Sei sulla pagina 1di 42

ENGINEERING MATERIALS

ENGINEERING MATERIALS METALS PLASTICS CERAMICS COMPOSITES
ENGINEERING
MATERIALS
METALS
PLASTICS
CERAMICS
COMPOSITES

METALS

A metal is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity. Metals are generally malleable that is, they can be hammered or pressed permanently out of shape without breaking or cracking as well as fusible (able to be fused or melted) and ductile (able to be drawn out into a thin wire). About 91 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals (some elements appear in both metallic and non- metallic forms).

ALLOYS

An alloy is as a material that's made up of at least two different chemical elements, one of which is a metal. The most important metallic component of an alloy (often representing 90 percent or more of the material) is called the main metal, the parent metal, or the base metal. The other components of an alloy (which are called alloying agents) can be either metals or nonmetals and they're present in much smaller quantities (sometimes less than 1 percent of the total).

Most engineering metallic materials are alloys. Metals are alloyed to enhance their properties, such as strength, hardness or corrosion resistance, and to create new properties, such as shape memory effect.

METALS FERROUS AMORPHOUS NON FERROUS METALS METALS METALS
METALS
FERROUS
AMORPHOUS
NON FERROUS
METALS
METALS
METALS

1

FERROUS METALS AND ALLOYS

Ferrous metals are those which contain iron. They can be a mixture of other metals

Ferrous metals are those which contain iron. They can be a mixture of other metals or elements, but all ferrous materials contain some form of iron which give them a magnetic quality and

makes them prone to corrosion. Ferrous metals include caste iron and steel.

of iron which give them a magnetic quality and makes them prone to corrosion. Ferrous metals
to corrosion. Ferrous metals include caste iron and steel. FERROUS METAL CAST STEEL IRON CAST IRON
to corrosion. Ferrous metals include caste iron and steel. FERROUS METAL CAST STEEL IRON CAST IRON
FERROUS METAL CAST STEEL IRON
FERROUS
METAL
CAST
STEEL
IRON
CAST IRON WHITE GREY CAST MALLEABLE NODULAR CAST IRON IRON CAST IRON CAST IRON
CAST IRON
WHITE
GREY CAST
MALLEABLE
NODULAR
CAST IRON
IRON
CAST IRON
CAST IRON
STEEL MILD STEEEL OR HIGH SPEED MEDIUM HIGH CARBON STAINLESS STEEL LOW CARBON CARBON STEEL
STEEL
MILD STEEEL OR
HIGH SPEED
MEDIUM
HIGH CARBON
STAINLESS
STEEL
LOW CARBON
CARBON STEEL
STEEL
STEEL
STEEL

2

FERROUS MATERIAL

MATERIAL APPLICATION Cast iron Car brake discs, car cylinder, metal work vices, machinery bases, A
MATERIAL
APPLICATION
Cast iron
Car brake discs, car cylinder, metal work vices, machinery bases,
A
strong metal when it is in
manhole covers.
compression. It is very
brittle material. It is 93%
iron and 1.75% to 4.3%
carbon with other elements.
Mild steel or low carbon
Nuts and bolts, car body, building girders, gates etc.
steel
0.15% to 0.45% carbon. A
ductile and malleable metal.
Mild steel will rust quickly
if
tit is in frequent contact
with water.
Medium-carbon steel
Axle shafts, crank shafts, and gearing plates, railway wheels, rails,
structural beams.
0.45% to 0.8% carbon.
High tensile strength and
ductility, despite its
The ductility of the steel allows it to be formed into thin shafts or
toothed plates without losing any of its tensile strength.
brittleness when compared
to
other forms of steel.

3

High carbon steel Hand tools as screw drivers, hammer, chisels , saws, springs and garden
High carbon steel
Hand tools as screw drivers, hammer, chisels , saws, springs and
garden tools.
Contains carbon 0.8% to
1.5%. Very hard and strong
steel that has a high
resistance to abrasion.
High speed steel
Drill bits, lathe cutting tools. It is used where high speed and high
temperature is used.
HSS is a steel containing
high content of tungsten,
vanadium and chromium.
Highly brittle. High
resistance to wear.
Stainless steel
Kitchen sinks, teapots, cookwares and surgical instruments.
It is an alloy of iron with a
typical 18% chromium, 8%
nickel and 8% magnesium.
It is very resistant to wear,
corrosion and rust.

4

NON-FERROUS METALS

Non-ferrous metals are the opposite of ferrous they do not contain any iron. They will not have a magnetic quality and typically resist corrosion much better than ferrous metals. The category of non-ferrous metals also includes raw materials pure metals. Aluminum, copper, aluminum alloys, lead, tin are all considered non-ferrous metals.

MATERIAL

APPLICATION

Aluminium- It can be polished to a mirror like appearance. It is light in weight.

polished to a mirror like appearance. It is light in weight. Saucepan, cooking foil, window frames,

Saucepan, cooking foil, window frames, ladders, expensive bicycles.

cooking foil, window frames, ladders, expensive bicycles. Copper – A ductile and malleable metal. It is
cooking foil, window frames, ladders, expensive bicycles. Copper – A ductile and malleable metal. It is

Copper A ductile and malleable metal. It is red/brown colour. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity.

colour. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Plumbing, electric components, cookware and roof

Plumbing, electric components, cookware and roof coverings.

colour. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Plumbing, electric components, cookware and roof
colour. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Plumbing, electric components, cookware and roof

5

Zinc Very resistant to corrosion from moisture. Mainly used for coating steel.

