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WWW.BODHISUTRA.COM English on Phone Companion - 6 Grammar review and exercises for Level 6 Curriculum Research

English on Phone Companion - 6

WWW.BODHISUTRA.COM English on Phone Companion - 6 Grammar review and exercises for Level 6 Curriculum Research
WWW.BODHISUTRA.COM English on Phone Companion - 6 Grammar review and exercises for Level 6 Curriculum Research

Grammar review and exercises for Level 6

Phone Companion - 6 Grammar review and exercises for Level 6 Curriculum Research and Editorial Wing,

Curriculum Research and Editorial Wing, www.BodhiSutra.com

All rights reserved. Any unauthorized distribution in any form whatsoever is a punishable offence and likely to be prosecuted. Please do not distribute.

Welcome to English on Phone

Page2

Dear Student,

It gives us great pleasure to welcome you to BodhiSutra English on Phone, a proven course backed by both scientific research and awesome results.

Best wishes, Team BodhiSutra
Best wishes,
Team BodhiSutra

Attend all classes, speak a lot in your daily exercises and complete all companion exercises.

If you face any issues, feel free to get in touch with us. We are committed to making you impressive and confident in your English communication and would be glad to hear from you.

Call us at 9811352221 or 9015682339 for any feedback or complaint.

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English on Phone – Best Practices

Page3

BodhiSutra English on Phone has helped thousands of working professionals, college students and housewives speak fluent English in their professional, personal and social spheres. Following best practices have emerged from their collective experience.

a) b) c) d) e) f) g)
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

We strongly recommend you to follow them to get the maximum out of this program:

Attend all classes, yes, do not miss a single one You may take two leaves in a month. For this, please inform Operations Team before your class timing that you would not be able to take the class.

All leaves beyond the permissible 2 leaves will be counted and you will lose those sessions. If you don’t inform the Operations in advance about taking a leave, it would be counted as Student Absent and you will lose that class. If you face any issues like your trainer missed a class or you do not understand something or any other problem, please inform Customer Support immediately at 9811352221 or 9015682339. Watch English news for at least 30 mins every day. Make it a routine practice even if you do not understand it.

Read for 30 mins everyday. Read something entertaining, interesting and easy. It could be children’s story books or text books of kids in your family or novels or non-fiction – absolutely anything. You need to have a reading habit to become a good communicator. Feel free to talk to us whenever you feel like giving us any feedback or have any comments on the course, training methods or any other process.

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Chapter 1

Page4

The infinitive

What is the infinitive?

1. 'do' or 'to do' 2. ‘go’ or ‘to go’ 3. 'be' or 'to be'
1. 'do' or 'to do'
2. ‘go’ or ‘to go’
3. 'be' or 'to be'
The infinitive without to is called bare infinitive ('do', 'be')
The infinitive with to is called full infinitive ('to do', 'to be')
With auxiliary verb ‘do’, or most modal auxiliary verbs (such as will, can, or should.)
Examples:
a. I do know him
b. You should go to Delhi
c. They will come here
With verbs of perception like see, watch, hear, feel, sense etc:
Examples:
a. I heard the tiger jump in the bushes.
b. I watched the accident happen.
With verbs of permission and causation including make, bid, let, and have:

The infinitive of a verb is its basic form (first form) with or without ‘to:

Examples:

The bare infinitive

1.

2.

3.

Example:

a. The Americans made/bade/let/had the Pakistanis do it.

b. They were made to go after the thieves. (In passive voice use ‘to’ + verb)

4. With had better:

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Example:

a. I had better get ready

b. They had better reach the station soon.

5. With ‘help’

Example:

a. She helped them prepare for the contest b. Her maid helped her cook for
a. She helped them prepare for the contest
b. Her maid helped her cook for the party
With the word why.
Example:
a. Why do it?
b. Why deny what everyone knows as truth?
1. As a subject.
Examples:
a. To lie is a great sin.
b. To wait in line is the most boring thing on the earth.
2. As an object.
Examples:
a. I want to marry her
b. She intends to start running
c. He wants to know the truth.
3.

6.

The full infinitive

Use the full infinitive as follows:

As a noun phrase, you can use the full infinitive in the following ways:

As an adjective or adverb. Examples:

a. He is the man to watch (as an adjective)

b. That’s a problem to solve. (as an adverb)

c. We are ready to go.

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Page6

d. He is waiting to come.

4. To express purpose:

Examples:

a. He needs to exercise to stay fit.

b.

1. He did not have even a paisa with him. He could not pay his
1. He did not have even a paisa with him. He could not pay his college fee.
2. Every party has a president. He leads other party members.
3. You must pay all your taxes. Only on this condition will you avoid jail term.
4. He went to France. He wanted to study fashion.
5. The robber took out a dagger. He wanted to frighten the old man.
6. I state the facts. I am not afraid of it.
7. He wants to be rich. He works hard for it.
8. He has five children. He must take care of them.
9. He collects old coins. It is his hobby.
10. That young man has squandered away all his wealth. He must have been stupid.

Exercise 1.1 Join these sentences using infinitives:

He studies hard to go to a good University.

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Chapter 2

Page7

The Gerund

What is a gerund?

Chapter 2 Page 7 The Gerund What is a gerund? Verb first form + ing =

Verb first form + ing = gerund.

Example:

a. Painting is my hobby

b. Cooking is definitely more challenging than eating.

Note that verb+ing is also a continuous form (present participle) and the usage of present participle is as follows:

Example:

a. They were sleeping when the bell rang.

b. Suman will be teaching in the school for the next three years.

What is the difference between a gerund and the present participle?

Gerunds are verbs used as nouns while present participles are verbs used in continuous tense:

1. Gerunds are verbs used as nouns.

2. Gerunds can be a subject, direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of prepositions.

3. Present participles form continuous verbs

Examples of gerund:

1. 2. 3.
1.
2.
3.

Swimming is fun. (subject)

I like singing. (direct object)

He gives writing all his time.( indirect object)

4. He has devoted all his life to writing (object of the preposition to)

Examples of present participle:

1. They were sleeping when the cops came.

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2.

I bought a painting book

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3. He is running behind the train.

Exercise 2.1

Fill in the blanks with the right form of the verb:

1. She is good at 2. He is crazy about (sing). (dance). 3. I don't
1. She is good at
2. He is crazy about
(sing).
(dance).
3. I don't like
4. They are afraid of
5. You should give up
6. Sanjay dreams of
7. He is interested in
8. My uncle is afraid of
(play) cricket.
(swim) in the river.
(drink).
(be) an actor.
(make) movies.
(fly).
9. He insisted on
(paint) the room himself.
1. I can't help (feel)
2. Most people prefer (ride)
worried about global warming.
in cars to (walk)
3. She hates (swim)
in the pool.
4. There's no (deny)
that he likes (see)
his own photo.
5. The dog kept on (bark)
till the house owner woke up.
6. I dislike (sleep)
in the day.
7. He likes (write) letters to editors.
8. I fear (go)
9. I couldn't resist (buy)
in the dark because of ghosts.
the costly smartphone.
10. I don’t like (sit)
in the AC room and (discuss)
corruption.

