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Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Lucass Inner Circles

In Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache: Complements


to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry. Brussels
(Belgium): Pons Editions, 2016

In this article, we define the Lucass inner


circles and we highlight some of their
properties.

1. Definition of the Lucass Inner Circles


Let be a random triangle; we aim to
construct the square inscribed in the triangle ,
having one side on .

Figure 1.

In order to do this, we construct a square , , , ,


with , (), , , , () (see Figure 1).
We trace the line , and we note with its
intersection with () ; through we trace the

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Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

parallel to with () and we project


onto the points , in respectively .
We affirm that the quadrilateral is the
required square.
Indeed, is a square, because


, ,


, ,

and, as , , = , , , it follows that =

Definition.
It is called A-Lucass inner circle of the triangle
the circle circumscribed to the triangle AAaDa.
We will note with the center of the A-Lucass
inner circle and with its radius.
Analogously, we define the B-Lucass inner circle
and the C-Lucass inner circle of the triangle .

2. Calculation of the Radius of


the A-Lucas Inner Circle
We note = , = ; let be the height
from of the triangle .
The similarity of the triangles and
leads to:

From

, therefore =

we obtain =

80

+
.
+

.
.

(1)

Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Note.
Relation (1) and the analogues have been
deduced by Eduard Lucas (1842-1891) in 1879 and
they constitute the birth certificate of the Lucass
circles.
1st Remark.
If in (1) we replace =

and we also keep into

consideration the formula = 4, where is the


radius of the circumscribed circle of the triangle
and represents its area, we obtain:
=

1+

[see Ref. 2].

3. Properties of the Lucass Inner Circles


1st Theorem.
The Lucass inner circles of a triangle are inner
tangents of the circle circumscribed to the triangle and
they are exteriorly tangent pairwise.
Proof.
The triangles and are homothetic
through the homothetic center and the rapport:

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Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Because

, it means that the A-Lucass inner

circle and the circle circumscribed to the triangle


are inner tangents in .
Analogously, it follows that the B-Lucass and CLucass inner circles are inner tangents of the circle
circumscribed to .

Figure 2.

We will prove that the A-Lucass and C-Lucass


circles are exterior tangents by verifying
= + .
(2)
We have:
= ;
=
and
) = 2
(0
) = 360 2).
(if () > 90 then (0

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Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

The theorem of the cosine applied to the triangle


implies, keeping into consideration (2), that:
( )2 + ( )2 2( )( )2 =
= ( + )2 .
Because 2 = 1 22 , it is found that (2)
is equivalent to:
2 =


( )( )

But we have: =
+ = (

2+

(3)
2 2
(2+)(2+)

2+

).

By replacing in (3), we find that 2 =


2
42

sin =

2
42

is true according to the sines theorem.

So, the exterior tangent of the A-Lucass and C-Lucass


circles is proven.
Analogously, we prove the other tangents.

2nd Definition.
It is called an A-Apolloniuss circle of the random
triangle the circle constructed on the segment
determined by the feet of the bisectors of angle as
diameter.
Remark.
Analogously, the B-Apolloniuss and CApolloniuss circles are defined. If is an isosceles
triangle with = then the A-Apolloniuss circle

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Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

isnt defined for , and if is an equilateral


triangle, its Apolloniuss circle isnt defined.

2nd Theorem.
The A-Apolloniuss circle of the random triangle
is the geometrical point of the points from the plane
of the triangle with the property:

= .

3rd Definition.
We call a fascicle of circles the bunch of circles
that do not have the same radical axis.
a.
If the radical axis of the circles fascicle is
exterior to them, we say that the fascicle
is of the first type.
b.
If the radical axis of the circles fascicle is
secant to the circles, we say that the
fascicle is of the second type.
c.
If the radical axis of the circles fascicle is
tangent to the circles, we say that the
fascicle is of the third type.

3rd Theorem.
The A-Apolloniuss circle and the B-Lucass and
C-Lucass inner circles of the random triangle
form a fascicle of the third type.

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Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Proof.
Let { } = (see Figure 3).
Menelauss theorem applied to the triangle
implies that:

= 1,

so:

=1

and by replacing and , we find that:



2
2

This relation shows that the point is the foot


of the exterior symmedian from of the triangle
(so the tangent in to the circumscribed circle),
namely the center of the A-Apolloniuss circle.
Let 1 be the contact point of the B-Lucass and
C-Lucass circles. The radical center of the B-Lucass,
C-Lucass circles and the circle circumscribed to the
triangle is the intersection of the tangents
traced in and in to the circle circumscribed to the
triangle .
It follows that = = 1 , so 1 belongs to
the circle that has the center in and orthogonally
cuts the circle circumscribed in and . The radical
axis of the B-Lucass and C-Lucass circles is 1 , and
1 is tangent in 1 to the circle . Considering the
power of the point in relation to , we have:
1 2 = . .

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Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Figure 3.

Also, 2 = ; it thus follows that


= 1 , which proves that 1 belongs to the AApolloniuss circle and is the radical center of the AApolloniuss, B-Lucass and C-Lucass circles.
Remarks.
1.

If the triangle is right in then


||, the radius of the A-Apolloniuss

circle is equal to:

| 2 2 |

. The point 1 is

the foot of the bisector from . We find


that 1 =

, so the theorem stands

| 2 2 |

true.

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Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

2.

The A-Apolloniuss and A-Lucass circles


are orthogonal. Indeed, the radius of the
A-Apolloniuss circle is perpendicular to
the radius of the circumscribed circle, ,
so, to the radius of the A-Lucass circle
also.

4th Definition.
The triangle determined by the tangents
traced in , , to the circle circumscribed to the
triangle is called the tangential triangle of the
triangle .

1st Property.
The triangle and the Lucass triangle
are homological.
Proof.
Obviously, , , are concurrent in ,
therefore , the center of the circle circumscribed to
the triangle , is the homology center.
We have seen that { } = and is the
center of the A-Apolloniuss circle, therefore the
homology axis is the Apolloniuss line (the line
determined by the centers of the Apolloniuss circle).

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Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

2nd Property.
The tangential triangle and the Lucass triangle
of the triangle are orthogonal triangles.
Proof.
The line 1 is the radical axis of the B-Lucass
inner circle and the C-Lucass inner circle, therefore it
is perpendicular on the line of the centers .
Analogously, 2 is perpendicular on , because
the radical axes of the Lucass circles are concurrent
in , which is the radical center of the Lucass circles;
it follows that and are orthological and
is the center of orthology. The other center of
orthology is the center of the circle circumscribed to
.

References.
[1] D. Brnzei, M. Miculia. Lucas circles and spheres.
In The Didactics of Mathematics, volume
9/1994, Cluj-Napoca (Romania), p. 73-80.
[2] P. Yiu, A. P. Hatzipolakis. The Lucas Circles of a
Triangle. In Amer. Math. Monthly, no.
108/2001, pp. 444-446. http://www.math.fau.
edu/yiu/monthly437-448.pdf.
[3] F. Smarandache, I. Patrascu. The Geometry of
Homological Triangles. Educational Publisher,
Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A., 2013.

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