Used as a coating on screws, steel buckets. It is used to galvanize steel.

on screws, steel buckets. It is used to galvanize steel. Tin – Very ductile and malleable
on screws, steel buckets. It is used to galvanize steel. Tin – Very ductile and malleable
on screws, steel buckets. It is used to galvanize steel. Tin – Very ductile and malleable

Tin Very ductile and malleable metal. Resistant to corrosion from moisture. It is bright silver in appearance. Tinplates are steel with a tin coating.

metal. Resistant to corrosion from moisture. It is bright silver in appearance. Tinplates are steel with

Coating on beer cans, food cans, tin foil, whistles and soldering.

on beer cans, food cans, tin foil, whistles and soldering. Lead – soft malleable metal. It
on beer cans, food cans, tin foil, whistles and soldering. Lead – soft malleable metal. It

Lead soft malleable metal. It is counted as one of the heavy metals. Lead has a bluish white colour after being cut fresh, but it soon tarnishes to a dull grayish colour when exposed to air.

Lead has a bluish white colour after being cut fresh, but it soon tarnishes to a

Roof flashing, used for batteries, for protection of X ray protection.

to a dull grayish colour when exposed to air. Roof flashing, used for batteries, for protection

6

NON FERROUS ALLOYS

Brass copper and 4 to 45% zinc alloy. Colour of brass varies from dark reddish brown to light silvery yellow. It is stronger and harder than copper but not as strong as steel. Easy to

form into shapes, a good conductor of heat and generally resistant to corrosion from salt water.

heat and generally resistant to corrosion from salt water. Water fittings, screws, radiators, musical instruments,

Water fittings, screws, radiators, musical instruments, catridge for firearms.

radiators, musical instruments, catridge for firearms. Bronze – copper and 12% tin alloy. Hard and brittle
radiators, musical instruments, catridge for firearms. Bronze – copper and 12% tin alloy. Hard and brittle
radiators, musical instruments, catridge for firearms. Bronze – copper and 12% tin alloy. Hard and brittle

Bronze copper and 12% tin alloy. Hard and brittle material. Very high resistance to corrosion.

and brittle material. Very high resistance to corrosion. Ship propellers, under water fittings, statues and medals.

Ship propellers, under water fittings, statues and medals.

Ship propellers, under water fittings, statues and medals. Gunmetal – 88% Copper, 10% zinc and 2%
Ship propellers, under water fittings, statues and medals. Gunmetal – 88% Copper, 10% zinc and 2%

Gunmetal 88% Copper, 10% zinc and 2% tin. Hard al loy with high wear resistance.

10% zinc and 2% tin. Hard al loy with high wear resistance. Automobile fittings. body parts,

Automobile

fittings.

body

parts,

gun

barrels,

pi[pe

Automobile fittings. body parts, gun barrels, pi[pe Solder – Tin and lead alloy. It is fusible

Solder Tin and lead alloy. It is fusible metal alloy used to join meal work pieces.

Electronis, plumbing, jewelry and repair process where metal parts cannot be effectively welded.

join meal work pieces. Electronis, plumbing, jewelry and repair process where metal parts cannot be effectively
join meal work pieces. Electronis, plumbing, jewelry and repair process where metal parts cannot be effectively

7

Duralumin- Aluminium, 4% copper, 0.5%

 

magnesium, 0.5% manganese and 0.5 silicon. It is a light weight material and corrosion resistant.

magnesium, 0.5% manganese and 0.5 silicon. It is a light weight material and corrosion resistant.
magnesium, 0.5% manganese and 0.5 silicon. It is a light weight material and corrosion resistant.

Construction & Equipment, Containers & Packaging, Automotives, Aerospace

Construction & Equipment, Containers & Packaging, Automotives, Aerospace
Construction & Equipment, Containers & Packaging, Automotives, Aerospace

AMORPHOUS METALS

“Metallic Glasses” or “Amorphous Metals” are inorganic mixtures fused at high temperatures which solidify on cooling, but do not crystallize. These materials consist of very rapidly cooled molten alloys which are not given time to crystallize before solidification. The alloys vary slightly in composition but most contain about 92% iron, 3% boron and 5% silicon by weight.

In an amorphous material, similar to glass, the atoms are not arranged in any ordered structure. Rather, they have a tightly-packed, yet random arrangement.

Rather, they have a tightly-packed, yet random arrangement. Because there are no structured planes of atoms

Because there are no structured planes of atoms in an amorphous material, the atoms are gridlocked into the glassy structure, making the movement of groups of atoms very difficult. One consequence of this atomic gridlock is that some amorphous metals are very hard and have very high stiffness and a very high elastic modulus. The combination of hardness and elasticity of amorphous material is an important factor in its many applications.

8

Application

Using soft magnetic cores made from amorphous metal alloys reduces energy loss in electrical transformers by up to 85 percent.

tennis racket, razor blades that last much longer, coatings in refineries and oil pipes, armor, phone casings, anti-theft devices, and fine jewelry, such as watches and rings.

devices, and fine jewelry, such as watches and rings. BEHAVIOUR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS STRUCTURE OF
BEHAVIOUR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS STRUCTURE OF MECHANICAL PHYSICAL AND PROPERTY MATERIALS PROPERTIES
BEHAVIOUR
AND
PROPERTIES OF
MATERIALS
STRUCTURE OF
MECHANICAL
PHYSICAL AND
PROPERTY
MATERIALS
PROPERTIES
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
MODIFICATION
STRENGTH
ATOMIC BONDS
STIFFNESS
HEAT TREATMENT
CRYSTALLINE
DENSITY
ELASTICITY
ALLOYING
AMORPHOUS
MELTING POINT
PLASTICITY
COMPOSITES
PARTLY CRYSTALLINE
SPECIFIC HEAT
DUCTILITY
REINFORCEMENT
POLYMER CHAINS
MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
BRITTLENESS
LAMINATES
ELECTRICAL
MALLEABILTY
FILLERS
CONDUCTIVITY
TOUGHNESS
THERMAL
RESILENCE
CONDUCTIVITY
CREEP
THERMAL EXPANSION
FATIGUE
CORROSSION
HARDNESS

9

THE IMPORTANT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS

I. Strength. It is the ability of a material to resist the externally applied forces without breaking or yielding.

2. Stiffness. It is the ability of a material to resist deformation under stress. The modulus of

elasticity is the measure of stiffness.