Exercise 2.2

Fill up the blanks

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Chapter 3

Using Gerunds or infinitives

Use the following rules to guide your usage of gerunds and infinitives:

rules to guide your usage of gerunds and infinitives: Examples Rules Explanations Verb + 1. I
Examples Rules Explanations Verb + 1. I enjoy reading Use the gerund for an 1.
Examples
Rules
Explanations
Verb +
1. I enjoy reading
Use the gerund for an
1.
gerund
2. I denied cheating
action that
happens before or at the
same time as the action
of the main verb.
I enjoy myself at
the time of
reading.
2.
I deny having
cheated on
anything before.
Verb +
1. I decided to meet my
infinitive
boss.
Use the infinitive for
actions that follow the
1.
2.
I want to watch a
action of the main verb.
movie
I will meet the
boss after taking
the decision to
meet him.
2.
What I want
(now) is to watch
a movie
(after/later)
NB: Remember, like most of the rules in English, these rules too have exceptions.

Usage of gerunds

Following set of verbs are usually used with gerunds.

1. With verbs that express likes/dislikes :

like

love

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enjoy

dislike

hate

Example:

"I like playing cricket but I hate boxing."

• He likes watching movies on weekends. ’ can also be followed by an infinitive:
• He likes watching movies on weekends.
can also be followed by an infinitive:
• I like to walk in the park in the evening.
• I will go to watch movie on Saturday
With verbs in the following list:
• He admitted breaking the window.
• They don't allow drinking in the rooms.
• She avoided talking to his boss.
With prepositions in the following list:
• aim at
• keep on
• interested in
• instead of
• good at
• before
• after

Note that verbs such as, ‘like/love/hate

Examples:

2.

Following verbs are commonly used with gerunds:

Admit, advise, allow, anticipate, avoid, appreciate, complete, consider, delay, deny, fancy, finish, go, imagine, involve, keep, mention, mind, miss, permit, postpone, practice, reject, resist, risk, suggest, waste time/money.

Examples:

3.

There are certain prepositions which are frequently found being used with gerunds:

Example:

"I am interested in writing stories."

"After playing cricket I drank an orange juice".

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4.

After expressions in the following list :

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Certain expressions are generally used with gerunds. This is a partial list:

It's no use

It's no good

There's no point in

I can't help

no good • There's no point in • I can't help • I don't mind •

I don't mind

I can't stand/bear

Examples:

Its no use talking to him.

There is no point in meeting him.

Usage of Infinitives

1.

There are certain verbs which are more frequently used with infinitives. This includes verbs which refer to a future event or possibility. For example:

Verbs referring to a future event:

afford, agree, aim, arrange, attempt, choose, consent, decide, deserve, demand, endeavor, expect, fail, happen, help, hope, intend, learn, manage, need, offer, plan, pretend, proceed, promise, refuse, seem, swear, threaten, volunteer, want, would, hate, would like, would love

Examples:

He deserves to be penalized.

They happened to be at the theatre when fire broke out.

I hope to join the team as soon as possible.

I need to find a job.

He offers to help us.

2.

Certain adjectives:

• •

Following adjectives are generally used with infinitives.

be determined

be disappointed

be glad

be happy

be pleased

Examples:

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Page12

"I'm glad to know that you passed the exam."

"I'm pleased to meet you."

"I'm disappointed to hear that you flunked maths."

3. After "too" & "enough":

Too and enough are also used with infinitives as follows:

• too difficult • easy enough • "It's too difficult to convince him to be
• too difficult
• easy enough
• "It's too difficult to convince him to be helpful."
• " But it's easy enough to fool him to get what you want."
• start
• begin
• stop
• remember
• "I started playing guitar when I was young."
• "I started to play guitar when I reached home."
1. He quit
(worry) about his failed marriage and decided
his career.
2. His
(fail) in engineering prevented him from
(apply) to the
army.
3. I remember
(sit) on the hilltop
(watch) the sunset with my
father.

Examples:

Example:

Verbs that can be followed by both an infinitive and a gerund:

Some verbs can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive. Here are some examples:

Example:

Exercise 3.1

Fill in the blanks:

(focus) on

4. Can you check this habit of (take) action otherwise. H

5. (go)

6. He keeps

7. His

(come) late everyday. I will be forced

(trek) next week is a bad idea.

(have) problems with his injured back.

(quit) his job allowed him

(spend) more time with his

parents.

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8.

Jaggu Dada tried

(jump) over the fence but the was caught.

Page13

9. The boy cried hard but his mother refused

10. Do you know anything about

Exercise 3.2

Fill in the blanks:

(let) him play. (care) for your parents?

1. (go) to the movies. I enjoy 2. We anticipate 3. Sumit finished (spend) one
1. (go) to the movies.
I enjoy
2. We anticipate
3. Sumit finished
(spend) one month here.
(write) his thesis yesterday.
4. She can't afford
(pay) her college fee
5. I enjoy
(be) different.
6. Do not avoid
(pay) your taxes.
7. I don't like
8. They've decided about
(attend) parties.
(shift) to Chandigarh
9. Suman likes
10. Do you mind
11. The shop assistant offered
12. The country stands
(visit) old forts
(wait) for your turn.
(help) me.
(gain) a lot by focusing on development.
13. There is no
(stop) India now.
14. If you raise the corruption issue, you risk
(lose) their support
15. I prefer
16. Everyone resumed
17. He tends
18. Don’t leave
19. He practices
20. I do not hesitate
(stay) home on weekends.
(work) after the short break.
(lie) when someone asks him about his salary.
(sing). You sing well.
(play) the guitar everyday.
(file) a complaint if I get bad food in train.

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Chapter 4

Page14

Modals - I

What are modal verbs?

1. They never change their form. You can't add "s", "ed", "ing" 2. They are
1. They never change their form. You can't add "s", "ed", "ing"
2. They are always followed by verb first form (bare infinitive)
3. They are used to allow speakers to express certainty, possibility, willingness, obligation,
necessity, ability
can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must
1. Permission
2. Ability
3. Obligation
4. Prohibition
5. Lack of necessity
6. Advice
7. possibility

Modals are special verbs which work irregularly in English and fulfil special purposes.

Some characteristics of modal auxiliaries are:

List of modal verbs

Here is a list of modal verbs:

The verbs or expressions dare, ought to, had better, and need not behave like modal auxiliaries

to a large extent and my be added to the above list

Use of modal verbs:

Modal verbs are used to express functions such as:

8. probability

List of modal verbs

Here is a list of modals with examples:

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Modal Verb Expressing Example must Strong obligation You must pay your taxes in time. logical
Modal Verb
Expressing
Example
must
Strong obligation
You must pay your taxes in time.
logical conclusion / Certainty
He must have missed the train. He didn’t
reach Delhi with it.
must not
prohibition
You must not smoke in the room.
can
ability
I
can sing.
permission
Can I use your mobile phone please?
possibility
Drinking causes liver disease.
could
ability in the past
When I was younger I could lift 150 kgs
polite permission
Excuse me, could I just complete my point?
possibility
It could snow tomorrow!
may
permission
May I use your pen please?
possibility, probability
It may not rain tomorrow!
might
polite permission
Might I suggest a plan?
possibility, probability
I might go on holiday to Europe next year.
need not
lack of necessity/absence of
I need not buy bananas, there are a lot of
obligation
them in the fridge.
should/ought
50 % obligation
I
should / ought to see a dentist. I have a
to
terrible toothache.
advice
You should / ought to revise your assignment
logical conclusion
He should / ought to be very tired. He's been
working all night.
had better
advice
You 'd better revise your assignment
Remember
Modal verbs are followed by an infinitive without "to", also called the bare infinitive which

essentially means verb first form.

