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Logical Framework

Analysis

Prof. Ruperto P. Alonzo

School of Economics
University of the Philippines

Some Problems of
Projects/Programs
Unclear strategic
framework
Supply driven projects
Poor analysis of situation
Activity-oriented
planning
Non-verifiable impact
Disbursement pressure
Short-term vision

Sectoral approach
Demand driven solutions
Improved analysis
Objective-oriented
planning
Verifiable impact
Emphasis on quality
Focus on sustainability

Policy Framework
NEDA Bd. Res. No.3-1999 mandates ICC and
implementing agencies to report on project
outcomes and impact
MTPDP provides the setting-up of an effective
public expenditure management system
NEDA Bd. Res. No.14-1999 approving the
Guidelines Incorporating RME in the ICC
Approval Process

REQUIREMENTS OF RME
All agencies are required to:

Prepare project frameworks for all project


proposals submitted to ICC
Submit to NEDA Annual RME reports
Assess project outcomes and the likelihood of
achieving the expected long-term impact upon
completion of project implementation
Conduct an impact assessment of a project,
should ICC deem appropriate

The Logframe is a
Development Management &
Project Design tool
Aims to enhance likelihood of achieving desired

outcomes and longer-term impact of projects

Adopts a set of performance INDICATORS of


project outcomes and impact, defined at
project preparation stage & agreed to between
proponent and approving authority
Acknowledged by ADB, AUSAID, CIDA, EU,
GTZ, JICA, World Bank - that the LOGFRAME
generates good project designs and promises
better management of implementation

The Logframe is an
ANALYTICAL tool
Establishes
checked

indicators

that

can

be

Identify information requirements


Sets out assumptions outside project
coverage that may influence success

The Logframe is a
MONITORING tool
Provides baseline reference for M&E,
progress reporting, and briefings
Difficult to prepare, but beneficial to
planners, managers and M&E staff by
specifying in advance what project will
achieve and indicating means to
measure achievement

The Logframe is a
planning discipline
Also a framework for the mind, forcing it to think
logically, consistently and comprehensively

The Logframe is an
information tabloid
Communication tool that provides all parties
with a concise description of the project, a
summary of scope and key elements

Basic Premises
1. That projects are designed to achieve
quantifiable and measurable objectives
and outputs;
2. That project success and quality need
to be monitored and measured on how
much of projected outputs are actually
achieved;

Basic Premises
3. That projected achievement of objectives and outputs is
based on series of hypotheses, of cause and effect
relationships, clearly agreed to and monitored; and

4. That stakeholders are in agreement on


validity of these hypotheses, which
become the basis of project design.

Logical Framework
NS

WHY/HOW?
GOAL - How will the

Project contribute to a
bigger goal?

PURPOSE - Why is
the project taking
place?

OUTPUTS - What
will the project
deliver?

ACTIVITIES How
will the project be
carried out?

OVI

objectively veriable indicators

WHAT?
Quality
HOW MUCH?
Quantity
WHEN?
Time
WHERE?
Area
FOR WHOM?
Beneficiaries

MOV

means of verication

WHERE
ARE THE

A/R

assumptions/risks

WHAT ARE
OUTSIDE
FACTORS?

DATA?
How will
they be
obtained?

CONSTRAINTS?
Uncertainties?

Column 1
Formulate Objectives

Narrative
Summary

that communicate the


development hypothesis
(intervention strategy)
Unambiguously
realistically (for the
planning horizon)

LogFrame
Building Blocks
Narrative Summary: 4 key project elements, each linked to
one another in a cause-effect relationship:

GOAL for the sector or area Highest objective to which


the project will contribute
How will the project contribute to a bigger goal?
Reflective of: key development indicators, i.e.productivity,
contribution to GDP, incomes, poverty levels, or
employment
Examples:
Regional peace and development achieved
Preserved national road system
Improved socio-economic conditions of beneficiaries in off-grid agrarian
reform communities (ARCs)

LogFrame
Building Blocks
PURPOSE - Measurable change in people (actors)
that will be demonstrated after addressing identified
problems successfully
Why is the project taking place?
The immediate project objective and describes immediate
results hoped to be achieved based on projects outputs.
Examples:
Excellent local governance practised by stakeholders
Roads ably managed by DPWH
Solar power systems sustainably utilized by ARCs

LogFrame
Building Blocks
Outputs - package of facilities and/or services which the
project should deliver as a direct result of its planned
interventions

What will the project deliver?