3. Elasticity. It is the property of a material to regain its original shape after deformation n the

external forces are removed. This property is desirable for materials used in tools and machines. It may be noted that steel is more elastic than rubber.

4. Plasticity. It is property of a material which retains the deformation produced under load

permanently. This property of material is necessary for forgings, in stamping images on coins, and in ornamental work.

5. Ductility. It is property of a material enabling it to be drawn into wire with the application i\e

force. The ductile materials commonly used in engineering practice (in order of diminishing duct1ility) are mild steel, copper, aluminium, nickel, zinc, tin and lead.

6. Brittleness. It is the property of a material opposite to ductility. It is the property of breaking

of a material with little permanent distortion. Cast iron is a brittle material.

7. Malleability. It is a special case of ductility which permits materials to be rolled or hammered

into thin sheets. A malleable material should be plastic but it is not essential to be so strong. Malleable materials commonly used in engineering practice (in order of diminishing malleability) lead. soft steel, wrought iron, copper and aluminium.

8. Toughness. It is the property of a material to resist fracture due to high impact loads like

hammer blows. The toughness of a material decreases when it is heated. This property is desirable in parts subjected to shock and impact loads.

9. Resilience. It is property of a material to absorb energy and to resist shock and impact loads. It is measured by the amount of energy absorbed per unit volume within elastic limit. This property is essential for spring materials.

10. Creep. When a part is subjected to a constant stress at high temperature for a long period of time, it will undergo a slow and permanent deformation called creep. This property is considered in designing internal combustion engines, boilers and turbines.

II. Fatigue. When a material is subjected to repeated stresses, it fails at stresses below yield point stresses. Such type of failure of a material is known as fatigue. The failure is caused b) means of

10

a progressive crack formation which are usually fine and microscopic size. This property considered in designing shafts, connecting rods, springs, gears etc.

12. Hardness. It is a very important property of the metals and has a wide variety of meanings It embraces many different properties such as resistance to wear, scratching, deformation and machine ability etc. It also means the ability of a metal to cut another metal.

PLASTICS

Plastics are materials containing synthetic or semi synthetic organics. They can be molded to diverse shape when heated and then hardened. They are synthetic and mostly derived from petrochemicals, but many are partially natural. The first fully synthetic plastic is Bakelite.

PLASTICS THERMOSOFETENING THERMOSETTING OR OR ELASTOMERS THERMOPLASTICS THERMOSETS
PLASTICS
THERMOSOFETENING
THERMOSETTING
OR
OR
ELASTOMERS
THERMOPLASTICS
THERMOSETS

THERMOSETTING PLASTICS OR THERMOSETS

Plastics which cures irreversibly, That sis they hardened permanently when cooled. They cannot be reheated and melted to another shape. That is they can be shaped only once.

Epoxy resin, Polyester resin, Phenolic resin.

Application Adhesives, electrical insulation, handles, control knobs, bonding materials.

THERMOSOFTENING PLASTICS AND THERMOPLASTICS

These are plastics that do not undergo chemical change in their chemical composition when heated. They are molded above a specific temperature and solidifies on cooling. They can be molded again and again.

11

Polyethylene, Propelyne, Poly vinychloride (PVC), Polystyrene

Application Wash basins, chairs, toys, bottles, medical equipments, kitchen equipments.

ELASTOMERS

Rubbery material composed of polymers that are capable of recovering their original shape after being stretched.

Poly isoprene (Natural rubber) gaskets, shoe heels

Poly eurethene

- in textile industry for elastic clothing, foams

Poly butadiene

- tyres for vehicles because of extraordinary wear resistance.

Neoprene

- wet suits, industrial belts

CERAMICS

Nonmetallic substances made by inorganic compounds like oxides, carbides and nitrides. It has; high refractoriness, poor load carrying capacity, high brittleness and poor machinabilty.

Application Pottery, tiles, refractory materials, glass.

COMPOSITE MATERIAL

These are materials produced by combining two or more materials together having superior properties.

Wood is a natural composite where as concrete and plywood are artificial composites.

Application fiber glass door, automobile parts, semiconductors, electrical and electronic components.

For BMW M3 model the Al bumper is replaced by a glass/polymide material. A weight reduction from 7 kg to 3.1 kg is realized. The crash performance increased 3 to 4 times than a metal beam.

12

MANUFACTURING PROCESS

Materials are converted into finished products though different manufacturing processes. Manufacturing processes are classified into shaping [casting], forming, joining, and coating, dividing, machining and modifying material property.

dividing, machining and modifying material property. METHODS OF MANUFACTURING CASTING: In casting process the

METHODS OF MANUFACTURING

CASTING:

In casting process the components are manufactured by pouring molten metal such as cast iron,

aluminium, brass etc. into moulds prepared in molding boxes by wooden or metal patterns.

A mould is formed into the geometrical shape of a desired part. Molten metal is poured into the

mold; the mold holds the material in shape it solidifies. A metal casting is created. The mold

contains a delivery system for the molten material to reach the mold cavity.

MOULD:

A mould is defined as the negative print of the part to be cast and is obtained by the pattern in

moulding boxes into which molten metal is poured and allowed to solidify.

TYPES OF MOULDS

1. Temporary moulds

These moulds are destroyed at the removing of casting from them e.g, green sand moulds.

13

2.

Permanent moulds

These moulds are used in die casting. These moulds are used for long time. E.g, metallic moulds.