Examples:

1. You must pay taxes in time.

2. You should see to the dentist.

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3.

There are a lot of bananas in the fridge. You need not buy any.

Page16

Exercise 4.1

1. Krishna was disappointed because he

2. My singing is poor. I

3. Sumit didn’t come to the office. He

sing as well as you.

get tickets for the movie.

be sick.

4. pigs sing? I don’t think so. 5. The little boy asked, "Father, " I
4.
pigs sing? I don’t think so.
5.
The little boy asked, "Father,
"
I go to play?” The father said, "Yes, you
6.
When Sanju was young, he
read very fast.
7.
You
buy sugar. There is a lot of sugar at home.
8.
You
buy sugar. There is none at home and the baby won’t drink milk
without sugar.
9.
It
rain tomorrow.
10.
It
not rain tomorrow.
11.
Take the umbrella, it
12.
You
today.
rain.
take the umbrella because it is very hot and sunny and it will not rain
13.
You
hurry up else you will miss the train.
14.
You
make noise. The baby is sleeping.
15.
We
go to Rishikesh or Nainital. We are not sure.
16.
He was so scared, he
remember his own name.
1.
I have no time. I
leave now.
2.
I wish I
buy an iPhone.
3.
You look tired. You
4.
Sanjeev is not at home. He
take some days off.
have gone to Delhi, I don’t know.
5.
Dhiraj
bowl very fast. No one wants to face him.
6.
we go and watch a movie tonight?
7.
I haven’t decided where to go this summer. I
go to Srinagar or
Kanyakumari.
8.
you water my plants while I am away? If they don’t get water, they
die.

Exercise 4.2

9. Sumit

10. You

11. He

12. If it rains tomorrow, we

come for the birthday party but I am not sure.

pay the fees before the last date.

go out more often.

go to the zoo.

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Chapter 5

Modals - II

Modals in the present and past Modals in the past takes the following form: 1.
Modals in the present and past
Modals in the past takes the following form:
1.
modal + have + past participle (verb II form)
Example:
1. Present:
You should see a doctor.
2. Past:
You should have seen a doctor
Except for modals that express obligation, ability and lack of necessity:
1. Obligation:
Present = I must / have to study hard. -- Past = I had to study hard.
2. Ability:
Present = I can sing well. -- Past = I could sing well when I was young.
3. Lack of necessity:
Present = You don't have to / needn't take an umbrella. -- Past = You didn't have to /
didn't need to take an umbrella.
Modals in the Present
Modals in the Past
Obligation
You must / have to pay your taxes in
time.
You had to pay your dues.
Advice
You should see a dentist.
You should have seen a dentist
Prohibition
You mustn't smoke here.
You mustn't have smoked there.
Ability
I can sing well.
I could sing well. Now, I am old.
Certainty
He has a Mercedes. He must be very
rich.
He must have been rich. He had
a big house and an expensive car.
Page17

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He can't be American. His English is very bad. He can't have written that poem.
He can't be American. His English is
very bad.
He can't have written that poem.
His English is poor.
Permission
Can I go out?
She could drive her father's car
when she was only 14.
Possibility
It may / can / could / might rain. Take
your umbrella.
I guess it may / can / could /
might have been Lalit on the
phone.
Lack of
necessity
You don't have to / needn't buy any
bananas. There are plenty in the fridge.
You didn't have to / didn't
need to buy bananas.
Exercise 5.1
Choose the correct option:
1. You
look at the people when you talk to them.
a. could
b. should
c. would
2. If you don’t start attending classes, you
repeat
the course next year.
a. have to
b. must
c. will have to
3. Call her now. She
home by now.
a. has to be
b. must be
c. would be
4. He
be able to help you, but I’m not sure yet.
a. might
b. would
5. Even as a child, little Kautilya
world.
tell you the capital of any country in the
a. could
b. should

6. I

c. would

really get that job.

a. could

b. must

c. would

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7.

take

a photograph of you?

Page19

a. Am I allowed to

b. May I

8.

Students

borrow

up to 6 books from the library.

a. are allowed to

b.

could

9. Whose bag is this? I don’t know, but it a big M printed on
9.
Whose bag is this? I don’t know, but it
a big M printed on it.
belong to Madhuri because it has
a. could
b. may
c. should
d. would
10.
It’s very important to
speak English fluently.
a. can
b. be able to
11.
I don’t like
get up early in the morning.
a. being able to
b. being allowed to
c. having to
12.
you speak Spanish? Not much but my French is good.
a. Can
b. Could
13.
I
help you, but I don’t want to.
a. can
b. could
c. would
14.
you switch off the lights please?
a. Can
b. May
15.
You
eat so much sugar.
a. don’t have to
b. mustn’t

c. shouldn’t

16. I’m so hungry I

eat a horse!

a. can

b. could

c. must

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d.

should

Page20

17. The test starts at 10. You

be late.

a. don’t have to

b. mustn’t

18. Why didn’t he tell me? I

him!

19. You

a. could help

b. could have helped

c. was able to help

d. would help

help b. could have helped c. was able to help d. would help win without hardwork.

win without hardwork. The world today is very competitive.

a. can't b. may not 20. In India, boys do military service. a. must not
a. can't
b. may not
20. In India, boys
do military service.
a. must not
b. don't have to
21. The thief was six feet tall. It
a. could not
b. would not
22. He is not at home. He
in the office.
a.
must be
b.
should be
23. You
have waited this long. Your cold has gone worse.
a.
may not
b.
should not
24. We
decide to go to Goa again for New Year.
a.
can
b.
may
25. How
you have left the bathroom in such a mess?
a.
could
b.
should

have been Manoj. He is very short.

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Chapter 6

Page21

Must and Have to

Must and have to are modal verbs in English.

1. To make a logical deduction based on evidence. It indicates that the speaker is
1. To make a logical deduction based on evidence. It indicates that the speaker is certain
about something:
Examples:
1. It has rained all day, it must be wet outside.
2. The weather is fantastic in Mussorie. It must a lot fun to live there.
2. To express a strong obligation.
Examples:
1. Students must attend all classes.
2. You must pay taxes in time.
3. We must go to sleep now, we have an early morning train to catch.
3. Have to
To express strong obligation, but when we use have to there is usually a sense of
external obligation. Some external circumstance makes the obligation necessary.
Examples:
1. I have to send an urgent email.
2. I have to take this book back to the library.
1. The heater is off. You
be feeling cold.

