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37 visualizzazioni10 pagineCorelation between Shear Wave Velocity and

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Corelation between Shear Wave Velocity and

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Corelation between Shear Wave Velocity and

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Florida Soils

Milad Fatehnia

Geotechnical Engineer

Environmental and Geotechnical Specialists (EGS)

e-mail: mfatehnia@fsu.edu

Myron Hayden

Principal Geotechnical Engineer

Environmental and Geotechnical Specialists (EGS)

e-mail: myron.hayden@egs-us.com

Matthew Landschoot

Geotechnical Engineer

Environmental and Geotechnical Specialists (EGS)

e-mail: matt.landschoot@egs-us.com

ABSTRACT

Multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) is a seismic method that uses surface waves

(specifically fundamental mode Rayleigh Waves) to estimate shear wave velocities (Vs). Along

with shear wave, many design parameters of soil are associated with the standard penetration test

(SPT) as a dynamic in situ experiment. Both SPT-N data and geophysical data do not often exist in

the same area. Statistical analysis of correlation between these parameters is an alternate method

to estimate Vs conveniently and without additional investigations or data acquisition. In this

research, a new empirical formulae that can be used to correlate SPT-N and Vs values for the

typical soil materials encountered in north Florida is suggested. For this purpose, soil classification

information, shear wave velocity (derived from MASW method), and SPT-N values are gathered

from four geotechnical and geophysical investigations conducted in this region. By employing

M5 model tree algorithm, the relation between Vs and SPT-N values is predicted using the

collected dataset. The accuracy of the new proposed equation is determine by measuring the

correlation coefficient. The proposed correlation is also compared with the previously suggested

formulas of Vs determination by measuring Root Mean Square Error of each formula.

KEYWORDS:

INTRODUCTION

Multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) is a seismic method that uses surface waves

(specifically fundamental mode Rayleigh Waves) for estimation of the shear wave velocities (Vs)

(Park et al., 1999). Vs is primarily a function of soil density, void ratio, and effective stress, with

secondary influences including soil type, age, depositional environment, cementation, and stress

history (Hardin and Drnevich 1972a, b). Considering the vertical velocity variation of the sites

(sand to clay to rock), different propagation velocity (phase velocity) for each frequency

component of the surface wave is expected. Shear wave velocity is an important soil parameter

- 12421 -

12422

that can be used in a broad range of applications, including mapping stratigraphic layers,

conducting pre-construction site characterization studies, calculating dynamic properties of soils,

evaluating the liquefaction potential, and detecting cavities, tunnels, and sinkholes (Seed et al.,

1983; Leparoux et al., 2000; Thitimakorn and Channoo, 2012).

Along with shear wave, many design parameters of soil are associated with the standard

penetration test (SPT) as a dynamic in situ experiment. SPT-N values are most widely used to

describe soil characteristics. Both SPT-N data and geophysical data do not often exist in the same

area. Statistical analysis of correlation between these parameters is an alternate method to

estimate Vs conveniently and without additional investigations or data acquisition (Akin et al.,

2011). This correlation can be used to estimate geotechnical parameters in areas where no

geophysical investigations exist. There is no theoretical relationship between destructive (e.g.

SPT) and non-destructive methods (e.g. seismic methods). However, several empirical

relationships exist for different soil types which appear to be site dependent. Jafari et al. (2002)

presented a detailed historical review on the statistical correlation between SPT-N versus Vs.

With an exception of Lee (1990), almost all of the studies focused on the relationships between

uncorrected SPT-N and Vs for all soils as well as sand and clay-type soils.

In this research, a new empirical formula that can be used to correlate SPT-N and Vs values

for the typical soil materials encountered in North Florida is suggested. For this purpose, soil

classification information, shear wave velocity (derived from MASW method), and SPT-N values

of four geophysical and geotechnical investigations conducted in North Florida were gathered. By

employing M5 model tree algorithm, the relation between Vs and SPT-N values is predicted

using the collected dataset. The accuracy of the new proposed equation is measured and a

comparison with the previously suggested formulas for Vs determination is also conducted.

A significant body of research can be found in the literature for correlations between SPT-N

and Vs. A summary of proposed empirical correlations is given in Table 1. The correlations are

established for three groups, namely all soil types, cohesionless soils and cohesive soils. The

variation between suggested correlations is mainly due to the various geotechnical conditions of

each studied site and also different equipment and methods of field investigations. In this

research, using all 300 collected data, a single equation for cohesive and cohesionless soils of

North Florida is suggested and its precision in estimating the shear wave velocity is compared

with the12 proposed correlations.

GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS

Data acquisitions for all selected sites were accomplished using a Geometrics Geode, 24channel digital seismograph. A sledge hammer striking a polyethylene plate (shot point) was used

to generate a surface wave. The propagation velocities of that wave were recorded using an array

of low frequency geophones (4.5 Hertz). The geophones were spaced at 2 to 3-ft intervals using

3.5 inch coupling spikes and/or metal plates. For the MASW profile, after every shot, the shot

point and geophone array was advanced 1 geophone interval and a new shot was recorded. Data

for each shot point is recorded at the midpoint of the geophone spread. Due to this constraint, it is

not possible to collect subsurface data within 25 to 50 ft (approximate midpoint) of the actual

start or end of the line if the lines are abutting buildings or other obstacles. Photograph of one of

the MASW transect lines is illustrated in Figure 1.

12423

Author(s)

Soil Type

Kanai (1966)

Fujiwara(1972)

All Soils

All Soils

All Soils

Sand

Clay

All Soils

All Soils

All Soils

All Soils

All Soils

Imai (1977)

Imai and Tonouchi (1982)

Yokota et. al (1991)

Athanasopoulos (1995)

Iyisan (1996)

Kiku et. al (2001)

Anbazhagan and

Sitharam (2006)

Hasancebi and Ulusay

(2006)

Maheshwari et. al (2008)

Dikmen (2009)

All Soils

All Soils

Sand

Clay

All Soils

All Soils

Sand

Silt

Clay

Correlation between

SPT-N and Vs (m/Sec)

= 19 0.6

= 92.1 0.337

= 91 0.337

= 80.6 0.331

= 102 0.292

= 96.9 0.314

= 121 0.27

= 107.6 0.36

= 51.5 0.516

= 68.3 0.292

= 50(60 )0.41

= 90 0.309

= 90.82 0.319

= 97.89 0.269

= 95.64 0.301

= 58 0.39

= 73 0.33

= 60 0.36

= 44 0.48

During the processing of the seismic data, dispersion curves were calculated from the data of

each shot point (record). The dispersion curves show the phase velocity of the surface waves as a

function of frequency. 1-D profiles of the shear wave velocity (Vs) versus depth was then back

calculated from the dispersion curve. These data were used to record Vs values at the location of

each SPT. Finally, a series of 1-D shear wave velocity profiles were combined to produce a 2-D

cross-section of the shear wave velocities along the seismic line.

The MASW data were analyzed using SurfSeis, a computer processing program developed by

Kansas Geological Survey of Lawrence, Kansas. The program was used to calculate a twodimensional vertical cross section of the approximate shear wave velocities under the MASW

transect. One of the velocity cross sections is shown in Figure 2. The velocity cross section shows

the calculated shear wave velocity along the transect line.

12424

GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS

In order to evaluate the relative strength and uniformity of the subsurface materials, standard

penetration tests (SPT) were conducted at the locations of geophysical investigations. The tests

were performed with an automatic hammer in accordance with ASTM D1586. 300 SPT data were

collected from 28 soil borings. In all soil borings, SPT data were conducted continuously from

the ground surface to a depth of fifteen feet using rotary drilling rig. From there, SPTs were

conducted on two and one-half (2 ) feet intervals to the termination depth.

12425

DATA ANALYSIS

In this research, M5 model tree algorithm was used to predict the relation between Vs and

SPT-N values. M5 model tree, is an improvement of M5 model trees. Model trees are kind of

machine-learning techniques with the idea of splitting the parameter space into areas (subspaces)

and building a linear regression model in each of them. M5 model has been previously applied in

different geotechnical and geoenvironmental areas including modeling water level-discharge

(Bhattacharya and Solomatina 2005), water movement in sandy soils (Samadianfard et al. 2014),

and saturated hydraulic conductivity estimation in double ring infiltrometer test (Fatehnia, 2015).

The main assumption that the trees-structured numerical prediction is built on, is that the

functional dependency is not constant in the whole domain but can be approximated on smaller

sub domains. These trees can be generalized to regression and modal trees and are capable of

dealing with continuous attributes (Naeej et al. 2013). Model trees, like regression trees, are

efficient for large data sets. M5 model tree was first introduced by Quinlan (1992). The method

was later improved to M5 by Wang and Witten (1997) in order to enhance its capability in

handling enumerated attributes and missing values of the data set. To solve a problem, M5 model

tree algorithm constructs a regression tree by recursively splitting the instance space. It uses a

splitting condition to minimize the intra-subset variability in the values down from the root

through the branch to the node. The standard deviation of the values that reach that node from the

root through the branch is used to measure the variability with calculating the expected reduction

in error as a result of testing each attribute at that node. The criteria used to choose the attribute is

maximizing the expected error reduction. The splitting process is stopped if the output values of

all the instances that reach the node vary only slightly or only a few instances remain (Naeej et al.