PATTERN

Patterns are objects by which the interior cavities of the mold where the molten metal solidifies are formed by impression. It is a geometrical replica of the metal casting to be produced. Patterns are formed by wood or metals like aluminium, steel or cast iron.

metal casting to be produced. Patterns are formed by wood or metals like aluminium, steel or
metal casting to be produced. Patterns are formed by wood or metals like aluminium, steel or

GATING SYSTEM

metal casting to be produced. Patterns are formed by wood or metals like aluminium, steel or

14

Main parts of Gating System

Pouring basin: It is also known as pouring cup. Molten metal is poured through the pouring basin.

Sprue: The sprue takes molten metal from the pouring basin to the runner.

Runner: The runner carries molten metal to the gate.

Gate: The molten metal entries the mould through the gate.

Riser: Riser is a passage. After the mould is filled up with molten metal rises into the riser and comes to the top.

TYPES OF SAND MOULDING

GREEN SAND MOULDING

Green sand is by far the most diversified molding method used in current metal casting operations. The green sand process utilizes a mold made of compressed or compacted moist sand packed around a wood or metal pattern. The term "green" denotes the presence of moisture in the molding sand, and indicates that the mold is not baked or dried.

sand, and indicates that the mold is not baked or dried . STEPS IN GREEN SAND

STEPS IN GREEN SAND MOLDING

For green sand molding a two piece pattern is used.

One half of the pattern is placed on a molding board.

The drag box is placed around the pattern 20mm layer of facing sand is first placed around the pattern.

15

Then the drag box is filled up with green sand.

Ramming is done by hammer.

After completing the ramming process the excess sand is removed by strike off bar.

Vent holes are made.

Then the drag box is tilted upside down.

Parting sand is applied on the upper side to prevent two pieces of pattern from sticking to each other.

Cope box is placed correctly in position on the drag box.

Sprue pin and riser pin are placed in position.

Then the cope box is filled up with molding sand and ramming is done.

Vent holes are made; sprue pin and riser pin are removed.

Cope box and drag box are separated.

The pattern pieces are removed slowly and gate is cut to mould.

Repair works are done in mould if necessary.

Surfaces of the mould are coated with graphite to give smooth surface to the casting. The two moulds are assembled in correct position.

A pouring weight is placed. Now the mould is ready for pouring.

Advantages

Most ferrous / non-ferrous metals can be used.

Low Pattern & Material costs.

Almost no limit on size, shape or weight of part.

Adaptable to large or small quantities

Used best for light, bench molding for medium-sized castings or for use with production molding machines.

Disadvantages

Low design complexity.

Lower dimensional accuracy.

DRY SAND MOLDING

The step by step procedure of making dry sand mould is the same as that of green sand molding. The only difference is that after making the mould it is heated. The heating is done by oxy- acetylene flame for large moulds. Small moulds are heated in ovens.

Application:

16

Dry sand moulds are used for large castings such as engine cylinders, engine blocks. Advantages:

Dry sand mould is stronger than green sand mould.

Dimensional accuracy of dry sand mould is high as compared with green sand mould.

Dry sand moulds are coated with wax therefore surface finish is more.

Disadvantages

This type of molding is much more expensive than green sand molding and is not a high- production process. Correct baking (drying) times are essential.

SHEET METAL OPERATIONS

Sheet metal is simply metal formed into thin and flat pieces. It is one of the fundamental forms used

in metalworking, and can be cut and bent into a variety of different shapes. Countless everyday

objects are constructed of the material. Sheet metal processes can be broken down into two major

classifications and one minor classification

Shearing processes -- processes which apply shearing forces to cut, fracture, or separate

the material.

Forming processes -- processes which cause the metal to undergo desired shape changes

without failure, excessive thinning, or cracking. This includes bending and stretching.

SHEET METAL CUTTING OR SHEARING OPERATION

The cutting or shearing operations are conducted to convert the shape of the sheet to that of the pattern. The different types of shearing operations are

1. Cutting off: It is the process of cutting a piece from a sheet metal .The cut is made along a straight line for removing a piece. With each cut a new part is produced.

17

2. Parting: Separating a part from the remaining sheet, by punching away the material between
2. Parting: Separating a part from the remaining sheet, by punching away the material between

2. Parting: Separating a part from the remaining sheet, by punching away the material between parts. Parting is less efficient than cut as it results in wastage of materials.

efficient than cut as it results in wastage of materials. 3. Blanking : It is the
efficient than cut as it results in wastage of materials. 3. Blanking : It is the

3. Blanking: It is the process of cutting out a metal strip of required shape from a work usually called blank. The metal blanked out through the die is the required product. The sheet metal left on the die is the scrap. The cut out shape is called blank. Punches are used for this purpose.

shape is called blank. Punches are used for this purpose. 4. Punching: It is a piercing
shape is called blank. Punches are used for this purpose. 4. Punching: It is a piercing

4. Punching: It is a piercing operation. This is the operation of making circular holes on the sheet. Punches are used for this purpose.

a piercing operation. This is the operation of making circular holes on the sheet. Punches are

18

a piercing operation. This is the operation of making circular holes on the sheet. Punches are

5.

Notching: This is the process of removing metal to the desired shape from the edge of the sheet. Notching die and punch is used for this purpose.

the sheet. Notching die and punch is used for this purpose. 6. Slitting : This is

6. Slitting: This is a process of cutting along a number of parallel lines to form the sheet by using snips. Slitting is a type of metal cutting process where large rolls, or coils, of sheet metal stock are cut using extremely sharp rotary blades. In metal slitting, straight lines are cut lengthwise into the large coil to create strips of metal that are narrower in width.

coil to create strips of metal that are narrower in width. 7. Trimming : This is

7. Trimming: This is the operation of cutting away the excess metal from a formed part to establish shape by snips or chisel.

from a formed part to establish shape by snips or chisel. 8. Lancing : Lancing is

8. Lancing: Lancing is the operation of cutting an interior section of the sheet metal without removing the section then bending the cut portion. Lancing leaves an opened metal tab.

of the sheet metal without removing the section then bending the cut portion. Lancing leaves an

19

METAL FORMING PROCESSES

Bending

Bending is a non-cutting operation. This operation is carried out in a press. It is a process of plastically deforming the metal sheet along a line.