Must

Exercise 6.1 Fill in the blanks using ‘must’ or ‘have to’

2. I

3. You

4. We

5. We face.

attend tomorrow’s meeting. The boss is very strict.

visit the icy Kargil heights and see where our soldiers fight.

finish now because the room has to be vacated before 10.

discuss it and resolve. Any problem can be solved if we talk face to

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6.

I

finish my geography project tonight. Last date is tomorrow.

Page22

7. Does he

8. My boss needs this report tomorrow morning. I

complete the project in time" said the manager to the trainee. 10. go to office on foot. The buses and autos are on strike. invite you one day for dinner. leave home at 5 because the train is at 7. improve my English, I need it in my job. improve my English. I feel bad when I can’t talk in English. get up at 5, I will go jogging. get up at 5:00 otherwise I will not reach office in time. wear formals. It is an office party. wear formals. I want to look responsible and trustworthy. follow the rules because I don’t want to commit any mistakes. follow the rules. It's my duty.

work next Saturday?

finish it now.

9. "You

Jumna

11. I

12. Suman 13. I 14. I 15. I 16. I 17. I 18. I 19.
12. Suman
13. I
14. I
15. I
16. I
17. I
18. I
19. I
20. I

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Chapter 7

Page23

Shall and Will

Shall is not used often in modern American English. They are use as follows:

1. Use will with all persons I, you, he, she, it, we, they will go
1.
Use will with all persons
I, you, he, she, it, we, they
will
go there
2.
Use shall with we and I
I, we
shall
go
3.
The short form of will and shall is 'll
I, you, he, she, it, we, they
will or 'll
call you
I, we
shall or 'll
call you
4.
In the negative, the short forms of will not and shall
5.
Negative forms are will not or shall not and their short forms are won’t:
I, you, he, she, it, we, they
won't
give up
I, we
shan't
give up
1.
Shall we leave or stay?

Uses of shall

Use shall to make suggestions, offers or ask for advice. It is used in questions as follows:

2. Shall we play?

3. Shall I get his mobile number if I meet him?

4. What shall I do to get rid of my toothache?

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Shall if generally used with I/we but when giving stern command, or threat or promise, shall is

used with you.:

1. You shall not get in my class! (Command)

2. You shall pay for it. (Threat)

3. You shall get have your freedom. (Promise) 1. Tresspassers shall be liable to fine.
3.
You shall get have your freedom. (Promise)
1. Tresspassers shall be liable to fine.
2. There shall be no breach of this contract.
3. You shall not enter this premises.
1.
you wait for my reply?
2.
I help you with this bag?
3.
He
get drunk and create a mess in the party. He always does that.
4.
Give me blood and you
have your freedom.
5.
Every Indian
the right to liberty and equality under this Constitution.
6.
you lend me your bike for a day?
7.
you be kind enough to lend me your bike?
8.
You
not disclose the contents of this letter to anyone.
9.
you join us?
10.
“This
never happen again. Understood?”
11.
I call the doctor?

Shall is used in formal or legal documents:

Exercise 7.1 Fill in the blanks

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Chapter 8

Page25

Participle Adjectives

Participles

Participles are verb forms which can be used for specific purposes.

are verb forms which can be used for specific purposes. Participles can be of two types

Participles can be of two types based on their form:

1. Present participle

The present participle is verb first form + ing.

Examples:

1. Reading

i. I am reading Dr Kalam’s book (present continuous)

ii. Where are my reading glasses? (modifier, adjective)

2. Washing

i. He is washing his car.

ii. This is my imported washing machine.

3. Crying i. Why are you crying? ii. Sudha took pity on the crying baby.
3. Crying
i.
Why are you crying?
ii.
Sudha took pity on the crying baby.
4. Drinking
i.
What are you drinking?
ii.
He has got a drinking problem.
2.
Past participle

The past participle is the verb II form. It can be used in simple past tense as well as a modifier.

Examples:

1. Broken

i. I have not broken the window (simple past)

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Page26

ii. The chair with a broken leg fell. (adjective)

2. Aggrieved

i. The aggrieved patients demonstrated outside the hospital

ii. Cold aggrieved his back pain.

3. Satisfied i. He was satisfied after a heavy meal. ii. Satisfied customers are the
3.
Satisfied
i. He was satisfied after a heavy meal.
ii. Satisfied customers are the biggest asset of a business.
1. An enlightening experience
2. A frightening movie
3. A moving story
4. The burnt paratha
5. The burning train
6. A well designed house
7. A well built man
8. Well maintained house
1. The boys were
2. The lion was the most
3. The film on space travel was
4. Ram is an
(fascinate) by the animals in the zoo.
(fascinate) to the children.
(fascinate)
(impress) artist.
5. He is so

Usage of participles:

Participles used as adjectives are called adjectival participles.

Examples:

Exercise 8.1

(impress) by her that he talks about her all the time. (bore).

(bore) in the movie, we left in between.

(bore) jokes.

(tire). (tire) for the old men.

(drink) problem

6. I find Shahrukh Khan movies

7. We were so

8. Please do not bore us with your

9. I am really

10. The walk up the hill was

11. He drinks every night. He has got a severe

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Page27

12. He came home last night, totally

13. She is never

14. Trip to the temple was

15. The news of the plane crash was

(drink). (satisfy) with her work. (satisfy) to him. (shock) to all of us.

16. He was so 17. Where are my We will organize a The town was
16. He was so
17. Where are my
We will organize a
The town was hit by a
(shock) by the news that he started crying.
18.
19.
(read) glasses?
(sing) competition in the college fest.
(devastate) storm.
20.
The town has not yet recovered from the
storm.
(devastate) impact of the

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Chapter 9

Page28

Cumulative and Coordinate Adjectives

Where to place adjectives? Adjectives can be placed in either of the two ways:

1. Before the target noun a. Examples: blue umbrella, red dragon, hungry devil, tall man,
1. Before the target noun
a. Examples: blue umbrella, red dragon, hungry devil, tall man, short boy
2. After the verbs like: be/feel/seem/look etc.
a. Examples: It feels nice, they are blue, you look hungry, she felt thirsty
1. He found an old, strange man in the jungle.
2. Jagat Singh was a tall, strong man built like a bull.
1. He met a gorgeous young lady during his Paris trip.
2. They found a huge blue Himalayan snake in the pond.

Cumulative or coordinate adjectives An interesting problem comes up when you use more than one adjectives to qualify one noun.

Either all those multiple adjectives separately qualify the noun or they could be adding up to have a combined effect.

Coordinate Adjectives These are a group of adjectives which separately qualify a noun. They are separated by a comma and you use the word ‘and’ to connect them.

Their order can be changed as you wish, which adjective comes first and which last doesn’t matter if the adjective are coordinate adjectives.

Example:

Cumulative Adjectives This is a group of adjectives which combine together to jointly modify a noun. They need to be arranged in a specific order and no commas are needed.

