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Tan, Ida Mae Section D


1. Discuss the layers of the scalp including the clinical significance of each layer.

a. Skin


The first layer and it is the outer most protecting of the skull.


It contains sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles.


It has an abundant arterial supply, good lymphatic and venous drainage.

b. Connective Tissue


It is the fibrous septa that connects the skin to the aponeurosis of the occipitofrontalis muscle


Dense and well vascularized with numberous arteries and veins.


Arteries are branches of the external and internal carotid arteries.

c. Aponeurosis ( Epicranial / Galea Aponeurotica)

o Thin and tendinous sheet that connects occipital and frontal bellies of the occipitofrontalis muscle; its lateral area connects to the temporal fascia; its

muscles are innervated by the facial nerve

d. Loose areolar tissue


It is found under the subaponeurotic space


It loosely connects the epicranial aponeurosis to the pericranium


It has spaces that may distend with fluid as result of injury / infection.


Allows the free movement of the first three layers.

e. Pericranium / Periosteum


Dense layer of connective tissue forms the external periosteum of the neurocranium


At the suture of the skull, the outer periosteum connects with the inner periosteum

2. Illustrate the neurovascular supply and venous drainage of the scalp


Describe the temporalis muscle The temporalis muscle is located at the temple area. Originates from the floor of the temporal fossa, and inserts at the coronoid

process of the mandible.

Innervated by the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Anterior and superior fibers elevate the mandible; posterior fibers detract the


4. Enumerate the bones of the neurocranium and viscerocranium

Neurocranium (8 bones)

Viscerocranium (14)

Parietal bones: 2 Temporal bones: 2 Frontal bone: 1 Occipital bone: 1 Sphenoid bone: 1 Ethmoid bone: 1

Zygomatic bones: 2 Maxillae: 2 Nasal bones: 2 Lacrimal bones: 2 Palatine bones: 2 Inferior conchae: 2 Mandible: 1 Vomer: 1

5. Define the bony landmarks that demarcate the three cranial fossae and its contents

A. Anterior Cranial Fossa


Anterior: inner surface of frontal bone Posterior: Lesser wing of sphenoid Contents:

Anterior Clinoid Process- attachment for tentorium cerebelli Medial floor: Cribriform plate of ethmoid Crista Galli- attachment or falx cerebri Small perforations for Olfactory Nerves

B. Middle Cranial Fossa


Anterior: Lesser Wings of Sphenoid Posterior: Superior boundaries of petrous parts of temporal lobe Contents:

Optic Canal- in lesser wing of sphenoid Superior Orbital Fissure- between lesser and greater wings of sphenoid Foramen Rotundun- in greater wing of sphenoid Foramen Ovale- in greater wing of sphenoid Foramen Spinosum- in greater wing of sphenoid Foramen Lacerum- between petrous and sphenoid

C. Posterior Cranial Fossa


Anterior: Superior boundaries of petrous parts of temporal lobe Posterior: Internal surface of the squamous part of the occipital bone Contents:

Foramen Magnum- in occipital Hypoglossal Canal- in occipital Jugular Foramen- between petrous part of temporal and condylar part of occipital Internal Acoustic Meatus- in petrous part of temporal

Internal Occipital Crest- attachment for falx cerebelli

6. Identify the neurovascular structures transmitted by the different foraminae


Structures transmitted

Perforations in cribiform plate

Olfactory nerves

Optic canal

Optic nerve, ophthalmic artery

Superior orbital fissure

Lacrimal, frontal, trochlear, occulomotor, nasocilliary, abducent nerves, superior ophthalmic veins

Foramen rotundum

Maxillary divison of the trigeminal nerve

Foramen ovale

Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve, lesser petroval nerve

Foramen spinosum

Middle meningeal artery

Foramen lacerum

Internal carotid artery

Foramen magnum

Medulla oblongata, spinal part of accessory nerve, right and left vertebral nerves

Hypoglossal canal

Hypoglossal nerve

Jugular foramen

Glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory nerve

Internal acoustic meatus

Vestibucochlear and facial nerve