Bending should be done perpendicular to the direction of the grains. If bending is done parallel to the grains, cracks will develop. Bending operation can be performed only in ductile materials.

operation can be performed only in ductile materials. Air bending is the most common type of
operation can be performed only in ductile materials. Air bending is the most common type of

Air bending is the most common type of 3 types of bending used in sheet metal shops today. In this process the work piece comes in contact with the outside edges of the die, as well as the punch tip. The punch is then forced past the top of the die into the v-opening without coming into contact with the bottom of the v. Because the punch tip does not need to be forced past the surface of the metal much less tonnage is required to bend.

Because the punch tip does not need to be forced past the surface of the metal

20

Seaming involves bending the edges of two parts over on each other. As the bends are locked together each bend helps resists the deformation of the other bend, providing a well joint structure.

of the other bend, providing a well joint structure. Stretching Stretch forming is a metal forming

Stretching

Stretch forming is a metal forming process in which a piece of sheet metal is stretched and bent simultaneously over a die in order to form large contoured parts. Ductile materials are preferable, the most commonly used being aluminum, steel, and titanium.

Stretch forming is performed on a stretch press, in which a piece of sheet metal is securely gripped along its edges by gripping jaws. Stretch formed parts are typically large and possess large radius bends. The shapes that can be produced vary from a simple curved surface to complex non-uniform cross sections.

Stretch forming is capable of shaping parts with very high accuracy and smooth surfaces.

Typical stretch formed parts are - large curved panels such as door panels in cars or wing panels on aircraft, window frames and enclosures.

parts are - large curved panels such as door panels in cars or wing panels on

21

Deep drawing

Deep drawing is a metal forming process in which sheet metal is stretched into the desired part shape. A tool pushes downward on the sheet metal, forcing it into a die cavity in the shape of the desired part. The tensile forces applied to the sheet cause it to plastically deform into a cup- shaped part. Deep drawn parts are characterized by a depth equal to more than half of the diameter of the part.

These parts can have a variety of cross sections with straight, tapered, or even curved walls, but cylindrical or rectangular parts are most common. Deep drawing is most effective with ductile metals, such as aluminum, brass, copper, and mild steel.

metals, such as aluminum, brass, copper, and mild steel. Examples of parts formed with deep drawing

Examples of parts formed with deep drawing include automotive bodies and fuel tanks, cans, cups, kitchen sinks, and pots and pans.

Spinning or Spin forming

Spinning, sometimes called spin forming, is a metal forming process used to form cylindrical parts by rotating a piece of sheet metal while forces are applied to one side. A sheet metal disc is rotated at high speeds while rollers press the sheet against a tool, called a mandrel, to form the shape of the desired part. Spun metal parts have a rotationally symmetric, hollow shape, such as a cylinder, cone, or hemisphere.

Examples include cookware, hubcaps, satellite dishes, rocket nose cones, and musical instruments.

22

Spinning is typically performed on a manual or CNC lathe and requires a blank, mandrel,

Spinning is typically performed on a manual or CNC lathe and requires a blank, mandrel, and roller tool. The blank is the disc-shaped piece of sheet metal that is pre-cut from sheet stock and will be formed into the part.

Roll forming

Roll forming, sometimes spelled roll forming, is a metal forming process in which sheet metal is progressively shaped through a series of bending operations. The process is performed on a roll forming line in which the sheet metal stock is fed through a series of roll stations.

Each station has a roller, referred to as a roller die, positioned on both sides of the sheet. The shape and size of the roller die may be unique to that station, or several identical roller dies may be used in different positions. The roller dies may be above and below the sheet, along the sides, at an angle, etc.

As the sheet is forced through the roller dies in each roll station, it plastically deforms and bends. Each roll station performs one stage in the complete bending of the sheet to form the desired part.

23

Typical roll formed parts include panels, tracks, shelving, etc. These parts are commonly used in

Typical roll formed parts include panels, tracks, shelving, etc. These parts are commonly used in industrial and commercial buildings for roofing, lighting, storage units, and HVAC applications.

FORGING

Forging is the process by which metal is heated and is shaped by plastic deformation by suitably

applying compressive force. Usually the compressive force is in the form of hammer blows using

a power hammer or a press.

Forging refines the grain structure and improves physical properties of the metal. With proper

design, the grain flow can be oriented in the direction of principal stresses encountered in actual

use. Grain flow is the direction of the pattern that the crystals take during plastic deformation.

Physical properties (such as strength, ductility and toughness) are much better in a forging than

in the base metal, which has, crystals randomly oriented.

The forging process is very important in industrial metal manufacture, particularly in extensive iron and steel industry.

24

FORGING OPERATIONS: 1: Drawing: This is the operation in which metal gets elongated with a
FORGING OPERATIONS: 1: Drawing: This is the operation in which metal gets elongated with a
FORGING OPERATIONS: 1: Drawing: This is the operation in which metal gets elongated with a

FORGING OPERATIONS:

1: Drawing:

This is the operation in which metal gets elongated with a reduction in the cross section area. For this, a force is to be applied in a direction perpendicular to the length axis.

in the cross section area. For this, a force is to be applied in a direction

25

2: Up setting:

This is applied to increase the cross sectional area of the stock at the expense of the length. To achieve the length of upsetting force is applied in a direction parallel to the length axis, For example forming of a bolt head.

to the length axis, For example forming of a bolt head. 3: Bending: Be nding is

3: Bending:

Bending is very common forging operation. It is an operation to give a turn to metal rod or plate. This is required for those which have bends shapes.

plate. This is required for those which have bends shapes. 4: Punching: It is a process

4: Punching:

It is a process of producing holes. The molten plate is placed over the hollow cylindrical die by pressing the punch over the plate, the hole is made.