Examples:

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Generally cumulative adjectives follow a certain order of arrangement:

Opinion good, attractive, beautiful, delicious Size large, small, enormous Age old, new, modern, young Length
Opinion
good, attractive, beautiful, delicious
Size
large, small, enormous
Age
old, new, modern, young
Length or shape
long, short, square, round
Color
red, blue, green
Origin (nationality, religion)
American, French, Muslim, Christian
Material
plastic, woolen, wooden, cotton
Purpose
electric (wire) , tennis (shirt)
Avoid using more than two or three adjectives in a sentence because using too many of them makes the
sentence look awkward.
Examples:
1. An attractive young French actress.
2. A modern Korean solar car.
3. A big square red cap.
Possessive Adjectives
Possessive adjectives express possession.
Examples: my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their – these adjectives express the idea that
something is owned by someone.
Examples:
1. Let me get my stuff
2. Is this your bag?

3. Let us look at our problems.

Note that these words are pronouns (also known as possessive pronouns) but used differently.

Whether a word is a possessive adjective or a possessive pronoun, depends on how it is used.

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1.

My car is red. (My = possessive adjective which modifies the noun ‘car’)

Page30

2. Your car is brown. (Your = possessive adjective)

3. My car is red. Yours is brown. (Yours = possessive pronoun because it works as a subject of the verb ‘is’)

Subject Pronouns I you he she it we you they Possessive Adjectives my your his
Subject Pronouns
I
you
he
she
it
we
you
they
Possessive Adjectives
my
your
his
her
its
our
your
their
1. Why didn't you wash your uniform?
2. Mahesh doesn't like his school.
3. The lizard can re-grow its tail.
4. Her shirt is blue, his tie is blue too.
1.
Possessive adjectives are different from possessive pronouns – they may look the same
but their usage is completely different.
Examples:
a. This is my (possessive adjective) pen and that is yours (possessive pronoun)
b. My (possessive adjective) car is blue and his (possessive pronoun) is red.
2.
When using possessive pronouns or possessive adjectives, do not use apostrophe’s like:
it's, they're etc — its is a contraction of it is or it has; they're is a contraction of they
are; there is an adverb of place.
3.
Examples:
a. It’s the main reason why the ship sunk. (It’s = it is, contraction)

Examples

Examples:

Points to remember:

b.

The tiger is a strong animal. Its body is very powerful (Its = belonging to it, possessive)

c. My villa is huge. It’s got twenty bathrooms.

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Page31

d. Raman and Manish are my friends. They’re my classmates. Their boss is our college senior.

Exercise 9.1

1. We didn’t see animals in the zoo because of the cold. 2. How rice
1. We didn’t see
animals in the zoo because of the cold.
2. How
rice did you keep in my tiffin box?\
3. There isn’t
4. She hasn’t got
salt in this curry.
dresses to choose from.
5. He carried
bottles of mineral water on the trek.
6. How
7. He doesn’t have
butter do you eat everyday?
friends.
8. There are
cars on the road.
9. This is not
traffic right now.
10. I didn’t get
in the train.
1. I need
fit boys for this job.
2. I have
bottles
left with me.
3. I take
sugar with milk.
4. There are
students in the class.
5. He spend
6. The earthquake damaged
money on food.
houses in the society.
7. I have
cans of cola with me.
8. I have
rice left with me.
1. Is there
juice left in the fridge?
2. There is
milk in the fridge.

Fill in the blanks using much (for non countable) or many (for countable) in the following sentences:

Exercise 9.2

Fill in the blanks using a little (non countable) or a few (countable):

Exercise 9.3

Fill in the blanks using some (positive – when expecting yes as an answer) or any (negative – when expecting no as an answer) in the following sentences:

3. Do you have

4. I have got

5. I don’t have

6. I have

7. Don’t they have

8. They at least have

idea how stupid you have been?

ideas. Let us discuss sometime soon.

money left with me.

money. Take this and see if you can restart your business.

sense of responsibility?

sense of responsibility. They returned my luggage.

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Exercise 9.4

Page32

Fill in the blanks using some or many.

1. Add

2. There are

3. Take

4.

salt in the mixture and stir.

cars on the road now.

money if you want but leave me alone.

There aren’t

tigers left. This has worried the conservationalists.

5. I have friends in the ministry. They may help us out. 6. There are
5. I have
friends in the ministry. They may help us out.
6. There are
complaints against you.
7. I have
friends. I will never be alone.
8. He ate so
sweets that he developed a toothache.
9. We had
10. He will bring
sandwiches before we left.
friends with him tonight.
1. He has
interest in movies.
2. You need
this month than you needed last month.
3. You should drink
coffee.
4. I have had
sleep in the last five days.
5. He has
friends than I thought.
6. I have
patience when dealing with idiots.
7. He has
patience than his brother.
8. I have got
time for your tantrums.
9. We have
time for this project than what we had for the previous one.
1.
He drank
of alcohol in the party and made a mess.
2.
Add
sugar to the kheer.
3.
He spent
money on his car to get it repaired.
4.
help at the right time can help many underprivileged kids have good careers.
5.
He didn’t give me
attention so I don’t think he is very interested.
6.
in your habits can have a great impact.

Exercise 9.5

Fill up the blanks using a little (less in quantity) or less (in comparison to something else):

Exercise 9.6

Fill up the blanks with a little vs a lot of:

7. He has left behind

8. Why don’t you pay

mess to be sorted out. attention to your studies?

Exercise 9.7

Fill up the blanks with few (countable, means almost zero) or little (non countable, means almost zero)

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1.

There’s

point in expecting Pakistan to punish Hafiz Saeed.

Page33

2.

people listen to what he says.

3.

I have

money for this wastage.

4.

I have

patience for idiots like him.

5.

There were

students

in class.

6.

There are

students who have passed the exam.

7. attend classes these days. 8. There is police presence on the road today. 1.
7. attend classes these days.
8. There is
police presence on the road today.
1.
There were
riots ten years ago.
2.
I drink
juice now than I did in college.
3.
I have
than a week to finish my thesis.
4.
She wears
make up ever since she has taken up a job.
5.
He watches
movies now that he has a kid.
6.
Why do you now spend
time with your family?
7.
I have met
athletes in the last five days than journalists.
8.
children now want to become writers.
1. They couldn’t go much
because they ran out of petrol.
2. I cannot go any
with this job.
3. The lawyer did not have any further questions.
4. You could go a lot
if you become disciplined.
5. How much
6. The soldiers could not go
do you plan to drive tonight?
because of the bad weather.
7. Any
misadventure will cost you dearly.
1. Mr Sharma has a son and a daughter. The former is an actor and the
is a doctor.
2. Talk to you

Exercise 9.8

Fill up the blanks using fewer or less in the following sentences:

Exercise 9.9

Fill in the blanks using farther (in the sense of the distance) or further (when talking of any thing apart from the distance):

Exercise 9.10

Fill in the blanks using later (which comes late) or latter (the second one in the sequence):

3. Of the two batman movies, I like the

4. He promised to return

5. The officer chased the thief even as the

6. I came to the office

7. Out of sandwich and pasta, I do not like the

8. I will take rest now. Maybe, later in the day, we will go to a movie.

fired at the former.

than my boss.

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Exercise 9.11

Page34

Fill in the blanks using last (last in a list of more than two) or latter (second one in a sequence of two):

1. Manoj and Jitesh are friends but the former always criticizes the

2. Bahadurshah Zafar was the

3. Suman, Satish and Sanju went to the library. Sushil was the

4.