2013). The standard deviation reduction (SDR) is calculated as:

= ()

| |

||

( )

(1)

where is the set of data point before splitting, is data point that is the result of splitting

the space and falls into one subspace based on the chosen splitting parameter, and is the

standard deviation. Standard deviation is used to measure the error of the data points of a

subspace. M5' model tree tests different splitting points by measuring for sub-spaces before

splitting the space. As is maximized in a point, the point is selected as the splitting point

(node). When change is less than a certain value or a few data points remain in sub-space,

the splitting terminates. As tree grows, the accuracy of the model for training set uniformly

increases. However, over-fitting may be inevitable while a model tree is being built. Hence, in the

next step, pruning is adopted to avoid over-fitting (Witten and Frank 2005). Smoothing, as the

final step, is the regularization process to compensate any probable discontinuities within

adjacent linear models (Jang et al. 2009; Pfahringer et al. 2001).

In this research, WEKA program was applied for setting up the model based on existing 300

data by using 70 % of the data to predict the correlation. The results and error parameters are

presented in the Results and Discussion section.

By adopting M5 model trees and using natural logarithm of all 300 Vs and SPT-N data, Eq.

2 was offered by the program. The program randomly selects 70% of the entire data for

correlation prediction and uses the remaining 30% to measure the error values. Correlation

coefficient of 0.893 for the proposed formula shows an accurate estimation of shear wave

12426

velocity. This equation can be used to predict Vs of both cohesive and cohesionless soils from

their respective SPT-N values. Since the data used in this analysis were gathered from the

projects performed in North Florida, they can better predict the local material properties.

= 77.1 0.355

(2)

In this equation, Vs is the shear wave velocity in (m/Sec) and N is the uncorrected SPT

values. Figure 3 illustrates the measured data of SPT-N and Vs values together with the proposed

correlation derived using M5 model tree algorithm.

400

350

300

250

200

Fatehnia et.

al (2015)

150

Measured

Data

100

50

0

0

10

20

30

40

SPT "N" VALUES

50

60

Figure 3: Field data and the proposed correlation derived using M5 tree model

The accuracy of equation 2 in predicting the shear wave velocity is compared with the other

12 previously suggested correlations. Figure 4 illustrates the Comparison of the proposed formula

with previous correlations between SPT-N and Vs values.

In order to compare the performance of equation 2 in predicting the shear wave velocity of

the collected data, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values of the proposed correlation was

compared with the other formulas. As shown in table 2, equation 2 with RMSE of 26.50 (m/Sec)

had lower error value than all the other suggested correlations studied in this research.

12427

600

Kanai (1966)

Fujiwara (1972)

500

Imai (1977)

Imai and Tonouchi

(1982)

Yokota et. al (1991)

400

Athanasopoulos

(1995)

Iyisan (1996)

300

Anbazhagan and

Sitharam (2006)

Hasancebi and

Ulusay (2006)

Maheshwari et. al

(2008)

Dikmen (2009)

200

100

Fatehnia et. al

(2015)

0

0

20

40

60

SPT "N" VALUES

80

100

Figure 4: Comparison of the proposed formula with current correlations between SPT-N

and Vs

Table 2: Comparison of the RMSE values of the studied correlations with equation 2

Formula

Fatehnia et. al (2015)

Kanai (1966)

Fujiwara(1972)

Imai (1977)

Imai and Tonouchi (1982)

Yokota et. al (1991)

Athanasopoulos (1995)

Iyisan (1996)

Kiku et. al (2001)

Anbazhagan and Sitharam (2006)

RMSE (m/sec)

26.50

96.70

37.75

36.02

36.65

56.17

82.56

39.39

53.71

51.27

Maheshwari et. al (2008)

Dikmen (2009)

28.60

31.69

40.22

12428

CONCLUSIONS

A new empirical formulae that can correlate SPT-N and Vs values for the typical soil

materials encountered in North Florida is suggested using M5 model tree algorithm. For this

purpose, 300 data of shear wave velocity (derived from MASW method) and respective SPT-N

values were gathered from four geotechnical and geophysical investigations conducted in this

region. The proposed formula with correlation coefficient of 0.893 had an acceptable estimation

of shear wave velocity. The accuracy of the new equation in predicting the Vs values of the

collected data was also compared with the previously suggested formulas by measuring the

RMSE value of each method. The proposed formula with RMSE value of 26.50 had better

performance in predicting Vs values compared to other equations.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The data used in this research was provided by Environmental and Geotechnical Specialists

(EGS).

REFERENCES

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