The molten plate is placed over the hollow cylindrical die by pressing the punch over the

26

5: Forged welding:

Forge welding is a solid-state welding process that produces a weld by heating the work pieces to welding temperature and applying blows sufficient to cause permanent deformation at the faying surface. It is a solid state process whereby the melting temperature is not reached.

Mighty hammer blows cause permanent deformation and assure metallurgical contact between two elements to be welded together.

contact between two elements to be welded together. 6: Cutting: It is a process in which

6: Cutting:

It is a process in which a metal rod or plate cut out into two pieces, with the help of chisel and hammer, when the metal is in red hot condition.

7: Swaging:

Swaging is a process that is used to reduce or increase the diameter of tubes and/or rods.

This is done by placing the tube or rod inside a die that applies compressive force by hammering

radially. This can be further expanded by placing a mandrel inside the tube and applying radial

compressive forces on the outer diameter. Thus, the inner diameter can be a different shape, for

example a hexagon, and the outer is still circular.

27

Blanking Blanking is a metal fabricating process, during which a metal work piece is removed

Blanking

Blanking Blanking is a metal fabricating process, during which a metal work piece is removed from

Blanking is a metal fabricating process, during which a metal work piece is removed from the primary metal strip or sheet when it is punched. The material that is removed is the new metal work piece or blank.

the primary metal strip or sheet when it is punched. The material that is removed is

28

the primary metal strip or sheet when it is punched. The material that is removed is

ROLLING PROCESS

In rolling operation the work piece material is deformed plastically by compressive forces between two constantly spinning rolls. These forces act to reduce the thickness of the metal and affect its grain structure. In addition to reducing the thickness of the work, the rolls also act to feed the material as they rolls in opposite directions to each other. Friction is therefore an important part of the rolling operation.

is therefore an important part of the rolling operation. TYPES OF ROLLING Hot rolling: Hot rolling

TYPES OF ROLLING

Hot rolling:

Hot rolling is the process of rolling a metal above its recrystallization temperature. The rolling mills are driven by an electric motor of up to 20 MW capacities.

Cold rolling

Cold rolling is a process of rolling metals and alloys below their recrystallization temperature. Generally they are worked at room temperatures. Cold rolling does not reduce the thickness of a work piece as much as hot rolling.

Comparison between cold and hot rolling

Sl. No

Hot rolling

 

Cold rolling

 
 

Metal

is

heated

above

the

Metal is heated below the recrystallization temperature.

1

recrystallization temperature.

 

2

Higher coefficient of friction between the rollers and work.

Less coefficient of friction between the rollers and work piece.

 

Heavy

reduction

in

area

can

be

Heavy reduction in area cannot be obtained.

3

obtained.

 
 

Mechanical properties are improved.

Hardness

increases,

brittleness

increases,

4

ductility decreases.

 

29

5

Roller radius is larger.

Smaller rollers are used.

 
 

Surface finish is not good.

Good

surface

finish

and

dimensional

6

tolerance.

 

7

Higher machines are used.

Heavy machines are used.

 
 

TYPES OF ROLLING MILLS

 

1.

Two high roll mill:

 

In two high rolling mills two equal sized rollers are used. These two rollers rotate in opposite direction. The space between the rolls can be adjusted by raising or lowering the upper roll. A series of reduction can be made by the same set of rolls, by passing the work back and forth.

the same set of rolls, by passing the work back and forth. 2. Three high roll

2. Three high roll mill

This type of rolling mill consists of three equal sized rollers. The upper and lower rollers are driven by electric motor and the middle roller rotates by friction. The direction of rotation of upper and lower rollers is the same.

motor and the middle roller rotates by friction. The direction of rotation of upper and lower

30

3.

Four high roll mill

The four high rolling mill consists of two working rollers and two backing rollers. The function of the working rollers is to apply pressure on the work piece. The backup rollers are used to prevent the deflection of the small rollers. This extremely rigid set up is usually used for cold rolling high strength material to very thin width.

for cold rolling high strength material to very thin width. 4. Cluster roll mill The working

4. Cluster roll mill

strength material to very thin width. 4. Cluster roll mill The working rollers are driven by

The working rollers are driven by electric power. The backup rollers support the work piece. It is a special type of four high rolling mill in which each of the two working rolls is backup by two or more of the larger backup rolls for rolling hard in materials. It may be necessary to employ work rolls of a very small diameter but of considerable length. In such cases adequate of the working rolls can be obtained by using a cluster mill.

but of considerable length. In such cases adequate of the working rolls can be obtained by

31

1. Powder production

a. Atomising Process

POWDER METALLURGY

1. Powder production a. Atomising Process POWDER METALLURGY 32
1. Powder production a. Atomising Process POWDER METALLURGY 32

32

In this process the molten metal is forced through an orifice into a stream of high velocity air, steam or inert gas. This causes rapid cooling and disintegration into very fine powder particles and the use of this process is limited to metals with relatively low melting point.

b. Gaseous Reduction

This process consists of grinding the metallic oxides to a fine state and subsequently, reducing it by hydrogen or carbon monoxide. This method is employed for metals such as iron, tungsten, copper, etc.

c. Electrolysis Process

In this process the conditions of electrode position are controlled in such a way that a soft spongy deposit is formed, which is subsequently pulverized to form the metallic powder. The particle size can be varied over a wide range by varying the electrolyte compositions and the electrical

by varying the electrolyte compositions and the electrical For example, for the production of copper powder,

For example, for the production of copper powder, copper sulphate solution is the electrolyte. Copper plate forms the anode and aluminum plate is used as cathode. When current is passed copper deposited on the aluminum cathode plate. After a definite time the cathode plate is scraped.

d. Mechanical Alloying

In this method, powders of two or more pure metals are mixed in a ball mill. Under the impact of the hard balls, the powders are repeatedly fractured and welded together by forming alloy under diffusion.