Mughal king.

to come back.

I know Hindi and Sanskrit though I can barely speak in the

5. There are two parts of the movie and the 6. I study Physics, Chemistry
5. There are two parts of the movie and the
6. I study Physics, Chemistry and Mathematic. I hate the
7. I like Sachin, Rahul and Ganguly but I find the
is more popular.
one the most.
one most exciting.
8. The
one to leave the room should turn off the lights.

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Chapter 10

Page35

Demonstratives - This, that, these, those

‘This’ and ‘That’ are demonstratives.

1. This is my car. (This = demonstrative) 2. The demonstratives in English are this,
1. This is my car. (This = demonstrative)
2. The demonstratives in English are this, that, these, and those
1. A demonstrative adjective modifies a noun eg: this car is big, that apple is bad etc.
2. Demonstrative pronouns act on their own, replacing a noun instead of modifying it, eg – this is
good, that’s bad.
1. distance: near or far, and,
2. number: singular or plural.
1. This = near and singular
2. That = far and singular
3. These = near and plural
4. Those = Far and plural
1.
in my village. I was born here.
2.
3.
How can you buy
4.
Do you remember
boys playing over there study in the government school nearby.
pathetic mobile phone?
old mobile I always carry? My dad gave it to me.

Examples:

Demonstrative pronouns vs demonstrative adjectives

Whether a word is used as a demonstrative pronoun or an adjective depends on how and where it is used.

Use of demonstratives

Proper choice of the demonstrative depends on two factors:

Here are the main distinctions:

Exercise 10.1

Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate of this, that, these or those:

5.

Mr Manager, is

an example of your customer service?

6.

Did you see

boys who just went by?

7.

Do it like

8.

is how it is done.

9.

of you who have not done the work may leave the class.

10.

Look at this shirt I am wearing. I ordered it online.

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Page36

Adjectival Nouns

An adjectival noun is an adjective that functions as a noun.

Nouns, as we know are names and adjectives are words which modify nouns. Sometimes, adjectives are used as nouns, for example:

1. The brave shall rule the earth

2. The rich must help the poor 3. The good always wins in the end
2. The rich must help the poor
3. The good always wins in the end in Hindi movies.
1. The old and the young suffered in the storm alike.
2. He is a very sharp boy.
3. The intelligent should not be arrogant.
4. The rich should work for the poor.
5. Lala ji was a rich man but he always helped the poor.
6. He likes being with the young.
7. He likes being young. Who doesn’t?
8. The angry never have the sense to understand. The sensible never get angry.

Exercise 10.2

Identify which of the adjectives are used as nouns in the following sentences:

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Chapter 11

Page37

Comparatives and Superlatives

1. Use comparatives when comparing two things or people (I am stronger than Mahesh)

Use superlatives to compare more than two things or people (Suresh is the strongest boy
Use superlatives to compare more than two things or people (Suresh is the strongest boy in class,
Mahesh is the most hardworking of the three brothers)
You need to know the number of syllables in an adjective to form the superlatives and
comparatives.
• Syllables are like sound units. Let’s take a few examples:
o
One syllable: Go, come, do, run, cry etc
o
Two syllables: Going, tiger, lion
Monosyllable adjectives ending in a silent 'e' — nice
Comparative — add 'r' — wiser
Superlative — add 'st' — nicest
Monosyllable adjectives ending in one vowel and one consonant — big
Comparative — the consonant is doubled and 'er' is added —smaller
Superlative — the consonant is doubled and 'est' is added—smallest
Monosyllable adjectives ending in more than one consonant or more than a vowel — high, cheap
Comparative — 'er' is added — higher, cheaper
Superlative — 'est is added — highest, cheapest
Adjectives with two syllables ending in 'y' — happy
Comparative — 'y' becomes 'i' and 'er' is added — happier
Superlative — 'y' becomes 'i' and 'est' is added — happiest
Adjectives with two or more syllables without 'y' at the end — exciting
Comparative — more + the adjective + than — more exciting than
Superlative — more + the adjective + than — the most exciting
1. Mango is sweeter than banana.
2. Rahul is the tallest boy in class.
3. Suresh is a bright kid.

2.

3.

Formation Rules:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Examples:

4.

5. Suman is the brightest kid in class.

6. He is the faster of the two.

7. She is pretty intelligent.

Rahul is the brighter of the two brothers

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Page38

Special Irregular comparatives and superlatives

Adjectives Comparatives Superlatives bad worse worst far(distance) farther farthest far(extent) further
Adjectives
Comparatives
Superlatives
bad
worse
worst
far(distance)
farther
farthest
far(extent)
further
furthest
good
better
best
little
less
least
many
more
most
much
more
most
Usage Rules
Comparatives
Superlatives
Use them to compare two entities:
Use them to compare more than two entities:
Rahul is the taller of the two.
Suresh is the tallest boy in class.
Similarities
To express similarities use the following structure:
as + adjective + as
Examples:
1. Mahesh is as intelligent as Naman.
2. Lalit is as popular as Latika
Exercise 11.1
Fill in the blanks:
1.
My shirt is
than yours.
2.
My car is
(costly) than yours.

3. This is the

4. If you quit smoking, you will live

5.

6. Are you the

7. Can you tell me who is the

(interesting) movie I have seen this year.

(long)

He is the

(tall) boy in class.

(rich) man in this town? (large) animal in the world.

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8.

All the soldiers are brave but he was the

(brave) of them all.

Page39

9. People are

10. This exercise is (difficult).

11. Pacific ocean is (large) than Arabian Sea.

(friendly) in Nagpur than they are in Mumbai.

(difficult) than I expected but it is not the

(large) than Indian Ocean sea which in turn is

12. The weather here is very bad. In winters, it is (cold) here than in
12. The weather here is very bad. In winters, it is
(cold) here than in Shimla and in
summers, it is
(hot) here than in Agra.
13. Even the
(fast) horse cannot run faster than a train.
14. Technology has made the devices
(small) and
(small)
15. I think India is a
(good) place to live than most other places in the world.

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Chapter 12

Page40

Adverbs

What are adverbs?

1. An adjective modifies a noun. Example: a. Jahnavi is tall (The adjective tall modifies
1. An adjective modifies a noun.
Example:
a. Jahnavi is tall (The adjective tall modifies the noun Jahnavi)
2. An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
Examples:
a. He drives fast (fast modifies the verb drives)
b. He drives very fast (very modifies the adverb fast)
c. He drives a stylish car (stylish = adjective for it modifies the noun car)
d. He drives a very stylish car. (very = adverb for it modifies adjective stylish)
Jahnavi immediately called the police when she saw the
criminals hitting the poor boy aggressively. It was the most
horrible scene that she had ever witnessed in her life. She
had always lived peacefully in that neighborhood. No one
had ever disturbed her quiet nights there.
1. He drives fast. (fast = adverb of manner.)
2. I live there. (there = adverb of place.)

An adverb is a word that modifies verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.

Adverbs vs Adjectives

Adverbs and adjectives are distinct in that:

Read the passage:

The words " immediately, aggressively, peacefully, ever, always, there" are adverbs.

