestCoV?

CoV= 1.73

CoV= 1.41

CoV only measures the concentration variance or the intensity of


segregation not the arrangement of areas.
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Whichonehasthesmallestscalesofsegregation?

Scales: 8
Minimum = 8

Scales: 2,4,6
Minimum = 2

Scales: 1
Minimum = 1

Scales: 4,8,12
Minimum = 4

Scales: 1,2,4,6
Minimum = 1

Scales: 1
Minimum = 1

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Checkerboardsummary:
Scaleandintensityofsegregationareindependent.

Scale: 8
CoV=1.73

Scale: 2
CoV=1.41

Scale: 1
CoV=1.73

Scale: 4
CoV=1.41

Scale: 1
CoV=1.41

Scale: 1
CoV=1.41

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Howlongdoesittaketogettowellmixed?

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Howlongdoesittaketo
completelybreakupdrops?
Inemulsionformation,theequilibriumtimeisthetime
requiredtogettothefinaldropsize.Itisamesoscale
phenomenon,occurringatscalessmallerthanthetank
diameterorpipesize,butlargerthanthediffusional
scales.
Othermesoscalereduction
orgrowthratesapplyfor
otherprocesses.

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Howfastdowehavetomixthefeedfor
mixingsensitivereactions?
Wellmixed=outrunbyproductformation

Reactiontime?
Localconcentration
Turbulentmixingtime?
Eddytimescale,dissipation
The key variable is the relative rates of mixing and
reaction, especially at the micro-scales where diffusion
and reaction become dominant.
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Matching mixing scale and rate is the key

Meso-mixing:
-scale of the feed zone
-only have a threshold

Macro-mixing:
-scale of the tank
-blend time

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Multi-phase mixing:
-dispersion
-mass transfer rate
-phase distribution

Micro-mixing:
-smallest scales of turbulence
-equal to striation diffusion time
-limiting time scale for many
competing rate processes

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QuantitativeMeasuresofMixing
CoV (ornormalizedstandarddeviation)measures
uniformityinconcentration
Thescaleofsegregationcomesinvariousformsof
lengthscalesand/orsizedistributions
Thereareseveralmixingrateswhichdependon
thescaleofmixing:
Blendtimeatthescaleofthetank
Scalereductiontimeatthemesoscale(achieve
equilibriumsize)
Micromixingtimeatthesmallestscales(limitedby
physicalpropertiesandturbulenceorchaos)
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ToLearnMore
CharacterizationofImpellers
RichardGrenville,PhiladelphiaMixingSolutions

YosemiteA/Bat1pmandat2pm
Isthisstuffaliquidorasolid?
ClaraGomez,Coanda

GoldenGate4/5at1pmandat2:30pm
meagain! hereat2:30
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...andstillmore!
MixingsessionsMonday,Tuesday,
Wednesday,HiltonUnionSquare18
TheHandbookofIndustrialMixing
ContactNAMFthrough
www.mixing.net
orme,Dr.SuzanneKresta,at
kresta@ualberta.ca

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