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°°"? eco o% BRC-CORP 37-74.F ue Section 30. _LAMINATIONS Definition of the Problem The presence of elongated, non-metallic inclusions or laminations in metals may result in several prohleme, Tf procent in lerge quantitica, or in large enough size, they can reduce the mechanical properties of the metal in certain directions within the fabricated equipment and lead to vhat is called lamellar tearing. This problem is more likely to be encountered with welded joints, involving relatively thick sections. Seams or folds are types of laminations occurring as a result of forging operations. They may act ax stress concentrators, to cause failure by fatigue or overload. Laminations may he preferentially attacked in certain corrosive media and may also cause the metal to be susceptible to blistering (see Section 25 on Hydrogen Blistering) in a hydrogen environment. Discussion of the Problem Laneller Tearing. Under normal melting practices, all metallic uoteriels evuteli small amounts of non-metaiic anclusions resulting from 1) their inability to be removed easily during manufacture, or 2) the intentional addition of scavenging elenents to renove dissolved gases from the molten metal. The main nonanetallic incluetons 1m eteel consist primarily of onideo, sulfides, and silicates. During forging or rolling of the metal, these inclusions tend to elongate, parallel to the direction of forging or rolling, as shown in Figure 30-1, These cause planes of weakness to form within the taal. Uhen loads are applied perpendicular to the long axis of the inclusions, either externally or by residual stresses, the metal may exhibit low resistance to fracture, This is a particular problem in sone welded joint connections in Udek sections, and where restraint of the Joint 18 high. A typical example is shown in Figure 30-2 where an air cooler header box failed during hydro- static testing at the welded connections of stiffener plates, between the tube sheer and the plug sheet. The fracture typically occure in base material and has a jagged appearance, resulting from the stepwise propagation of the crack from inclusion plane to inclusion plane. Seans and Folds. Seans and folds are caused by forging or rolling extraneous material such as scale or dirt into the eurface of the material being forged. Figure 30-3 shows a seam similar to one which caused failure of @ downhole tubing Joint. The defect generally contacts sone surface and, if the forging is performed hot, will exhibit an oxidized "halo", These defects can act stress concentration points to cause failure by fatigue or overloading. Corrosion and Hydrogen Blistering. In instances when the laminations or inclusions reach the surface of a part and are contacted by a corrosive media, selective attack at tha defect 4e pocethla. An example fe chow in Figure 30-4 of an electric resistance welded (ERW) heat exchanger tube, which contained non-metallic inclusions in the veld seam. When tubes were acid cleaned, the inclusion zones were selectively attacked, leading to perforation of the tubes. Hydrogen blistering may be accentuated when a material is severely laminated. Laminations and inclusions can act as traps for gas and Promote pressure buildup, leading to severe blistering (see Section 25 on Hydrogen Dlistering)+ 162 BRC-CORP 37-74. Methods of Checking for the Problen Lamellar Tearing. Severe laminations, such as may be caused by incomplete cropping of the pipe from the original ingot, may be found using ultrasonic techniques. However, presence of small, disjointed non-metallic inclusions severe enough to cause lamellar tearing are not generally detectable using ultrasonics. Some recent work indicates that a measured reduction of area value on a small through-the-thickness tensile test specinen of less than ‘approximately 202 indicates susceptibility towards lamellar tearing. Because seans and folds constitute a surface they can be detected using surface inspection tech- niques. The best of these are generally considered to be magnetic particle (e.g. Magnaflux) and eddy current techniques. Gorrosion and Hydrogen Blistering. Visual examination should reveal any pitting corrosion or Uiletesluy, ussuciuced with the presence of inclusions. To determine the sensitivity of the material to these problems, magnetic Particle and eddy current techniques are satisfactory for finding gross surface defects. while ultrasonics may find groee eubeurface defacto. No non destructive test methods now exist for detecting microscopic scale inclusions. Methods of Eliminating the Problem Lamellar Tearing. The primary method of eliminating lanellar tearing consists of proper design of joints to reduce or eliminate strains in the thickness direction of fabricated parts, Buttering of welding joints with lower strength weld metal, to cause strains to be concentrated in the weld rather than in the plate, has also been sonevhat successful. Manufacturing operations, such as controlled ralling or inclusion chape contre! through fare earth additions to the melt, may also be beneficial. In some instances, where the additional cost can be justified, the level of non-metallic in- clusions can be lovered significantly by the use of vacuum melting. vacuum arc remelting, or vacuum degassing. Ultrasonics is the best method to find gross laminations caused by the incomplete cropping of the ingot prior to forging or rolling. Seams and Folds, Occurrences of seams and folds may be minimized by maintaining cleanliness during forging. However, during hot forging, it is often impossible ta alininara eurface ccale, euch that come scene and fuide can be expected to occur, even under the cleanest circumstances. In general, these defects may be ground out, when discovered. If snall, the resulting cavity may be left in the as-ground condition, If large, it may be repaired by welding. Corrosion and Hydrogen Blistering. Proper design to prevent corrosive Liquide from contacting the forged or wrought ends of components is the best way to eliminate the "end grain" corrosion. To reduce the incidence of hydrogen blistering, relatively clean steels should be used, when hydrogen blistering is considered a possibility. Thie generally meane that oulphur, s4licons and oxygen content should be kept to low levels, Sroccccccccccccce | | ee se e e e. e BRC-CORP 37-74.F 163 Pitfalls ‘The use of hich strength plates to prevent lamellar tearing appears to intensify the problem. Plates should be as low strength as practical. If ground out ocano are left unrepaired, it should be ascertained that the remaining wall section is able to withstand the higher stresses. If the component is to be used in an environment containing H2S, after having been repair welded, care should be taken that the weldment hardness does not caved appruximacely 233 HB.(see Section 27 on Hydrogen xmbrirtiement). os ae NEE AG IL: © espe Figure 30-1 ‘Laminations in Carbon Steel Indicating Rolling Direction ‘Magnification: 200X. BRC-CORP 37-74.F ‘8. Showing cracks in area where restraint of the joint was high Magnification: 8X, b. Section of center stiffener weld, Note cracks parallel to the feilure pie fracture pattern. 2x. Figure 302 Low Alloy Steel Air Cooler Header Box Failure BRC-CORP 37-74.F 165 Figure 203 Outside Diomotar of Dewnhele Tubing Joint Adjacent to the Failure [Note decarburized regions alongside the inclusions. Magnification: 60X Figure 304 Elecule Resistance Welded Carbon Stee! Heat Exchanger Tube Note the selective attack at nonmetallic inclusions running in ar Mognfication: 120K. @: Poco ©@e8eeeeeeed