33

2.

Mixing of powders (Blending)

This can often involve the introduction of alloying additions in elemental powder form or the incorporation of a pressing lubricant.

a. Blending imparts uniformity in the shapes of the powder particles,

b. Blending facilitates mixing of different powder particles to impart wide ranging physical and

mechanical properties,

c. Lubricants can be added during the blending process to improve the flow characteristics of the powder particles reducing friction between particles and dies.

d. Binders can be added to the mixture of the powder particles to enhance the green strength

during the powder compaction process.

3. Forming of the mixed powder into a compact

Compaction is carried out by pouring a measured amount of metallic powder into the die cavity and applying pressure by means of one or more plungers. To improve uniformity of pressure and reduce porosity in the compacted part, compressive forces from both the top and the bottom sides are necessary. The compaction exercise imparts the following effects.

a. Reduces voids between powder,

the

power particles and enhance the density of the consolidated

b. Produces adhesion and bonding of the powder particles to improve green strength in the

consolidated powder particles,

c. Facilitates plastic deformation of the powder particles to conform to the final desired shape of the part,

4. Sintering of the compact to enhance integrity and strength

This process step involves heating of the material, usually in a protective atmosphere, to a temperature that is below the melting point of the major constituent. Sintering facilitates the bonding action between the individual powder particles and increase in the strength of the final

part.

34

5. Secondary operations The application of finishing processes to the sintered part. In the Powder

5. Secondary operations

The application of finishing processes to the sintered part. In the Powder Metallurgy industry, such processes are often referred to as “secondary operations”.

are often referred to as “secondary operations”. Advantages  Efficient material utilization  Enables

Advantages

Efficient material utilization

Enables close dimensional tolerances near net shape possible

Good surface finish

Manufacture of complex shapes possible

Hard materials used to make components that are difficult to machine can be readily made tungsten wires for incandescent lamps

Parts with controlled porosity can be made

No material is wasted as scrap

Bimetallic products can be produced

Limitations

High cost of powder material & tooling

35

Less strong parts than wrought ones

Less well known process

Powder metallurgy is not economical for small scale production

The density is not uniform throughout the products

The size of the products is limited , large components require heavy press

Application

Parts like self-lubricating bearings, filters, oil pump gears etc.

Brake linings and motor brushes

Nozzles used in rocket and missiles can be produced.

SOLDERING

Soldering is defined as the process of joining two pieces of metals using a filler metal, known as solder, having a low melting point below the melting point of the work piece.

It is often confused with welding but the difference between them is, in soldering the work piece is not melted, they are joined using a filler metal, but in welding work piece is joined by melting. Soldering is accomplished with temperature under 400°C

Soldering is accomplished with temperature under 400 ° C To achieve a sound soldered joint, the
Soldering is accomplished with temperature under 400 ° C To achieve a sound soldered joint, the

To achieve a sound soldered joint, the following should be considered:

Pre-cleaning: The surfaces must be thoroughly cleaned to allow the solder to wet the base metal.

Fluxing: A flux must be provided to remove traces of surface film or oxides and to prevent formation of oxides during the soldering operation.

Proper fixtures or alignment of parts must be maintained to insure a sound soldered joint.

Heating of the base metals should be uniform or even on base metals, to insure good penetration of the filler alloy into the joint.

36

The filler metal used is known as solder. It is an alloy of Tin and Lead (60% 40%).

The purpose of the flux is to clean the surface. Soldering flux removes the film of oxides from the metal and makes the solder and metal more able to dissolve in each other.

BRAZING

Brazing is also a metal-joining process. Brazing is when a filler metal or alloy is heated to its melting temperature above 450°C.

It is then distributed in liquid form between two or more close-fitting parts by capillary action. The filler metal is then brought slightly above its melting temperature. It then interacts with a thin layer of the base metal (known as wetting) and is then cooled quickly. This forms a sealed joint.

Brazed joints are generally stronger than the individual filler metals that have been used to make them.

Basic steps in brazing

1. Ensure fit and clearance

2. Clean metal

3. Flux prior to brazing

4. Fixturing of parts

5. Brazing the assembly

6. Cleaning the new joint

of parts 5. Brazing the assembly 6. Cleaning the new joint The flux applied is generally

The flux applied is generally borax. The filler metal used is an alloy of cu and zn, known as speltor.

37

Advantages

It's easy to learn.

You can join virtually any dissimilar metals.

The bond line can be very neat in appearance.

Joint strength is strong enough for most non-heavy-duty use applications

The essential difference between brazing and soldering is the:

a. Types of filler materials

c. Melting temperature of the filler metals

d. Melting temperature of the fluxes

WELDING

Welding is a process of joining metallic components with or without application of heat, with or without pressure and with or without filler metal.

Types of welding:

Welding processes can be broadly classified into (i) fusion welding, and (ii) solid state welding

Fusion welding:

In fusion-welding processes, heat is applied to melt the base metals. In many fusion welding processes, a filler metal is added to the molten pool during welding to facilitate the process and provide strength to the welded joint.

When no filler metal is used, that fusion welding operation is referred to as autogenous weld.

Types: Arc welding, Resistance welding, Oxyfuel gas welding, electron beam welding, laser welding.

1. Arc welding:

It is a fusion welding process in which the melting and joining of metals is done by the heat energy generated by the arc between the work and electrode.

An electric arc is generated when the electrode contacts the work and then quickly separated to maintain the gap. A temperature of 5500°C is generated by this arc.

