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19 visualizzazioni11 pagineIn this article, we define the Lucas’s inner circles and we highlight some of their properties.

Jul 12, 2016

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In this article, we define the Lucas’s inner circles and we highlight some of their properties.

© All Rights Reserved

19 visualizzazioni

00 mi piace00 non mi piace

In this article, we define the Lucas’s inner circles and we highlight some of their properties.

© All Rights Reserved

Sei sulla pagina 1di 11

to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry. Brussels

(Belgium): Pons Editions, 2016

circles and we highlight some of their

properties.

Let be a random triangle; we aim to

construct the square inscribed in the triangle ,

having one side on .

Figure 1.

with , (), , , , () (see Figure 1).

We trace the line , and we note with its

intersection with () ; through we trace the

79

onto the points , in respectively .

We affirm that the quadrilateral is the

required square.

Indeed, is a square, because

, ,

, ,

Definition.

It is called A-Lucass inner circle of the triangle

the circle circumscribed to the triangle AAaDa.

We will note with the center of the A-Lucass

inner circle and with its radius.

Analogously, we define the B-Lucass inner circle

and the C-Lucass inner circle of the triangle .

the A-Lucas Inner Circle

We note = , = ; let be the height

from of the triangle .

The similarity of the triangles and

leads to:

From

, therefore =

we obtain =

80

+

.

+

.

.

(1)

Note.

Relation (1) and the analogues have been

deduced by Eduard Lucas (1842-1891) in 1879 and

they constitute the birth certificate of the Lucass

circles.

1st Remark.

If in (1) we replace =

radius of the circumscribed circle of the triangle

and represents its area, we obtain:

=

1+

1st Theorem.

The Lucass inner circles of a triangle are inner

tangents of the circle circumscribed to the triangle and

they are exteriorly tangent pairwise.

Proof.

The triangles and are homothetic

through the homothetic center and the rapport:

81

Because

are inner tangents in .

Analogously, it follows that the B-Lucass and CLucass inner circles are inner tangents of the circle

circumscribed to .

Figure 2.

circles are exterior tangents by verifying

= + .

(2)

We have:

= ;

=

and

) = 2

(0

) = 360 2).

(if () > 90 then (0

82

implies, keeping into consideration (2), that:

( )2 + ( )2 2( )( )2 =

= ( + )2 .

Because 2 = 1 22 , it is found that (2)

is equivalent to:

2 =

( )( )

But we have: =

+ = (

2+

(3)

2 2

(2+)(2+)

2+

).

2

42

sin =

2

42

circles is proven.

Analogously, we prove the other tangents.

2nd Definition.

It is called an A-Apolloniuss circle of the random

triangle the circle constructed on the segment

determined by the feet of the bisectors of angle as

diameter.

Remark.

Analogously, the B-Apolloniuss and CApolloniuss circles are defined. If is an isosceles

triangle with = then the A-Apolloniuss circle

83

triangle, its Apolloniuss circle isnt defined.

2nd Theorem.

The A-Apolloniuss circle of the random triangle

is the geometrical point of the points from the plane

of the triangle with the property:

= .

3rd Definition.

We call a fascicle of circles the bunch of circles

that do not have the same radical axis.

a.

If the radical axis of the circles fascicle is

exterior to them, we say that the fascicle

is of the first type.

b.

If the radical axis of the circles fascicle is

secant to the circles, we say that the

fascicle is of the second type.

c.

If the radical axis of the circles fascicle is

tangent to the circles, we say that the

fascicle is of the third type.

3rd Theorem.

The A-Apolloniuss circle and the B-Lucass and

C-Lucass inner circles of the random triangle

form a fascicle of the third type.

84

Proof.

Let { } = (see Figure 3).

Menelauss theorem applied to the triangle

implies that:

= 1,

so:

=1

2

2

of the exterior symmedian from of the triangle

(so the tangent in to the circumscribed circle),

namely the center of the A-Apolloniuss circle.

Let 1 be the contact point of the B-Lucass and

C-Lucass circles. The radical center of the B-Lucass,

C-Lucass circles and the circle circumscribed to the

triangle is the intersection of the tangents

traced in and in to the circle circumscribed to the

triangle .

It follows that = = 1 , so 1 belongs to

the circle that has the center in and orthogonally

cuts the circle circumscribed in and . The radical

axis of the B-Lucass and C-Lucass circles is 1 , and

1 is tangent in 1 to the circle . Considering the

power of the point in relation to , we have:

1 2 = . .

85

Figure 3.

= 1 , which proves that 1 belongs to the AApolloniuss circle and is the radical center of the AApolloniuss, B-Lucass and C-Lucass circles.

Remarks.

1.

||, the radius of the A-Apolloniuss

| 2 2 |

. The point 1 is

that 1 =

| 2 2 |

true.

86

2.

are orthogonal. Indeed, the radius of the

A-Apolloniuss circle is perpendicular to

the radius of the circumscribed circle, ,

so, to the radius of the A-Lucass circle

also.

4th Definition.

The triangle determined by the tangents

traced in , , to the circle circumscribed to the

triangle is called the tangential triangle of the

triangle .

1st Property.

The triangle and the Lucass triangle

are homological.

Proof.

Obviously, , , are concurrent in ,

therefore , the center of the circle circumscribed to

the triangle , is the homology center.

We have seen that { } = and is the

center of the A-Apolloniuss circle, therefore the

homology axis is the Apolloniuss line (the line

determined by the centers of the Apolloniuss circle).

87

2nd Property.

The tangential triangle and the Lucass triangle

of the triangle are orthogonal triangles.

Proof.

The line 1 is the radical axis of the B-Lucass

inner circle and the C-Lucass inner circle, therefore it

is perpendicular on the line of the centers .

Analogously, 2 is perpendicular on , because

the radical axes of the Lucass circles are concurrent

in , which is the radical center of the Lucass circles;

it follows that and are orthological and

is the center of orthology. The other center of

orthology is the center of the circle circumscribed to

.

References.

[1] D. Brnzei, M. Miculia. Lucas circles and spheres.

In The Didactics of Mathematics, volume

9/1994, Cluj-Napoca (Romania), p. 73-80.

[2] P. Yiu, A. P. Hatzipolakis. The Lucas Circles of a

Triangle. In Amer. Math. Monthly, no.

108/2001, pp. 444-446. http://www.math.fau.

edu/yiu/monthly437-448.pdf.

[3] F. Smarandache, I. Patrascu. The Geometry of

Homological Triangles. Educational Publisher,

Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A., 2013.

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