Tangible, measurable deliverables the Project
is directly accountable for and for which it is
given budgeted amounts of time and resources.

LogFrame
Building Blocks
Outputs - What will the project deliver?

LGSPA
ELAs
developed
LGU staff
trained
New LGU
systems,
policies and
procedures
developed

NRIMP

SPOTS

Roads upgraded
Preventive
maintenance
conducted
Road Maintenance
Authority designed
Business processes
improved

Solar packages
(SPs)
operationalized
Agri-based rural
enterprises (AREs)
established
POs trained in
mgt of SPs and
AREs

LogFrame
Building Blocks
Activities - A set of interrelated tasks to achieve
an intervention strategy
How will the project be carried out?
Brief summary of the series or cluster of
planned to accomplish each output.

activities

Examples: LGU capacity bldg, road rehabilitation, ARC


mobilization

Inputs - Indicators of Activities


The support necessary to implement activities.
Budgeted costs, manpower

LogFrame
Building Blocks
LogFrame elements are further defined by the
3 remaining columns:
Project Targets:
objectively verifiable indicators/OVI
of project achievement.
If you can measure it, you can manage it
quantifies results expected from the goal, purpose, and outputs
Project Monitoring Mechanisms: Means of Verification/MOV
Identification or development of a realistic monitoring mechanism, and
subsequently a management information system to feed information
back into the mechanism
Project Assumptions and Risks

Column 2

Narrative
Summary

Indicators &
Targets

Agree on
indicators that:
Define the heart
of the desired
change
SMART

2nd Column - Indicators


Indicators provide information about:
How much? (quantity - target setting)
How well? (quality)
When? (time period)
Where? (area, if possible and applicable)
Who? (beneficiary group, if possible and applicable)

2nd Column - Indicators


Characteristics of a good indicator
substantial reflect essential content of objective in precise terms
believable describe in detail the aspects/direct impacts of any
objective

target-oriented specific in terms of Q,Q,T,A,B in order for


next higher objective to be achieved

independent only applies to one single objective


measurable can be empirically assessed (by economical and
practical means)

verifiable can be assessed objectively by independent evaluators

Strengthening of Flood Forecasting and Warning System for Dam


Operation (FFWSDO)

Systems/Eqpt Example

Flood forecasting and


warning tools strengthened

Flood forecasting and


warning tools upgraded

Simplified data management system


utilized and maintained and
forecasting models tested and applied

1.1 Simplified data management


system utilized/operational in
_(location/office)_ by _(date)_
1.2 Improved forecasting models
tested in _(location/office)_ by
_(date)_ and applied in
_(location/office)_ by _(date)_

Kapit Bisig Laban sa Kahirapan -Comprehensive and Integrated


Delivery of Social Services (KALAHI-CIDSS)

Subprojects Example
Community subprojects
provided

Community subprojects
provided

By Dec 2008, 5,000 subprojects in


KALAHI brgys implemented at
technical standards and within
budget
1.1 By Dec 2008, brgy subprojects
implemented at technical standards and
within budget
Subproject Type

Luzon

Visayas

Mindanao

Farm to Market Roads

500

650

850

Small Water Systems

500

750

650

Common Service Facilities

300

400

400

1,300

1,800

1,900

TOTAL

1.2 More than 4,000 or 80% of


subprojects had timely flow of funds

Column 3

Narrative
Summary

Indicators &
Targets

Means of
Verification

(Monitoring
Mechanisms)

Select or design
means of
verification which:
Provide accurate
info consistently
Allow easy
translation into a
monitoring system
(cost effective)

Column 3
Means of Verification indicates:

HOW to acquire evidence that


objectives have been met

WHERE to find proof to verify


the realization of each indicator

Column 3
When looking for MOVs, consider:
are there required data available from
secondary sources (official statistics,
internal project reports, etc.)
how available and up-to-date are these
sources, and
what are the costs, if the project has to
collect primary data