What are the different types of adverbs?

Adverbs tell us about how, when, where, up to what extent. Basically, they describe the manner, place, time, frequency or degree of action.

3. We'll leave now. (now = adverb of time.)

4. She always sleeps late. (always = adverb of frequency.)

Adverb Formation:

Adverbs can be formed by adding –ly to adjectives.

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Page41

Adverb = Adjective + ly

Examples:

Adjective Adverb slow slowly beautiful beautifully careful carefully violent violently Adjective Adverb Fast
Adjective
Adverb
slow
slowly
beautiful
beautifully
careful
carefully
violent
violently
Adjective
Adverb
Fast
Ferrari is a fast car
Fast
Suman drives fast
Hard
Hard
Diamond is a hard material
Sridhar studies hard
Late
Late
Late Dr Gupta was a great man
Sanju came late
Early
Early
Early bird catches the worm
I got up early today
Daily
Daily
Give us today our daily bread
He exercises daily
adjective
adverb
good
well

Exceptions:

Like every law in English, this one too has exceptions. There are several adverbs which do not follow the adjective+ly formula.

Study some of them here:

Some adjectives change their form when they become adverbs:

Things to remember

There are words which end in –ly but are not adverbs.

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Page42

Examples:

1. a kindly storekeeper

2. a lonely old man

3. an elderly person

4. a friendly policeman

To decide whether a word is an adverb, ask questions with how, where and when.
To decide whether a word is an adverb, ask questions with how, where and when.
1. How does Rahul speak English? He speaks English fluently.
2. Where do the boys play cricket? They play cricket here.
3. When did she write the story? She wrote the story yesterday.
Adverbs of Frequency
Adverbs of frequency express how often something is done.
They are generally used with present simple tense because they usually express routine or
repeated activities.
Adverbs of frequency :
Always
Usually
Often
Sometimes
Seldom/rarely
Never
Examples:
1.
They often go on road trips.
2.
I never work out.
3.
I usually go to Shimla in summers.

4. I often wake up before sunrise.

5. Sometimes, I love to play guitar.

6. I seldom speak English.

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Page43

Other adverbs of frequency

1. occasionally

2. frequently

Position of adverbs of frequency

1. As a general rule, place the adverb as close as possible to the verb it is trying to modify:

a. I sometimes visit my friends. b. We have often seen him walk in the
a. I sometimes visit my friends.
b. We have often seen him walk in the park.
c. They are never in school.
a sentence:
a. Sometimes she visits him.
b. I miss her occasionally.
Rarely and seldom can also go at the end of a sentence (often with "very"):
a. We see her rarely.
b. Jagat eats rice very seldom.
1. He worked hard (after the target verb ‘work’)
2. He drove his car carelessly. (after the object ‘car’ of the target verb drive)
3. He speaks English fluently. (after the object English)

2.

3.

Occasionally, sometimes, often, frequently and usually can also be placed at the beginning or end of

Position of Adverbs

Where you place an adverb is crucial to how effectively you communicate what you want to. Let’s look at the good practices of adverb placement.

Adverb of Manner

Adverbs of manner answer the question how or in what way. Examples are nicely, beautifully, carefully, awfully etc.

These adverbs are placed after the object of the target verb or, if the target verb has no object then after the target verb itself.

Examples:

Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of place describe the location of some action. Examples are here, there, behind, above, up, down, besides etc.

Adverbs of place are placed like adverbs of manner, they come after the object or the target verb.

1. I saw him there. (after the object ‘him’)

2. He slept under the tree. (After the verb ‘slept’)

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Adverbs of Time

Adverbs of place tell the time. Examples are now, then, tomorrow, yesterday etc.

Adverbs of time are usually placed at the end or beginning of a sentence.

1. I will talk to you tomorrow.

2. Yesterday, I saw a ghost.

1. He is a good singer and likes it when people say he sings 2.
1. He is a good singer and likes it when people say he sings
2. Do not speak
else the baby will wake up.
3. Pls speak
so that we can hear you.
4. I think I am a good singer and I like to sing. When people say that I sing , it makes me happy.
5. It rained so
that the match had to be cancelled.
6. The boys work hard and party
7. He shouted
8. He comes here
that the boys were fools.
after lunch. I wonder if he skips school.
9. The robber
10. The police ran
11. The driver drove the bus
opened the door and came inside the house.
but the thieves were faster.
so the passengers shouted at him.
12. The boys played
but lost the match.
13. This book is
well written.
14. This house is
expensive. I cannot buy it.
15. He laughed
at her joke.
16. He eats
that’s why he is so fit.
17. The dog barked and the scared children started crying
18. The food here is
bad. I will never come here.
19. She is
polite on phone. I can’t believe she said bad things to you.
20. How
do you have to renew your driving license?

Exercise 12.1

Fill in the blanks:

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Chapter 13

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Nouns

A noun is a word used as a name, it can be a name of a person, place, thing, quality, or action. A noun can be used as a subject, object, complement, appositive, or object of a preposition.

Plural vs singular Nouns can countable or non countable and countable nouns can be singular
Plural vs singular
Nouns can countable or non countable and countable nouns can be singular or plural.
The plural form of a noun is usually formed by adding -s at the end of the noun, but that is not always
the case. Some plurals are irregular:
Singular
Plural
fish
fish
tooth
teeth
man
men
woman
women
Different types of nouns
There are different types of nouns:
1.
An abstract noun refers to an idea, event, quality, or concept (justice, freedom, love, courage
)
2.
Concrete nouns name something recognizable through the sense (pen, computer, dog, house
)
3.
Animate nouns refer to a person, animal, or other creature (man, elephant, chicken
)
4.
An inanimate noun refers to a material object (stone, wood, table
)
5.
A collective noun describes a group of things or people as a unit (family, flock, audience
)
6.
Common noun is the name of a group of similar things, examples: table, book, window.
7.
Proper nouns refer to the name of a single person, place or thing Jagan, Jitendra, Javed
8.
Compound nouns refer to two or more nouns combined to form a single noun (sister-in-law,
schoolboy, fruit juice)
9.
Countable (or count) nouns have a singular and a plural form. In plural, these nouns can be used
with a number- they can be counted. (friends, chairs, houses, boys)

10. Uncountable (or non count) nouns, however, can only be used in singular. They can't be

counted. (money, bread, water, coffee

)

Let’s now examine some of these ideas in detail.

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Collective Nouns

Collective nouns refer to words used to represent a group of people or things.

Examples: committee, crowd, flock, audience, group, team, choir, committee, police, crew, family, government.

Are collective nouns plural or singular?

• Singular if the word is used to mean a single group or entity, example:
• Singular if the word is used to mean a single group or entity, example: Our team is the best.
• Plural if the word is used to mean a number of individuals, example: The crew are wearing
new uniforms.
1. My house is a three bedroom flat.
2. The red car on the far end is my father’s.
1. Determiners
1. a/an/the – articles. Examples: A boy, The red car etc
2. This, that, these, those. Examples: This car, that boy, these flowers
3. Two, three, four, other numerals. Examples: Four boys, three cars
4. My, their, your, his etc. Examples: His car is red. Their house is old fashioned.
5. Some, many, few etc. Examples: Some cars are fuel efficient. Many students are lazy.
2. Adjectives.
1. For example: Beautiful flower, fast cars etc.
3. Complements like prepositional phrases, clauses using ‘that’, for example:
1. Ramesh is a resident of Lakshmi Nagar
4. The idea that everybody’s vote should have equal weight was a bold idea in the beginning.

