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Envir Sc 1C03

Climate, Water and Environment

Photo by Mike Hollingshead

Assignment 1
Global Radiation Budgets
Purpose:

1. To facilitate a reflection on local radiation budgets


2. To calculate radiation budgets for present-day and glacial
climates
3. To analyze how and why radiation budgets differ

Photo by Mike Hollingshead

Assignment 1: Reflection

You are presented with a


series of topics related
to radiation budgets
You will reflect on one of
the topics in your report
You will write your
perspective of the topic,
and solutions

Photo by Maldive from skyscraperpage forum

Assignment 1: Reflection
Choose one of the proposed topics for
discussion
Write your perspective of the topic
Discuss some potential solutions to the issue
you selected

Photo by Maldive from skyscraperpage forum

Assignment 1: Reflection Topics


1. Urban heat islands are densely populated areas
where the local temperature is higher than
surrounding rural areas due to human activities (e.g.
paved roads, removal of vegetation, buildings).
What are some potential solutions to urban heat
islands?
Points to consider: What are the biggest
contributors to urban heat islands? What is their
density, permeability, material/colour, etc.? How
might this affect the local radiation budget?

Assignment 1: Reflection Topics


2. Urban forests are a collection of trees and animals that exist
within a settled human environment. This includes parks,
street and residential trees, and conservation areas within a
city. Urban forests are costly to maintain however they
provide both aesthetic and health benefits to a community.
Should cities continue to promote the development of urban
forests? Why or why not?

Points to consider: What are the health benefits or urban


forests? What maintenance costs are there? Do the benefits
outweigh the costs? How might urban forests affect the local
radiation budget?

Assignment 1: Solutions
What are some potential solutions to the issue
you selected?
1. What are some potential solutions to urban heat islands?

Points to consider: What are the biggest contributors to urban heat islands?
What is their density, permeability, material/colour etc.? How might this
affect the local radiation budget?

2. Should cities continue to promote the development of urban forests?


Why or why not?
Points to consider: What are the health benefits or urban forests? What
maintenance costs are there? Do the benefits outweigh the costs? How might
urban forests affect the local radiation budget?

Assignment 1: Radiation Budgets


How would the radiation budgets between these two
locations differ? Why?

Photo left: by Jason Hollinger; Photo right: by Joe Mastroianni from the National Science Foundation

Assignment 1: Radiation Values


Table 1.1: Radiation values for present day climate (PDC) and glacial climate (GC).
Solar Radiation

PDC

GC

KEX

Extraterrestrial solar radiation

100

100

Cr

Cloud reflection to space

20

18

Kf1

Cloud reflection downward

Ar

Atmospheric reflection to space

Kf2

Atmospheric reflection downward

13

12

Sr

Earth surface reflection to space

21

Aa

Atmospheric Absorption

25

19

Kd

Diffused

24

16

Long-wave Radiation

PDC

GC

La

Longwave radiation from surface absorbed in the atmosphere

96

68

Ls

Longwave from surface to space through atmospheric window

17

Las

Longwave from atmosphere to space

53

49

Las

Longwave from atmosphere to surface

97

65

Surface Heat Fluxes

PDC

GC

QE

Latent heat of evapotranspiration

23

16

QH

Sensible heat flux from surface to atmosphere

11

Assignment 1: Figure 1.1

Assignment 1: Figure 1.1

Assignment 1: Radiation Table


Table 1.2: Solar Radiation table for balancing the radiation to space, at the surface and within the atmosphere
Balance to Space
Flux

Total

PDC
In

Out

Surface Balance
GC

In

Out

Flux

PDC
In

Out

Atmospheric Balance
GC

In

Out

Flux

PDC
In

Out

GC
In

Out

Assignment 1: Radiation Table


Table 1.2: Solar Radiation table for balancing the radiation to space, at the surface and within the atmosphere
Balance to Space
Flux

PDC
In

Out

Surface Balance
GC

In

Out

Kex

100

100

Total

100

100

Flux

PDC
In

Out

Atmospheric Balance
GC

In

Out

Flux

PDC
In

Out

GC
In

Out

Assignment 1: Radiation Table


Table 1.2: Solar Radiation table for balancing the radiation to space, at the surface and within the atmosphere
Balance to Space
Flux

PDC
In

Out

GC
In

100

Kex
30

20

20

30

25

25

25

25

100 100

Out

100

Total

Surface Balance

100

100

Flux

PDC
In

Out

Atmospheric Balance
GC

In

Out

Flux

PDC
In

Out

GC
In

Out

Assignment 1: Radiation Table


Table 1.2: Solar Radiation table for balancing the radiation to space, at the surface and within the atmosphere
Balance to Space
Flux

PDC
In

Out

GC
In

100

Kex

Surface Balance
Out

100

Flux

PDC
In

Atmospheric Balance
GC

Out

In

Out

Flux

PDC
In

GC

Out

In

55

36

30

25

60

40

30

20

12

20

20

30

59

40

15

15

25

25

40

38

20

10

25

25

30

10

55

40

20

12

36

36

Total

100 100

100

100

Out

Assignment 1: Radiation Table


Table 1.2: Solar Radiation table for balancing the radiation to space, at the surface and within the atmosphere
Balance to Space
Flux

PDC
In

Out

GC
In

100

Kex

Surface Balance
Out

100

Flux

PDC
In

Atmospheric Balance
GC

Out

In

Out

Flux

PDC
In

GC

Out

In

55

36

30

25

60

40

30

20

12

20

20

30

59

40

15

15

25

25

40

38

20

10

25

25

30

10

55

40

20

12

36

36

Total

100 100

100

100

Out

126 126

96

96

90

90

65

65

Assignment 1: Radiation Questions

What is the correct equation to calculate net long


wave radiation at the atmosphere to space boundary?
Why is there a difference between the net longwave
radiation at the atmosphere to space boundary for
PDC and GC?

Assignment 1: Your Final Report


Your assignment is due on Monday July 4th, no
later than 4:30 p.m., in the drop box for Envir Sc
1C03 on the 2nd floor of GSB
MAKE SURE THAT YOUR REPORT IS COMPLETE!
ANY MISSING COMPONENT(S) (TABLES, ETC.) WILL NOT BE
ACCEPTED ONCE YOUR REPORT HAS BEEN SUBMITTED.

Remember to follow Course


policies if you miss the deadline
Photo by Joe Mastroianni from the National Science Foundation