This temperature is sufficient to melt most of the metals. The molten metal, consisting of base metal and filler, solidifies in the weld region. In order to have seam weld, the power source moves along the weld line.

38

Two types of electrodes are used:

Consumable and non-consumable electrodes.

The consumable electrode is consumed by the arc during the welding process and added to the weld joint as filler metal whereas non consumable electrodes are not consumed during weld.

Filler metal must be supplied by means of a separate wire that is fed into the weld pool.

Arc shielding:

Shielding gas:

This covers the arc, electrode tip and weld pool from external atmosphere. The metals being joined are chemically reactive to oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen in the atmosphere.

So the shielding is done with a blanket of gas or flux, or both, which inhibit exposure of the weld metal to air.

Common shielding gas: Argon, Helium

Flux

is used mainly to protect the weld region from formation of oxides and other unwanted contaminants, or to dissolve them and facilitate removal.

During welding, the flux melts and covers the weld region giving protection and it should be removed by brushing as it is hardened.

Additional function, other than giving protection: stabilize the arc, and reduce spattering

brushing as it is hardened. Additional function, other than giving protection: stabilize the arc, and reduce

39

2. Resistance welding:

In this operation, electric resistance is generated to the flow of current that generates heat energy

between two contacting surfaces that are held in pressure.

3. Gas welding:

Oxyfuel gas welding is a welding operation in which heat is generated by a hot flame generated mixture gas of oxygen and acetylene. This heat is used to melt base material and filler material, if used.

4. Electron beam welding:

In this process, welding is carried out by highly focused, high intensity electron beam bombarding against the work piece.

Generally carried out in vacuum, otherwise there will be disruption of electron beam by air molecules.

5. Laser beam welding (LBW)

LBW is a fusion welding process in which joining/coalescence is attained by the heat energy of a highly concentrated, coherent light beam focused on the joint to be welded. LB welds are of high quality, deep penetrated.

6. Thermite (thermit):

A mixture of aluminum powder and iron oxide that produces an exothermic reaction when

ignited.

In thermit welding, the heat for coalescence/joining is produced by superheated molten metal

formed from the chemical reaction of thermit.

The following chemical reaction is seen when a thermit mixture is ignited at 1300°C. The temperature of the reaction is 2500°C.

8Al + 3Fe 3 O 4 = 9Fe + 4Al 2 O 3 + heat

At

this temperature, superheated molten iron plus aluminum oxide is made that floats on the top

as

a slag and protects the iron from the atmosphere.

Solid State Welding:

In this method, joining is done by coalescence resulting from application of pressure only or a

combination of heat and pressure. In solid state welding, joining of materials are performed with the help of heat and pressure or pressure alone.

40

A metallurgical bond is created with little or no melting of the base metals. To metallurgically bond two similar or dissimilar metals, the two metals must be brought into intimate contact so that their atomic forces attract each other.

Even if heat is used, the temperature in the process is less than the melting point of the metals being welded (unlike in fusion welding). No filler metal is utilized.

The two surfaces must be cleaned and free of oils, dirt, chemical films, gases etc. to permit atomic bonding.

1. Diffusion welding:

Two part surfaces are held together under pressure at elevated temperature and the parts join by solid state diffusion.

temperature and the parts join by solid state diffusion. 2. Friction welding/Stir welding: The heating is

2. Friction welding/Stir welding:

The heating is accomplished by friction between the tool and the work piece and plastic deformation of work piece. The localized heating softens the material.

3. Ultrasonic welding:

Moderate pressure is applied between the two parts and an oscillating motion at ultrasonic frequencies is used in a direction parallel to the contacting surfaces.

No

 

Advantages of welding

 

Disadvantages of welding

1

A

good weld is as strong as base metal

 

Welding gives harmful radiations, fumes and spatter.

2

General welding equipment is not costly

 

Welding results in residual stresses and distortion of work pieces.

3

Portable welding equipments are available

 

Edge preparation of the work pieces is generally required before welding.

4

Welding

permits

considerable

freedom

in

A skilled welder is a must to produce a good welding.

design

 

5

A

large number of metals/alloys both similar

Welding heat produces metallurgical changes. The structure of the welded joint is not the same as that of the parent metal.

and dissimilar can be joined by welding

 

41

COMPARISON OF WELDING, SOLDERING AND BRAZING

Sl WELDING SOLDERING BRAZING No 1 Welding joints are strongest Soldering joints are weakest Brazing
Sl
WELDING
SOLDERING
BRAZING
No
1
Welding joints are strongest
Soldering joints are weakest
Brazing joints are weaker
joints used to bear the load.
joints out of three. Not meant to
Strength of the welded portion of
bear the load. Use to make
than welding joints but
stronger than soldering
joint is usually more than the
electrical contacts generally.
joints. This can be used to
strength of base metal
bear the load up to some
extent
2
Temperature required is 3800
Temperature requirement is up
Temperature may go to
degree Centigrade in Welding
to 450 degree Centigrade in
600 degree Centigrade in
joints
Soldering joints.
Brazing joints.
3
Work piece to be joined need to
Heating of the work pieces is
be heated till their melting point.
not required
Work pieces are heated
but below their melting
point.
4
Mechanical properties of base
No change in mechanical
May change in mechanical
metal may change at the joint
properties after joining.
properties of joint but it is
due to heating and cooling. -
almost negligible.
between-welding-soldering-and-
brazing
5
Heat cost is involved and high
Cost involved and skill
Cost involved and sill
skill level is required. -
requirements are very low.
required are in between
others two
6
Heat treatment is generally
No heat treatment is required.
No heat treatment is
required to eliminate undesirable
required after brazing.
effects of welding.
7
No preheating of work piece is
required before welding as it is
Preheating of work pieces
Preheating is desirable to
before soldering is good for
make strong joint as
carried out at high temperature.
making good quality joint.
brazing is carried out at
relatively low temperature

42