Collective nouns can take a plural or singular form depending on the usage and accordingly takes a singular or plural verb:

Noun phrase

A noun phrase is a group of words phrase which includes a noun and a modifier and the phrase as a whole is used as a noun.

Examples:

Modifiers in noun phrases

Noun phrases contain modifiers which add to the meaning of the noun. Noun modifiers can be of the following types:

Usage of Noun Clause

Noun clauses can be used as a subject (doer of an action) or an object (takes the impact of the action).

Examples:

1. Noun clauses as a subject

a. That red car belongs to me

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b. Brilliant engineers come out of IITs

2. Noun clauses as an object

a. Sameer bought an expensive Ford car yesterday.

b. The police caught the dreaded Pakistani terrorist yesterday.

Singular and Plurals

Plural nouns refer to more than one, obviously it makes sense only when the noun can be counted.

Hence, only countable nouns have plurals.

can be counted. Hence, only countable nouns have plurals. Usually, we add –s or –es to
Usually, we add –s or –es to the noun to make plurals but several times,
Usually, we add –s or –es to the noun to make plurals but several times, this rule is not followed. The
best way to know the right plural is to have read the word somewhere.
Please review this partial list of singulars and plurals
Singular
Plural
Singular
Plural
Singular
Plural
snake
snakes
echo
echoes
auto
autos
window
windows
embargo
embargoes
kangaroo
kangaroos
box
boxes
hero
heroes
kilo
kilos
boy
boys
potato
potatoes
memo
memos
potato
potatoes
tomato
tomatoes
photo
photos
knife
knives
torpedo
torpedoes
piano
pianos
buffalo
buffalos/buffaloes
veto
vetoes
pimento
pimentos
mosquito
mosquitos/mosquitoes
fish
fish
pro
pros
motto
mottos/mottoes
sheep
sheep
solo
solos
zero
zeros/zeroes
barracks
barracks
soprano
sopranos
corpus
corpora
foot
feet
studio
studios
alumnus
alumni
tooth
teeth
tattoo
tattoos
bacillus
bacilli
goose
geese
video
videos
appendix
appendices
tooth
teeth
zoo
zoos
phenomenon
phenomena
mouse
mice
nebula
nebulae
hypothesis
hypotheses
addendum
addenda
vertebra
vertebrae
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Page48

neurosis neuroses bacterium bacteria Apex apices oasis oases curriculum curricula appendix appendices
neurosis
neuroses
bacterium
bacteria
Apex
apices
oasis
oases
curriculum
curricula
appendix
appendices
parenthesis
parentheses
datum
data
cervix
cervices
synopsis
synopses
erratum
errata
index
indices
phenomenon
phenomena
medium
media
matrix
matrices
diagnosis
diagnoses
memorandum
memoranda
vortex
vortices
emphasis
emphases
symposium
symposia
axis
axes
crisis
crises
criterion
criteria
basis
bases
Feminine and Masculine Nouns
Feminine gender expresses female of a fender while masculine nouns represent male gender.
Review the following list:
Masculine
Feminine
Masculine
Feminine
Masculine
Feminine
Actor
actress
poet
poetess
dad
mum
author
authoress
policeman
policewoman
daddy
mummy
bachelor
spinster
prince
princess
man
woman
boy
girl
sir
madam
emperor
empress
bridegroom
groom
son
daughter
father
mother
brother
sister
uncle
aunt
god
goddess
nephew
niece
wizard
witch
grandfather
grandmother
king
queen
waiter
waitress
heir
heiress
man
woman
master
mistress
hero
heroine
husband
wife
murderer
murderess
host
hostess

Common Nouns

Certain words are used for both masculine and feminine genders. Examples:

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baby deer president companion owner bird friend pupil comrade parent cat guardian relative cousin passenger
baby
deer
president
companion
owner
bird
friend
pupil
comrade
parent
cat
guardian
relative
cousin
passenger
cattle
guest
sheep
dancer
pig
child
infant
singer
student
swan
Exercise 13.1
Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the given nouns for the following exercise. Use each noun
only one time.
chair
job
experience
information
hair
luggage
progress
furniture
permission
work
1.
I don't have much
,
just a suitcase and a bag.
2.
There is a lot of
available on the internet but most of that is unreliable.
3.
There are enough jobs for everyone, there is a lot of
4.
When we shifted to Bangalore, we sold all our
on Quikr. Not even one
chair was left.
5.
'What does Ajay look like?' He's got a grey beard and white
6.
Sumit’s English is very bad. He must join a course and make some
7.
Gautam is unemployed. He got fired from his
8.
If you want to take a long leave, you have to ask for
9.
Amit will not get the job. Neither does he have the requisite degrees nor the right
10.
That old
in the store room belongs to my grandfather.
Exercise 13.2
Identify countable and non countable nouns in the following sentences by indicating C/NC
1. The boys are playing in the
2. I don't like

3.

4. Experts say that pollution is the biggest danger to

5. Maggie Aunty makes delicious

6. There are five windows in the

7. We need some tape to seal this

I prefer

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8.

The people in this apartment are very

Page50

9. Baba Ramdev drinks two big glasses of water every 10. My mother makes wonderful
9. Baba Ramdev drinks two big glasses of water every
10. My mother makes wonderful
11. Drive carefully, the roads become slippery during
12. My NGO is helping the police in traffic
13. He bought three bottles of juice for our
Can I have some milk please?
Selected candidates will join training later this
A rise in food prices is inevitable because of the bad
The lessons on this website are
You must drink a lot of
Unemployed adults can be employed through industrial development
I made some wonderful friends during my trip to Shimla
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
1.
Pick the Proper Noun
a)
writer
b) Pramod
c) water
d) brother
2.
Pich the Common Noun?
a)
dog
b) Delhi
c) Calcium
d) India
3.
Which of the following noun is a Collective Noun?
a)
jury
b) notebook
c) bats
d) aeroplane
3.
Cricketer is a
Noun?
a)
Collective
b) Abstract
c) Concrete
d) Countable
4.
Apartment is a
Noun?
a)
Collective
b) Abstract
c) Concrete
d) Countable
5.
Which of the following noun is not a Abstract Noun?
a)
justice
b) kindness
c) family
d) childhood
6.
Which of the following noun is not a Countable Noun?
a)
cup
b) silver
c) dog
d) apple
7.
Which of the following noun is not a Proper Noun?
a)
team
b) Delhi
c) Tuesday
d) Nalin
8.
Cows eat grass.
a)
Proper Noun
b) Common Noun
c) Abstract Noun
d) Collective Noun
9.
I saw a pack of wolves hiding behind the bushes.

Exercise 13.3

Answer the following questions:

a) Common Noun

b) Material Noun

c) Collective Noun

d) Abstract Noun

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