Column 3: Common MOVs


GOAL

PURPOSE

Survey
Post Evaluation Report
Project Performance Audit Report
Countrys Economic Development Report
Survey
Project Implementation Completion Report
Appraisal Report
Feasibility Study

OUTPUTS

Inception Report of Consultants


Periodic Monitoring and Evaluation Report (e.g. quarterly)
Contractor/Supplier Report
Work and Financial Plan
Project Implementation Completion Report

ACTIVITIES

Work and Financial Plan

Column 4

Means of
Narrative Indicators Verification Assumptions
Summary & Targets
(&/or Risks)

Anticipate Assumptions and


Risks that
Protect the plan from
external threats
Secure positive conditions
(other projects
outcomes) needed for
success
Are monitored by
planning entity

Column 4
all activities pertaining to one output have been carried out

If

all outputs necessary for achieving purpose have been reached

the purpose has been achieved,

which other factors are necessary (at


each objective - level) in order to reach
the next higher level?

Column 4
Checklist to assess assumptions
# Is the assumption really outside the project's influence (external
condition) and not a service of facility which it has to deliver?

# Is the assumption important for the project?


# How high is the probability of its realization?
# If it is important and attributed a high probability, can it be influenced
by the project?

Assumptions
LGSPA
Peace and
unity conditions
allow
application of
new capacities
Elected
officials take
long-term view
of development

NRIMP
Increases in
bid prices
remain within
the cost
contingency
level

SPOTS
Barangay
governments
deliver on
O&M
commitments

Logical Framework
Narrative
Summary
Goal : to attain
human
development goals

Purpose : physical
& mental devt of
Filipino children
promoted
Outputs :
Fully immunized
children 12-18
mos. old increased
Access to
fortified food
improved

Objectively Verifiable
Indicators

Various MDG
Indicators

Children under 6 with Grade 2 or 3


underweight status reduced from
30% to __
2002

Health and
Nutrition Survey
End-project
survey

Substantial
economic growth
accompanies
welfare
improvement

2003

Region 6

70%

77%

Region 7

65%

81%

Region 12

77%

77%

Household consumption:
Iodine fortified - ____
Vitamin fortified - ___
Iron fortified - ____

Key
assumptions
/risks

MDG Report

Improved elementary completion


rate from __ to __

FIC

Means of
verification

EPI program
statistics
Annual community
monitoring surveys
in participating
LGUs

industry's interest
in fortification as
selling point &
social contribution
maintained

Review
NARRATIVE SUMMARY Column

ACTIVITY SUMMARY

The Major Tasks (or


types of work) that
must be undertaken
in order to complete
the project
HOW

Activities

Review
NARRATIVE SUMMARY Column

DELIVERABLES SUMMARY
What the Project Will Do and/or
Provide:
Civil Works - Infrastructure
WHAT

OUTPUTS

HOW

Activities

(Buildings, Facilities, Roads, etc.)


Facilities
Services

Review
NARRATIVE SUMMARY Column

OBJECTIVE SUMMARY

The Specific Reason for


This Project: THE MISSION

WHAT

PURPOSE
OUTPUTS

HOW

Activities

WHY

The Change in the Current


Situation and/or the Behavior
by Target Beneficiaries that is
anticipated when Outputs are
delivered successfully or
availed of.

Review
NARRATIVE SUMMARY Column

WHY

GOAL

WHY

PURPOSE

WHAT

OUTPUTS

HOW

Activities

GOAL SUMMARY

The Overall Sector


Objective
THE VISION
The Longer Range &/or
Higher Level Objective
to which this Project (or
Program)
will contribute

Review
INDICATORS & TARGETS COLUMN

GOAL
PURPOSE
OUTPUTS
Activities

Long Range
Objective

Key Indicators

This Project
SUCCESS

&/or

Start, &
Complete
Dates $, PhP,
in kind

PERFORMANCE
MEASUREMENTS
(Direct or Proxy; and
Quantitative or Qualitative)

Status - Baseline, Targets - expressed in Quantity,


Quality, & Time
Interim, & End of Project